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Biologiya

NAZARIYAI IRSIYATI HROMOSOMI

khromosoma

MEROSGUZORII HAMPAYVASTAGII GENHO:  Mendel dar tajriba merosguzorii tanho haft juft alomati nakhudro dida baromad. Badan bisyor tadqiqotchiyon merosguzorii jufti alomathoi gunoguni organizmhoi digarro omukhta, qonunhoi Mendelro tatbiq namudand. In qonunho baroi hamai organizmhoi bo rohi jinsi afzoishkunanda khosand. Badtar malum gardid, ki dar nakhudi khushbuy du alomat, yane shakli gard va …

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GENETIKAI JINS. MEROSGUZORII ALOMATHOI BO JINS CHASPIDA

Masalai inkishof va paydoishi farqiyati jinsi, mekhanizmi muayyan kardani jins, nigoh doshtani tanosubi muayyani jinsi dar guruhhoi organizmi hayvon nafaqat ahamiyati nazariyavii biologi, balki ahamiyati amali niz dorad. Alalkhusus, bo rohi suni tanzim kardani jins baroi kishovarzi manfiat meorad. Jins dar bisyor hayvonot dar ayyomi bordorshavi muayyan meshavad. Dar in …

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DURAGAKUNII DIGIBRIDI VA POLIGIBRIDI

genetika

Qonuni seyumi Mendel – qonuni kombinatsiyai bevositai genho (novobasta ba meros guzashtani jufti genho) Mendel dar asosi omukhtani merosguzorii yak jufti genhoi alleli bisyor qonuniyathoi genetiki, az jumla, dominanti, tagyir nayoftani allelhoi resessivi dar duragaho, tajziyai alomatho dar naslhoi duragaro bo tanosubi 3:1 isbot namud. Hodisai tajziya nishon dod, ki …

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Qonuni tozagii gametaho

gameta

Dar natijai tajribaho G.Mendel ba khulosa omad, ki omilhoi irsi, yane genho dar gametaho (hujayrahoi jinsi) omekhta nashuda, dar holati toza (betagyir) memonand. Dar naslhoi yakumi gibridi (G1) ki az duragakunii volidon alo- mathoi farqkunanda paydo shudaand, hardu omil, yane dominanti va resessivi joy dorad. Dar shakli alomat omili dominanti …

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QONUNIYATHOI MEROSGUZORII ALOMATHO

babr

Inson az davrahoi qadim ba monandi va farqiyati volidonu naslho maroq zohir namuda, kushish mekard, ki asosi in muammoro dark namoyad. Az chi sabab baze alomatho dar hamai naslho zohir meshavand, ammo digar guruhi alomatho va khosiyatho boshand, goh dar naslho paydo shuda, goho zohir nameshavand. Aknun malum gardid, ki …

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USULHOI GIBRIDIOLOGII OMUZISHI MEROSGUZORII ALOMATHO

asp

CHunone ki malum ast, bisyor botanikho dar natijai duraga kardani volidoni gunogun, ki bo alomathoi khud farq doshtand, kushish ba kharj dodaand, ki mekhanizmi ba meros guzoshtani onhoro kushoyand. Ba in maqsadi oli avvalin shuda olimi CHekh G.Mendel noil gardid. Mendel baroi tajriba navhoi gunoguni rastanii nakhudro intikhob mekard. CHunki …

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QONUNI YAKUMI MENDEL – QONUNI HAMSHAKLII NASLHOI YAKUMI GIBRIDI

QONUNHOI MENDEL: Qonunhoi merosguzorii alomathoi irsiro G.Mendel kashf namuda, onhoro dar maqolai «Tajriba dar rastanihoi gibridi» chop menamoyad va onho bo nomi qonunhoi Mendel malumand. Badi az jonibi genetiki gollandi G.De-Friz, botaniki olmoni K.Korrens va genetiki avstriyagi E.CHermak takroran kashf shudani in qonunho, genetika hamchun fan dar borai irsiyat va …

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QONUNI DUYUMI MENDEL (QONUNI TAJZIYA)

Hangomi duragakunii naslhoi gibridii yakum, ki alomati yakkhela dorand, dar nasli duvvum ham alomati modari va ham alomati padari bo yak tanosubi muayyan 3:1 zohir meshavand. YAne 3/4 hissai alomatho dominanti va 1/4 hissai onho resessiviand. In natijai on ast, ki naslhoi yakum geterozigoti (Aa) buda, dar nasli duvvum ham …

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ASOSHOI GENETIKA VA SELEKSIYA

genetika-i-selekcia

Asosguzori fanni genetika olimi chekh Gregor Mendel meboshad. U soli 1865 qonunhoi merosguzorii alomathoi irsiro kashf namuda bud. Lekin dar davomi 35 sol ahli ilmi onvaqta bo in kashfiyot maroq zohir nakard va yo sarfahm naraft. Faqat soli 1900 in qonunho az sari nav kashf shudand va on soli tavlidi …

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MAFHUMHOI ASOSII GENETIKI

genetika-min

Genetika du khususiyati asosii organizmhoi zinda – irsiyat va tagyirpaziriro meomuzad. Irsiyat hamchun khususiyati az nasl ba nasl guzaronidani alomatho, khosiyathoi irsi va asosi inkishofro dar bar megirad. Bo sharofati irsiyat dar tabiat har yak namudi rastani va hayvon khususiyathoi khosi khudro dar muddati muayyani tarikhi nigoh medorad. Jihati digari …

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