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MAHALHOI AHOLINISHIN

Helhoi mahalhoi aholinnshin. Davrai duru daroz inson az tabiat zich vobasta bud. Odamon guruh-guruh dar qamari kuh va gorho zindagoni mekardand. Barobari inkishofi jamiyat dar hududi muaiyan pahn gardidani odamon, tashkil yoftani istehsolot, sokhtani manzilgohho va imorathoi istehsoly (osiyob, objuvoz, ustokhonahoi chelongari va gayra) va gayriistehsoli (maktab, masjid, mehmonkhonaho va gayra) mahalhoi aholinishinro ba shaklhoi maskunshavii aholi tabdil dod.

Paydoishi onho ba davrahoi inkishofi sohahoi asosii istehsoloti kishovarzy va sanoat vobasta meboshad. Az in jo muvofiqi faoliyati khojagii aholi maskunshavy ba du guruh judo meshavad: dehot va shakhr. Aholii dehot ba chorvodori, kishovarzi, mohidory, shikori hayvonot, chubburi, kirmakparvari, zanburi asalparvary va gayra mashguland. Baraksi dehot aholii shahrho ba korkardi ashyoi khomi kishovarzi (pakhta, pust, pashmu pilla, shir, gusht, angur, meva, oftobparast, nayshakar, lablabu, sabzavot) va minerali (namudhoi gunoguni madan, masolehi sokhtmon, neft, gaz. angisht va gayra) mashgul meboshand.

xona

Az in namudhoi ashyoi khom namudhoi gunoguni khurokvory, sarulibos, poyafzol, metallhoi mukhtalif va az onho  moshinu dastgohho, namudhoi suzishvori, nahho va moddahoi kimiyovi, masnuoti tayyori sokhtmoni tayyor menamoyand. Dekhaokho az jihati miqdori aholy kalon va khurd msshavand. Dehahoho kalon dar on mavzehoe tashakkul yoftaand, ki zamini kisht ziyod ast, faoliyati khojagii aholi serjabha meboshad. Dar Tojikiston chunin dehahoho dar vodii Vakhsh. Hisor, qismi  Tochikistonii vodii Fargona (qismi  garbii on) ziyodad. Dehahoho khurd asosan dar mintaqai kuhsor joygir shudaand. Dar on jo zamini kisht kam, faoliyati khojagidori mahdud meboshad. SHahrho ham az rui miqdori aholi ba shahrhoi millioni, kalon va khurd judo meshavand. Dar jumhurii mo holo shahrhoi millioni vujud nadorand. SHahrhoi mavjuda ba shahrhoi kalon, miyona va khurd dokhil meshavand.

Ifodai nuqtahoi aholnnishin dar naqshai mahal. Vobasta ba namud va miqyosi kharitaho nuqtahoi aholinishin dar on ba tavri gunogun ifoda karda meshavand. Dar kharitahoi khurdmiqyos nuqtahoi aholinishin mufassal nishon doda nameshavand, chunki masohtash inki ba miqyosi kharita muvofiq nameoyad. Az hamin sabab dar kharitaho nuqtahoi aholinishinro bo alomati sharti – punsonhoi (doirachahoi) kalon va khurd ifoda mekunand. Faqat dar kharitahoi topografii kalon miqyos mo metavonem, ki nuqtahoi aholinishine purra tasvir namoem.

CHunin naqshahoi mahal dar miqyosi 1:10000. 1:25000, 1:50000 naqshabgrdori karda meshavand. Dar onho nuqtahoi aholinishinro bo hama manzilgohu kuchaho, korkhonahoi madaniyu maishi, istehsoli, rohho, pulho kanalho, zaminhoi kisht, bogu tokzorho mufassal bo alomathoi sharty muvofiqi Miqyos tavsif menamoyand. Baroi naqshabardorii mahal va khondani on alomathoi shartii topografiro boyad donist.

Savol vz suporish

  1. Odamoni davrai ibtidoi dar kujo zindagy mekardand?
  2. Paydoishi nuqtahoi aholinishin ba chi vobasta ast? .
  3. Nuqtahoi aholinishin az jijati faoliyati khojagidorii odamon ba kadom guruhho judo meshavand?
  4. Nuqtahoi aholinishin dar kharita va naqshai mahal chi tavr tasvi  karda meshavand?
  5. Az rui naqshai peshnihodkardai muallim dar daftari geografiya mahal va nuqtai aholinishini khudro tavsif namoed.
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