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TABIAT VA AQOLII MAHALI HUD

Tabaqai geografi va tabiatn mahali khud. Dar jarayoni omuzishi geografiyai tabiy shumo fahmided, ki kurai Zamin az qabathoi litosfera va biosferayu gidrosfera iborat meboshad. In qabatho bo konuniyathoi khos inkishof meyoband. Qati nazar az farqiyati bayni onho, dar bayni on qabatho yak aloqamandii umumi mavjud ast, ki on dar mubodilai doimii modda va energiya zohir megardad (misol ored). Mahz hamin aloqamandii mutaqobila qabathoi kurai Zaminro bo ham muttahid mesozad, ki onro dar geografiya tabaqahoi geografi menomand.

On dar tamomi fazoi ishgolkardai khud yak khel nest, ba tavri amudi va ufuqi tagyir meyobad. In tagiirotho ba quvvahoi dokhili va berunii kurai Zamin vobasta meboshand (on quvvahoro nombar kuned). Dar natijai ba ham tasirrasonii onho dar sathi Zamin komplekshoi gunoguni kalontarin, kalon va khurdtarini kalamraviyu tabiy tashakkul yoftaand, ki az yakdigar bo nisbatan yak khel budani tabiati khud farq mekunand. Komplekskhoi tabiy qalamravi yakjinsa nestand. Onho az qismhoi tarkibii zerin iboratand: jinshoi kuhi, havo, ob, nabotot. hayvonot va khok. Kalontarin kompleksi tabii tabaqai geografi meboshad. Mahali khud yak qismi  khurdtarini tabakai geografi ast.

mahali-xud

Binobar in baroi amiqtar sarfahm raftann, aloqai mutoqobilai bayni qabathoi Zamin (litosfsra), atmosfera, biosfera, gidrosfera va tabaqai geografi tabiati mahali khud, komplekshoi tabii va qismhoi tarkibii onro hamatarafa omukhtan zarur ast. Dar mahal az sababi khurd va mahdud budani masohat komplekshoi kalontarin, kalon va miyona dar purragi vonamekhurand. Odatan komplekskhoi tabiii mahal yak qismi khurdi komplekshoi tabiii darajai balandtarin buda, dar sistemai komplskshoi tabiy zinai poyonro ishgol menamoyand. Odatan onho az vodii daryo, qitai hamvory, sufaho va daryobod, adir, teppa, domanakuh va gayra iboratand (Muayyan namoed, ki mahali shumo dar khududi kadome az in komplekshoi tabiy voqe gardndaast).

SHumo hangomi omukhtani qabathoi Zamin ba litosfera va qismi boloi on – qishri Zamin shinos shuded. Fahmided, ki qishri Zamin az kadom namudhoi jinshoi kuhi tashkil yoftaast. Aknun donishi azbarkardaatonro istifoda burda ba savolhoi zsrin javob dihed:

  1. Dar qalamravi mahali shumo kadom guruhi jinshoi kuhi vomekhurand?
  1. Agar jinshoi kuuii mahali shumo az jinshoi kuhii tahshin iborat boshand, gued, ki oino ba kadom guruhho judo meshavand va chi tavr hosil shudaand?
  2. Agar dar mahali shumo gayr az jinshoi kuhii tahshin boz jinshoi kuhuii magmatiki (fishondashuda) va metamorfi tazyiqyofta) pahn iuda boshand, farqiyat va paydoishi onhoro sharh dihued.
  3. Agar dar kharita shumo koni namak, angisht, ohaksang, madanho (ohan yo metallhoi ranga va nodir) va gaira mavjud boshand, fahmoned, ki onho dar tarkibi kadom guruhi jinshoi kuhi, chi tavr hosil shudaanb?

Aknun shumo medoned, ki qishri Zamin (dar misoli mahali khudaton) az mineralu jinshoi kuhii ziyod tarkib yoftaast. Onho dar zeri tasiri quvvahoi dokhili va berunii Zamin nohamvorihoi sathi Zaminro ba vujud ovardaand, ki onro bo nomi “shakl va yo namudhoi asosii relefi sathi Zamin” omukhted. Bigued, ki:

  1. Paydoishi kuhho. adir va teppaho ba kadom quvvaho (dokhili yo beruni) vobasta ast?
  2. Daraho, hamvoriho va sufai daryohoyu daryobodi onho chi tavr paydo shudaand?
  3. Qabati jinshoi kuhi dar kuhho va hamvoriho chi tavr khobidaaid? Sababi chunin khobidani an jinshoi kuhy dar chist?
  4. Kadom shaklhoi relefi mahali shumo ba faoliyati khojagii aholi beshtar musoidat mekuiad?

Ba shumo malum ast, ki qabati obi Zaminro gidrosfera menomand. Boyad amik fahmid, ki hama chashmaho, daryoho, kulho, piryakhho, obhoi zermzaminy (agap dar mahali shumo mavjud boshand), ki dar mahali shumo vujud dorand, yak qismi qabati gidrosferai sathi kurai Zamin meboshand. Onro obhoi dokhili meguem. Onhoro shumo har ruz mushohida mekuned. Pas bigued, ki:

  1. Agar obhoi dokhilii mahali shumo qismi qabati gidrosferai Zamin (yushad, on.uoro ba och chi payvast menamoyad?
  2. Qabati gidrosferi ba du judo meshavad. Fahmoned, ki obhii dokhilii .mahali tu.mo ba kado.m qis.mi on dokhil meshayaand?
  3. Piryakhho. chaishaho, daryoho. kulho, obhoi zerizamikii (agar dar .mahal boshand) mahali shumo chi tavr hosil shudaand?
  4. Obhoi dokhilii mahali shumoro ba kadom maqsadho istifoda mebarand?
  5. Obhoi dokhilin mahalatonro chi tavr muhofizat mekunaid va on chy ahamiyat dorad?

Badi qabati gidrosfera shumo qabati atmosferaro omukhted. Fahmided, ki on qabati az hama boloi kurai Zamin buda, onro hamchun parda az hama taraf ihota kardaast. On az yakchand zerqabatkho iborat ast (Onhoro nombar kuned). Odatan atmosferaro havo menomand. Az in jo havoe, ki mahali shumoro faro giriftaast, yak qismi atmosferai boloi Zamin meboshad va bo on payvasta harakat mekunad. Tamomi tagyirothoe, ki dar atmosfera ba amal meoyand, muvofiqi faslhoi sol ba obu havoi mahali shumo ham tasir merasonand. On dar tagyir yoftani obu havoi mahal zohir meshavad. On tagyirotho davragi va gayridavragi meshavand. Vobasta ba in fahmoned:

  1. Tagyiroti davragii obu havo ba chi vobasta asm?
  2. Noustuvorii shabonaruzi va mavsimii harorat: namii havo. abrnoki, borishdt, fishori atmosfery, bod ba chi vobasta ast?
  3. Tagyiroti gayridavragi dar zeri tasiri kadom omiilhoi tabii rukh medihad?
  4. Mahali shumo dar kadom mintaqahoi iqlimi voqe gardidaast?
  5. Hususiyati khosi fasli zimispyun va tobistoni mahali shumoro kadom omilho muayyan mekunand?
  6. Dar mahali shumo khadom korkhonaho havoro beshpshr ifloe mekunand va baroi peshgirii on chi kor kardan zarur ast?

Qabati okhirini kurai Zamnnro biosfera tashkil medihad. Onro qabati hast ham meguyand. Hududi onro pahnshavii organizmho muayyan mekunad (Gued, ki onho  dar atmosfera to chi kadar balandi va dar qishri Zamin to chy qadar chuquri pahn gardidaand). Qismi asosii onho dar sathi khushki hayot ba cap mebarand. Nabotot va hayvonote, ki dar mahali shumo mavjudand, qismi judonashavandai qabati biosferai kurai Zamin meboshand va bo nabototu hayvonoti nohiyahoi ba mahali shumo nazdik aloqamandy dorand.

  1. In aloqamandi dar chi zohir megardid?
  2. Dar mahali shumo kadom namudhoi nabotot va hayvonot pahn gardidaand?
  3. Nabotot va hayvonoti ma.hali shumo ba kadom lattaqai tabii doxici meshavand?
  4. Nabototi mahalro bo kadom maqsadho istifoda mebarand?
  5. Dar mp.hachi shumo kadom hayvonoti foidaovar dida meshavand?
  6. Hayvonoti zararrasoni maham khudro nombar kuned.
  7. Dar mahali shumo baroi nest nsiiudani nabotot aa hayvonoti yoboi chy guna choraho andeshida shudaand?
  8. SHulyu dar khonai khud nabotot va hayvonot meparvared yo ne?

Hamai qabathoi Zamin bo ham robitai mutaqobila dorand.

In robita beshtardar jarayoni khokhosilshavi zokhir megardad:

  1. Ba khotir ored, ki dar jarayoni bodkhurdashavi kadom unsurhoi tabii ishtirok mekunand?
  2. Jinshoi kuhii organiky chy tavr meilavand?
  3. Jinshoi maydai kuhii dar napshuai bodkhurdashavi hositiuda reg, gilro khok guftan mumkin ast yo ne? Agar ne. baroi chi?
  4. Biosfera (orginizmho) ba Hokhosilshavi chy tavr tasir merasonad?
  5. CHy guna unsuri tabiiro khok menomand? On dar kadom qismi ssiphi qishri Zamin pahn gardidaast?
  6. Dar mahakhi shumo kadom namudhoi khok pahn gardidaand?
  7. On.ho barobars az sathi bahr toraft bayaand shudani mahal chi pshvr tagyir meyoband?
  8. Dar mahali shumo beshtar dar zaiinuoi kadim namudi khok rastaniparvari rivoj yoftaast?
  9. Baroi peshgiri namudani eroziyai khok (az pyusiri obu bod) dar mahali shumo chi guna korho ba jo ovarda meshavand
  10. Hosilkhezii khok ba chi vobasta ast?
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