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ASOSHOI GENETIKA VA SELEKSIYA

Asosguzori fanni genetika olimi chekh Gregor Mendel meboshad. U soli 1865 qonunhoi merosguzorii alomathoi irsiro kashf namuda bud. Lekin dar davomi 35 sol ahli ilmi onvaqta bo in kashfiyot maroq zohir nakard va yo sarfahm naraft. Faqat soli 1900 in qonunho az sari nav kashf shudand va on soli tavlidi fanni genetika ba hisob meravad. Genetika fanni nisbatan nav boshad ham, lekin ba komyobihoi kalon noil gashtaast. Dar in muddat tasavvurotho dar borai mutatsiya, khathoi sof, populyatsiyaho, nazariyai irsiyati khromosomi, inchunin qonuni qatori gomologi, irsiyat va tagyirpaziri ba vujud omadand.

ASOSHOI GENETIKA VA SELEKSIYA

Zinai duyumini peshrafti genetika ba taraqqiyoti tekhnika, az jumla, paydo shudani asbobhoi murakkabi hozirazamon vobasta ast. Hamin tariq, ba tufayli in dastovardho imkoniyati muayyan kardani mekhanizmi irsiyat muhayyo gardida, sokhti kislotahoi nukleinat va vazifai onho dar guzaronidani alomathoi irsi, kushodani ramz (kod)-i genetiki va zinahoi sintezi safeda malum shudand.

Komyobihoi genetika dar sohahoi gunoguni faoliyati ilmi va istehsoli, alalkhusus dar biologiya, tib va kishovarzi, mavqei khos dorand. Kashfi qonuniyathoi genetiki boisi muayyan namudani omilhoi paydoishi hayot dar rui

Zamin va asosi materialii tabadduloti evolyutsioni gardid. Omuzishi aloqamandii genho bo safeda boshad, zaminai paydoishi fanni biologiyai molekulavi shud. Imruz peshrafti puravji immunogenetika, ki asoshoi reaksiyahoi muhofizatii organizmhoro meomuzad, ba mushohida merasad.

Alhol, asoshoi genetikii bisyor kasalihoi inson muayyan gardida, rohhoi muolijai sarivaqtii onho daryoft va rohhoi peshgirii onho malum shudand. Genetika imruz asosi ilmii korhoi seleksioni dar sohai kishovarzi buda, usulhoi navi amaliro dar sohahoi biotekhnologiya va genetikai muhandisi jori namuda istodaast. Hamai in isbot mekunad, ki genetika dar bisyor jabhahoi ilm va sohahoi gunoguni khojagii khalq istifoda shuda, dar tarbiya va talimi khonandagon mavqei khos dorad.

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