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UFUQ VA TARAFHOI ON

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Ufuq, samthoi asosi vamiyona Muayaynkunii tarafho, naqshai mahal, aksgirii qutby va marshruta (rohpaymoi) Hangomi sokhtani naqsha, misli sokhtani kharitahoi jugrofy va topografy, avvalan samti sathi zamin muayyan karda meshavad. Pesh az sokhtani naqshai mahal mo boyad atrofro khub biyomuzem. Dar in hangom, qismi namoyoni onro mebinem, ki guyo ba osmon …

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HONDANI NAQSHAI MAHAL VA HARITAI GEOGRAFI

SHumo medoned, ki naqshai mahal va kharita namunai khurdkardai sathi Zamin meboshand. Onho az yakdigar bo miqyos, tarzi naqshabardori, mazmun va tarkibn khud va digar jihatho farq mekunand. On farqiyathoro ba khotir ored. Naqshai mahal va kharitai geografi manbai donish meboshand. Baroi on donishhoro azbar namudan naqsha va kharitaro khonda …

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KOMPLEKSHOI TABIII MAHAL VA ONHORO TAGYIRDODANI INSON

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SHumo medoned, ki komplekshoi tabiy dar natijai robita va tasiri mutaqobilai jinshoi kuhy, havo, ob, nabotot, hayvonot va khok tashakkul yoftaand. Komplekshoi tabiii mahali shumo ham hamin tavr hosil shudaand. Ammo komplekshon tabii to maskun shudani aholi namudi zohirii khudro kam tagyir doda budand. Barobari afzudani miqdori aholi, ziyod shudani …

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TABIAT VA AQOLII MAHALI HUD

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Tabaqai geografi va tabiatn mahali khud. Dar jarayoni omuzishi geografiyai tabiy shumo fahmided, ki kurai Zamin az qabathoi litosfera va biosferayu gidrosfera iborat meboshad. In qabatho bo konuniyathoi khos inkishof meyoband. Qati nazar az farqiyati bayni onho, dar bayni on qabatho yak aloqamandii umumi mavjud ast, ki on dar mubodilai …

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MAHALHOI AHOLINISHIN

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Helhoi mahalhoi aholinnshin. Davrai duru daroz inson az tabiat zich vobasta bud. Odamon guruh-guruh dar qamari kuh va gorho zindagoni mekardand. Barobari inkishofi jamiyat dar hududi muaiyan pahn gardidani odamon, tashkil yoftani istehsolot, sokhtani manzilgohho va imorathoi istehsoly (osiyob, objuvoz, ustokhonahoi chelongari va gayra) va gayriistehsoli (maktab, masjid, mehmonkhonaho va …

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DAVLATHOI JAHON

Tasviri davlatho dar kharitai siyosii jahon. Holo dar jahon beshtar az 200 davlat mavjud ast. Badi barham khurdani Ittifoqi SHuravy va ba vujud omadani davlathoi mustaqil miqdori onho ziyod gardid. Qarib khamai davlathoi jahon mustaqil meboshand. Hamai onho dar kharitai makhsus tasvir yoftaand, ki onro kharitai siyosii jahon menomand. On …

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AHOLII DUNYO – KURAI ZAMIN

SHumora va afzoishi aholin rui Zamin. Insoniyat tarikhi duru daroz dorad. Az ruzi ba dunyo omadan to imruz vay davrahoi gunoguni tarikhiro az cap guzarondaast, Muvofiqi fikri olimon ajdodi odamoni kununi 40-50 hazor sol muqaddam dar kurai Zamin pahn gardidaand. Az in khusus boqimondahoi onho, ki az hama gushayu kanori …

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TASIRI MUTAQOBILLI TABIAT VA JAMIYAT

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Muhiti geografi. Majmui tabii rui Zaminro muhiti geografy menomand. Van qismi ziyodi tabaqai geografiro dar bar megirad. Dar hududi on organizmhoi zinda va jamiyati insoni hayot ba cap mebarand. Az in ru, muhiti geografy baroi insoniyat muhiti zist buda, hayot va faoliyagi khojagidorii vay ba on vobasta meboshad. Inson az …

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KOMPLEKSHOI TABII (MAJMUI TABIY)

Qabati geografi va biosfera. Mo aknun medonem, ki kurai Zamin az tabaqai daruni va beruny iborat ast. Tabaqahoi berunii Zaminro litosfera, gidrosfera tashkil menamoyand. Inho tabaqahoi nbtidoi buda, aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasonii onho baroi inkishof va hayotguzaronii organizmho sharoiti musoid faroham meovarad. Dar natija organizmho na faqat sathi Zamin, …

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