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Bahoristoni Abdurahmoni Jomi (Kitob)

«Bahoriston»-i bekhazon az garonmoyatarin osori tarbiyavi-akhloqii adabiyoti jahonu forsizabon va ejodiyoti Mavlono Abdurahmoni Jomi (1414-1492) buda, beshtar az 500 sol meshavad, ki dar tarbiyati akhloqi hamidavu atvori pisandidai insoniyat hissai sazovor meguzorad.

Bahoristoni Abdurahmoni Jomi

Nashri hozira, ki nashri savumi ilmi-ommavii asar dar Tojikiston meboshad va ba 520-umin solgardi talifi on muvofiq meoyad, matni mukammali onro faroham ovarda, bo sarsukhani mufassal va sharhu tavzehoti mudallal oro yoftaast, to kori khonandagoni azizi gunogunsolro oson gardonad.

CHunon ki khudi Mavlono dar muqaddimai kitob menavisad, «iltimos az tamoshoyiyoni in riyozi kholi az khori mulohazai arozu khoshoki mutolabai avoz on, ki chun ba qadami ihtimom bar inon bigzarandu ba nazari itibor bar inho bingarand, bogbonro, ki dar tarbiyatashon khuni jigar khurdaastu dar tanmiyatashon joni shirin bar lab ovarda, ba duoe yod kunandu ba sannoe shod gardonand».

Abdurahmoni Jomi. Bahoriston.  Tahiyagari matn, muallifi sarsukhanu tavzehot va shorehi lugot Alokhon Afsahzod, Dushanbe, «Maorif va farhang», 2008,

Kitob az 139 – sahifa iborat ast.

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BAHORISTONI BEHAZON

Panjsad (-u bist) sol pesh az in, bahori soli 1487, shoiri notakroru  olimi nomdor Mavlono Abdurahmoni Jomi (1414—1492), ki 73-sola bud, dar kanori shahri Hirot, dar mahallai Hiyobon ba farzandi yagonai dahsolaash Ziyouddin YUsuf az zaboni arabi va qoidahoi on dars medod. Pisarak sohibi zehni burro va shavqi giro boshad ham, az jihati kamquvvati har zamon khasta meshud. Ba boloi in, jushi bahor va hayohuyi bachagoni shukh uro berun mekashid.

Jomi, ki mardi foziltarini davron va muallimi mutabari zamon bud, namekhost nuri chashmash faqat ba aslu nasab va, khususan, farzandi u budan fakhr kunad. Binobar hamin, shabu ruz ba tarbiyai Ziyouddin YUsuf mashgul meshud. Aslan, Ziyouddin YUsuf dar miyoni chahor pisar farzandi savumi Jomi buda, pisaroni digarash dar tifli nobud shuda budand. Jomi ba tarbiyai Ziyouddin YUsuf az kudakii u mashgul shuda, dar «Tuhfat-ul-ahror»,«Sabhat-ul-abror», «YUsufu Zulaykho», «Laylivu Majnun» va «Hiradnomai Iskandari», ki onhoro mutobiqan dar solhoi 1481, 1482, 1483, 1484 navshita bud, faslhoi alohidaro ba nasihat va pandi farzandi dilbandash bakhshida, uro ba kasbi donish, akhloqi nek, kirdori shoista, dustivu rafoqat, navozishi bechoragon, khayru sakhovat, kumaki ehtiyojmandon va khizmati khalq rahnamoyi mekunad. Barobari in, farzandashro ogoh menamoyad, ki az kizbu durug, bukhlu hasad, kibru havo, gururu khudpisandi, kohilivu tanbali, jaholatu mardumozori, johu mansabparasti, tamalluqu choplusi va digar padidahoi akhloqi razila barhazar boshad. YAke az vazifahoe, ki Jomi dar nazdi jigargusha va nuri didai khud meguzorad, ba qadri vaqt rasidan, az on khub istifoda burdan va dar javoni ilmu hunar omukhtan ast. U talab mekunad:

CHu nodonon na dar bandi padar bosh,

Padar bigzoru farzandi hunar bosh!

Hamin mavzui na dar bandi padar, yane magruri nomu maqom va sarvati u shudan, balki farzandi hunar budan, yane albatta baroi ba khud va ba jamiyat naf rasondan ilmu hunar (Toji sari jumla hunarhost ilm, — Quflkushoi hama darhost ilm) omukhtanro Jomi dar tamomi zindagii khud talim medod:

Har pisar, k-u az padar lofad, na az fazlu hunar,
Filmasal, gar didaro mardum buvad, nomardum ast.
SHokhi bebar archi boshad az darakhti mevador,
CHun naorad meva bar, andar shumori hezum ast!

SHoir az pisari khud talab mekunad, ki dar kasbi kamoloti insoni va manfiat rasondan ba mardum hej goh ba on chize, ki noili on gardidaast, qone nashavad:

Kone nashavi ba har chi yobi,

Az khub ba khubtar shitobi.

Pandu nasihathoi Jomi ba pisarash dar «Bahoriston» bo mohiyati khud ahamiyati umumiyansoni dorand. Baroi hamin jovidoni hastand va ba dili har yak odam roh yofta, uro ba suyi neki rahnamun medorand. SHoyad az ruyi anana boshad, ki ba man ham modaram «Bahoriston»-ro dar 10 — 11-solagi yod medod.

Jomi ba tarbiyai jiddii Ziyouddin YUsuf az chahorsolagii u shuru karda, okhirin kitobi kheshro baroi vay chand moh qabl az vafoti khud ba okhir rasond. On «Favoidi Ziyoiya» nom doshta, roje ba sintaksis(nahv)-i zaboni arabi bahs mekunad.

Jomi dar omuzondani ilmho ba pisarash usuli khube dosht. Ba u payvasta qissayu afsona meguft, sher yod medod, hikoyathoi «Guliston»-ro mekhond. Gulparvariro meomuzond, dar zamin mehnat kardanro mashq mekunond, aspsavoriro talim medod. Bahoroni soli 1487, hangomi dar bayni sabaqhoi Ziyouddin YUsuf az arabi ba khotiri khastagi va dilsardii uro kam kardan baroyash az «Guliston»-i Sadi hikoyatho khondan, pay burd, ki baze hikoyatho baroi pisarak dushvori mekunand. Az in ru, khud ba navishtani asare shuru karda, zud onro ba okhir rasond va nomashro «Bahoriston» guzosht.

«Bahoriston»  az muqaddima va  hasht bob  (ravza) iborat ast: 1) sarguzashti orifon; 2) hikmati buzurgon; 3) sarguzashti podshohon, adolat va akhloqi neki onho; 4) targibi sakhovatmandi; 5) hikoyathoi shavqangezi ishqi; 6) mutoyabahoi safobakhsh; 7) zikri shuaro, tarifi  sher, paydoish va husnu qubhi on; 8) hikoyathoi tamsili.

«Bahoriston», ki dar pironsolii muallif zebi raqam gardidaast, yak nav asari jambastkunandai goyavu aqoidi jamiyatshinosii mutafakkiri zabardast ast. Andeshavu afkori adib dar on ba tavri soddavu ravshan ifoda yofta, onhoro dar surati natijahoi fikr dastrasi mardum   sokhtaast. Navisanda hangomi talif pesh az hama, maqsadi tarbiyai nasli  navras va dar javonon parvaridani  akhloqi nekro dar maddi nazar doshtaast. Dar muqaddimai asar Jomi ba khonandagon murojiat karda meguyad: «Iltimos az tamoshoyiyoni in riyozi kholi az khori mulohazai aroz va khoshoki mutolabai avoz on, ki chun ba qadami ihtimom bar inon bigzarand va ba nazari etibor dar inho bingarand, bogbonro, ki dar tarbiyatashon khuni jigar khurdaastu dar tanmiyatashon joni shirin bar lab ovarda, ba duoe yod kunandu ba sanoe shod gardonand».

«Bahoriston» asari badeiest, ki dar on ba tarzi khose ham az zindagonii ibratomuzi shaykhonu orifon, ham az durdonahoi andeshayu afkor va hikmati donishmandoni buzurg, ham az amoli khayri hokimonu mansabdoron, ham az rivoyati khayru sakhovati muboligaomezi afrodi tarikhi va himmatu nakukorii shakhsoni afsonavi, ham az tasviri gudozi ishq va dustiyu vafodorii dilbokhtagon, ham az latifayu mutoibahoi halqi, ham az raftori shuaro, ham az hikoyoti pandomuzi tamsili roje ba hayvonot natijahoi akhloqi girifta meshavad.

Dar barobari in, muallifi «Bahoriston» illathoi ijtimoi va aybhoi shakhsiro foshofosh zeri tanqid girifta, ba vasilai muqobilguzorii hodisahoi ba ham zid aqoidi khudro roje ba neki taqviyat medihad.

Ravzai haftumi «Bahoriston» az khususi paydoishi sheru adab, anvoi sher va husnu qubhi on sukhan ba miyon meorad. In bob az khususi mohiyatu tabiat va khususiyoti sher bahs orosta, ba hukmi tazkirai mukhtasare namunai ashori sivu nuh tan shoiri asrhoi X—XV, minjumla Rudaki, Daqiqi, Firdavsi, Nosiri Husrav, Hoqoni, Nizomi, Amaq, Anvari, Suzani, Muizzi, Sadi, Husravi Dehlavi, Hasani Dehlavi, Hofiz, Kamol va Navoiro sanad meorad. Vale malumoti Jomi na sharhi hol, balki lahzahoi ibratomuzi zindagii adibonro faro girifta, bo ruhiya va shevai nigorishi khud ba bobhoi digari asar kullan mutobiqat dorand.

Umuman, «Bahoriston» ensiklopediyaest, ki dar on urfu odat va khulqu khislati tamomi tabaqoti mardumi asri XV, az farrosh to podshoh, inikos gardidaast.

Navisandai «Bahoriston» hamchun shakhsi khalqparvaru vatandust, ozodikhohu adolatju va khayrkhohi tabaqai zahmatkashu mazlum, pesh az hama, halli masalahoi ijtimoiro ba miyon guzoshta, muvofiqi tasavvuri asrimiyonagi jamiyati insonhoro ba du guruh — zolimon va mazlumon taqsim menamoyad va bar ziddi zulmu javr va taaddiyu bedodgari isyon bardoshta, davlatmandonro ba sakhovat va bechoragonro ba qanoat davat namuda, bo hamin adlu insofro targib mekunad va bar ziddi khudbiniyu khudpisandi va harisiyu khasosat, berahmiyu beinsofi va jangu jidol isyon mebardorad, in nuqsonhoro sababi falokati jamiyat va vayronii mamlakat donista, az onho rohi khalosi mejuyad va in rohro dar sokhti podshohii armonie mebinad, ki dar on shohi odili khizmatgori khalq hukmron boyad boshad.

Agar dar asri XV bayon yoftani in aqidahoro ba nazar girem, ahamiyati onho boz ham meafzoyad, zero asri XV, ba tabiri  V.V. Bartold, «zamoni shukuhi zohiri» namoyad ham, dar asl «zamoni istibdodi feodali, kashmakash va zadukhurdhoi paydarpayi temuriyon, shiddati kinavu adovatu taassubi dini va mazhabi bud». Hususan, badi margi Temur (18 fevrali soli 1405), ki dar zamoni hukumati khud (1371 —1405) Movarounnahr, Turkiston, Eron, Osiyoi Hurd, Kavkaz,  Afgoniston, yak qismi Hinduston, Dashti Qipchoq va yak qismi Rossiyaro zabt karda bud, avlodi u baroi takht jon mekandand, khuni yakdigarro merekhtand va dar natijai in zadukhurdhoi takhtu tojtalabi mamlakat ru ba kharobi va khonai fuqaro ru ba vayroni menihod. Binobar in, targibi adlu insof dar in asr ahamiyati makhsus kasb mekunad.

Hokimoni asri XV qabohat va zolimii khudro bo talimoti dini pardapush kardani meshudand. Dar adabiyoti zamoni Jomi, az jumla dar nasri on, mavzuhoi dini va targibi ahkomi mazhabi joyi namoyonro megirad. Ammo dar miyoni chunin asarho «Bahoriston» bo mazmuni dunyavi, aqoidi umumiinsoni va nuktahoi humanistii khud jiloi makhsus medihad. Imtiyozi «Bahoriston» az asarhoi digari hamjinsu hamzamonash dar on niz huvaydo megardad, ki adibi insondust dar tanqidi hokimoni zolim, ki dinu mazhabro niqobi khud karda budand, az hech chiz naharosida, jasurona niqob az ruyi onho bardoshta, az pod-shohi dindori zolim behtar budani podshohn bedinro pesh meguzorad. Ba aqidai u, na dinu mazhab, na sajjodanishiniyu toat, balki adolat sifati yagonaest, ki ba podshoh obru va shani jovidoni meorad.

Mutafakkiri buzurg chunin aqidahoro qabl az in ham chandin bor bar pesh guzoshta, dar «Salomonu Absol» niz podshohi bedini adlparvarro az podshohi dindori zolim bolotar guzoshtaast:

Kufrkeshe, k- u ba adl oyad farih,

Mulkro az zolimi dindor bih!

Jomi, bo in hama qone nashuda, saltanatro ba khayma tashbeh doda, rostivu adlro sutunhoi on meshumorad va savolomezona khitob mekunad:

Gar naboshad sutuni khayma ba joy,

CHun sitad khayma be sutun bar poy?!

Muallifi «Bahoriston» takid mekunad, ki «agar kas ba mardum tegi nomehruboni kashad, kushtai tegi nomehrubonon megardad». Binobar in, podshoh boyad oqibatandesh va az khunrezi barhazar boshad.

Dar silsilai obrazhoi musbati «Bahoriston» Iskandaru Anushervon chun obrazhoi podshohoni ideali amal mekunand. Buzurgmehru Arastu va digar donishmandonu adibon rahnamoyu yovari onho meboshand. Obrazi Hajjoj, ki dar asl va dar tarikh ba zolimi mashhur bud, hamchun aksi onho tajassum megardad. Abujahl, amaldori jafogar, tabibi bemuruvvat, muallimi nodon, tavongari mumsik, shoiri tamakori choplus, olimi beamali gulomi nafs, dustoni riyoi, farzandoni nokhalaf va amsoli inho, ki lashkari quvvahoi badiro tashkil medihand, hama hosili beadolati va nobasomonihoi zamonand.

Jomi adolatro chun poyai khubiho va sifati barjastatarini podshoh etirof namoyad ham, ba hama adolat kardani podshohro talqin namekunad. Baraks, muvofiqi aqidai u, podshoh har qadar bo rostkoronu nakukoron boinoyat boshad, hamon qadar nisbat ba zolimon va odamoni badkirdor berahm boyad shavad. Az nomi Buzurgmehr hamon podshohro behtarin mehisobad, ki «pokizagon az vay emin boshandu gunahkoron az vay bitarsand».

Masalai muhimmi digare, ki Jomi dar «Bahoriston» pesh meguzorad, shinokhtani qadri inson ast. SHoiri buzurg meguyad, ki ba inson na az ruyi sarvatu mansab, balki hunarmandiash baho boyad dod, zero:

Qimati mard na az simu zar ast,

Qimati mard ba qadri hunar ast.

Ay baso banda, ki az bahri hunar

Qadrash az khoja baso beshtar ast!

V-ay baso khoja, ki az behunari

Dar rahi bandai khud paysipar ast!

Hudi martabai hamin gulomi hunarmandro az khojai behunar bolo guzoshtani Jomi yake az fikrhoi peshqadami ust, ki az zubdai afkori mutaraqqii insondustonai aslofi u, khususan Sadi, ibtido megirad. Az ruyi in talimot, baroi qadri inson surati zohiri ham ahmiyat nadorad, kas boyad botinan zebovu gani boshad, chunki:

Tan buvad chun gilofu jon shamsher,

Kor shamsher mekunad, na gilof!

Abdurahmoni Jomi dar «Bahoriston» ahamiyati buzurgi ilmu donishro dar hayoti insoniyat borho qayd namuda, odamonro ba pardokhtani ilmu donish hidoyat mekunad. U nishon medihad, ki daryoi ilm bepoyon buda, faro giriftani hamai ilmho az imkon berun ast. Binobar in, kas boyad bo kamoli masuliyat faqat ilmi zarurtarinro omuzad. Ammo ilmi beamal ham foida nadorad. Az in ru, ba khonandagon va mutaqidoni khud maslihat medihad:

Ilme, ki noguziri tu boshad, bad-on garoy,

V-onro, k-az on guzir buvad, justuju makun!

V-on dam, ki hosili tu shavad ilmi noguzir,

Gayr az amal ba mujibi on orzu makun!

Qisme az hikoyathoi «Bahoriston» balandhimmati («Darveshi qavihimmat va podshohi sohibshavkat», «Hotam va gulombachai yatim», «Muri bohimmat»), javonmardivu jasorat («Hajjoj va arobi», «Ibrohim ibni Sulaymon va javone az bani Umiyya»), furutani (ravzai nakhustin), baroi dust jonsupori kardan («Ashtaru Jido»)-ro ifoda menamoyand. Hikoyathoi «Iskandari Rumi», «Tuhfahoi maliki Hind ba khalifai Bagdod» (az ravzai duvum), «0limu kanizak» (az ravzai chahorum), «Salil», «Kanizaki muganniya», «Ashtar va Jido» (az ravzai panjum) va «Firdavsi» (az ravzai haftum) az jihati bandu bast, syujet, obrazi qahramonho, guzorishi nizo va halli on mukammal va murakkab meboshand. Dar in joda «Bahoriston» yagona nabuda, asarhoi hajman kalon va az jihati voqeabandi murakkabu purmojaro niz mavjud budand.

Asarhoi mansuri badeii in zamon, ki az jihati  hajm  khele  kalon buda, dar onho  naqli voqeaho murattab meravad,  «Dorobnoma»-i Begami va  «Anvori Suhayli»-i Koshifi meboshand. Romani purmojaroyi  ishqivu  pahlavoni   «Dorobnoma»,  ki  ba   qalami Hoji Muhammad  ibni  Alii Begami taalluq doshta, sarguzashtu   kornomaho   va   ishqvarzihoi   pahlavoni afsonavi Firuzshohi pisari malik Dorob va pisari u   Bahmanro  faro  megirad,   az  kitobhoi  purarzishi mansuri zamon meboshad. Az sarchashmaho malum meshavad, ki Begami qissaro az khotir dar huzuri guruhe naql mekardaast, Mahmudi Daftardor, ki muosiri naqlkunanda  yo  imlokunandai  on,  yane Mavlono Begami, budaast, onro navishta, baroi digaron mekhondaast. Asari Begami dar shevai kitobhoi khalqi insho gardida,  az takallufoti  munshiyonayu  olimona va  arabibozihoi kitobi bari, ba zaboni omma (chun nasri rivoyati), fahmoyu kutohbayon nigoshta shudaast. In asar bo nomi «Dorobnoma»  malumu mashhur boshad ham, dar asl boyad «Firuzshohnoma»   (az   ruyi   qahramoni   asosii   on) nom doshta boshad. Az hamin sabab, tarjimai arabii kame mukhtasari on dar chahor jild soli 1336 hijrii qamari  (1918   melodi)  dar  Misr  bo  nomi   «Siratun Firuzshoh  ibni Malik Dorob», yane «Kornomai Firuzshohi pisari shoh Dorob» nashr shudaast.

«Anvori Suhayli» asari mashhuri mansuri digari in zamon ast, ki bo shevai qissa andar qissa navishta shudaast. On az tahrirhoi kitobi «Kalilavu Dimna» buda, dar hududi asrhoi XV – XVI bo sayi Husayn Voizi Koshifi anjom paziruftaast. Koshifi tahriri matnro dar asosi tarjimai forsii «Kalilavu Dimna»-i arabii Ibni Muqaffa (asri USH), ki ba qalami Abulmaolii Nasrulloh (asri XII) taalluq dorad, ba poyon rasonida, kitobi khudro ba shoir Amir SHaykham Nizomuddin Ahmadi Suhayli—vaziri Husayni Boyqaro bakhshidaast. Koshifi bobhoi yaku dui «Kalilavu Dimna»-ro ikhtisor namuda, ba joyi on hikoyati podshohi CHin, Roy Dobshalim va Bidpoyro dokhil karda, adadi hikoyoti pandomuzi dokhili bobhoro az 40 ba 100 rasondaast.

Koshifi, bo vujudi nigoh doshtani ramziyot va shevai tamsilii «Kalilavu Dimna», sabki masnui tahriri Abulmaoliro to andozae sodda karda, iborahoro ba tarzi baroi khud khos metirozad, amsolu ashori arabi va iborahoi purtakallufro az asar berun andokhta, bobhoi kitobi uro ba yak khatti syujet kashida, asari tome ba vujud ovardaast. Inchunin, Koshifi ba joyi porchahoi arabii on ashori shoironi fors-tojik va zarbulmasalu maqolhoi farovonero ba kor burdaast, to ki fahmidani asar oson gardad. Vale hanuz ham on tobei sabki nasri puroroishi asri XV buda, dar on sukhanpardozi mavqei kalon dorad. Binobar hamin, onro badho Abulfazl ibni Muborak bo nomi «Iyori donish» (1588) va badtar (1752) kase digar tahti unvoni «Nigori donish» ba forsi boz az sari nav tahrir kardaand.

 «Anvori Suhayli» chun tamomi tahrirhoi «Kalilavu Dimna» asari panduakhloqi buda, dar hikoyathoi tamsilii on, ki asosan az hayoti jonvaron ast, khulqi nek, ittihodu ittifoq, vatanparasti, mardumdusti, adolatparvari va khislathoi digari hamidai insoni targib meshavad. In asar dar guzashta ba sifati kitobi darsi niz istifoda megardid. «Anvori Suhayli»-i Koshifi ba chandin zaboni SHarqu Garb tarjumavu nashr shuda, soli 1966 professor Rasul Hodizoda onro  baroi bachaho az nav tahriru sodda va dar Dushanbe chop kard, ki soli 1977 takroran ba tab rasid.

«Bahoriston»-ro Jomi, chunon ki khud mefarmoyad, dar tatabbu va sabku usuli «Guliston» ejod namuda, dar payravii «Guliston» onro bo sanati saj oroyish dodaast. Zaboni on, dar barobari nigoh doshtani zeboiho va fasohati saj, soddavu ravon va fahmo buda, jumlahoi musajjai sarshori iborayu tabirhoi khalqi va porahoi sherii on  shabehi guftoru surudahoi mardumiand. Naqli hikoyatho va latifayu mutoibahoi dokhilii ravzaho ba hikoyavu latifahoi dilkashi falklori monandand. Muhokimaronihoi falsafi, mubodilai afkor va suhbathoi donishmandon, andarzu hikmatho arzishi akhloqii asarro afzudaand.

Mavqei ustuvori humanisti Sadivu Jomiro nazdik mekunad va az umumiyati qasdu khadafi ejodii du sukhanvari nobiga darak medihad. Jomi mavzuhoi «Guliston»-ro dar bobati adlu insof, parvaridani hissi masuliyati insoniyu ijtimoi, pokii akhloqi darveshon va ishqu muhabbatu javoni vusatu idoma bakhshida, dar navbati khud, ba asarash syujethoi toza vorid ovardaast. Naqlu hikoyoti Jomi dar nigorish, syujetbandi va nizo rangorangtarand.

«Bahoriston» az jihati pandomuzivu ibratbakhshi niz nishonrastar buda, navisanda az mushohidai manzarahoi huznovari faqironai mamlakat, nobasomonihoi jamiyat, behuquqii raiyat, gorati turkoni chagatoy, rivoji bozori zulmi hokimon, bediyonatii arbobi din nizoi asosii ijtimoi va akhloqii davroni kheshro dark menamoyad.

Jomi dar in asarash niz ideali adolati ijtimoiro tafsilu tahkim doda, musovoti insonho va bebaqoii khonai zulmu sitamro ba qalam medihad. Az har inson taqozo mekunad, ki dar munosibat bo insoni digar ehtirom, rioyati izzati nafs, sidqu safo, ahdu vafo va khayru nekiro ba kor andozad. Andeshahoi Jomi dar borai qadru qimat va maqomu manzalati voloi inson, ki na vobastai aslu nasab, mulku doroi, balki samarai manaviyoti gani va aqlu khirad ast, niz mufid va shoistai tavajjuhand.

Hamchunin, Jomi dar yak silsila hikoyathoi «Bahoriston» bo shevai mazhakavi voqeiyati mudhishi zamonai khesh va sirishti manfuri ahli zulm — podshohoni sitamgar, vazironi bemuruvvat va amaldoroni jafokori zamoni feodaliro ravshan jilvagar menamoyad.

U dar hikoyate meorad: «Tavongare dar ahdi yake az zolimon bimurd. Vaziri on zolim pisari vayro talab kardu pursid, ki padari tu chi guzoshtaast? «Az molu manol chuninu chunon, az vorison vaziri kabirro ayduhullohu subhonahu va in faqiri haqirro». Vazir bikhandidu farmud, ki merosi vayro ba du nim kunand: nimero ba vay guzoshtu nimero baroi podshoh bardosht».

Az  in  hikoyati  hajvi  shoir chunin  khulosa   mebarorad :

 Zulmpesha vazir nashnosad   
Juz haqi podshoh moli yatim.
Adl donad, agar barad ba tamom,
Fazl donad, agar kunad ba du nim.

Hamin tariq, tanqidi razolathoi zamoni feodali va khislathoi nokhubi namoyandagoni alohidai on mazmuni bisyor hikoyathoi «Bahoriston»-ro tashkil medihad. Vale Jomi az aybhoi insonhoi oddi niz chashm namepushad. Goho dar insonho illatho, nuqsonhoero meyobad, ki sarfi nazar az maqomi jamiyatii shakhs, manfur va baroi jomia zararnok meboshand. Az in ru, baze hikoyatu mutoyabahoi «Bahoriston» ba muqobili kohiliyu hasad va bukhlu khissat barin aybhoe nigaronda shudaand, ki baroi hama zishtand. YAke az illathoi qabehtarini insoni, ki dar bayni tabaqahoi gunoguni nimai duyumi asri XV pahn gardida bud, maykhoragivu badmastist. In odati zisht dar on zamon makhsusan dar bayni tabaqai bolo – shohu darboriyoni u, amaldoroni olirutba, hatto ruhoniyonu khodimoni din va az tabaqai shahr dar bayni lavandho (oluftahoi shahri) base rivoj yofta, fasodi akhloqro beshtar mekard.

Dar osori Jomi va nazdikoni u — Navoi, Hotifi, Binoi, Suhayli, Koshifi va digaron zararhoi manavi, iqtisodi va jismonii sharobkhoragi mazammatu mahkum shuda, kushishe raftaast, ki mardumro az razolati in pastigari emin nigoh dorand. Muvofiqi gufti Jomi, sharobu may dushmani aqlu hush, zoilkunandai donishu binish, fosidkunandai akhloq va sarchashmai jumla khabisiho buda, shakhsi maykhora nametavonad, ki bayni khubu zisht, nekiyu badi, halolu harom, dustivu dushmani farq guzorad. Binobar in, insondusti olamshumul Mavlavi Jomi az in qabohat duri justan va ba in razolat nafrat doshtanro targib mekunad va ba khonanda khitob menamoyad:

Dushmani hush ast may, Ay hushmand,

Dustro maglubi dushman kam pisand!

In bayt az «Salomonu Absol» ovarda shud. Jomi har dafa mavridi muvofiqe yofta, in fikri khudro vusat medihad. Hikoyate, ki dar «Bahoriston» az holati yak mast ovarda meshavad, munosibati Jomiro ba in amali zisht base guyo ifoda mekunad va on hikoyat in ast: «Maste az khona berun omadu dar miyonai roh biyaftodu qay kard va labu dahoni khud biyolud. Sage omadu onro lesidan girift. Pindosht, ki odamest, ki onro pok mekunad. Duo mekard, ki Hudoi taolo farzandoni turo khidmatgori tu gardonad. Bad az on sag poy bardoshtu bar ruyi u bavl kard. Guft: «Borakalloh, ay sayidi, ki obi garm ovardi, to ruyi maro bishuyi». Qita:

SHarobkhora chu bar kheshtan ravo dorad,

Ki siblat az qayi nopoki may biyoloyad.

Sag az masona gar ibriqi obi garm orad,

Ki gusli siblati nopoki u kunad, shoyad!

CHunon ki bolotar ishora raft, muvofiqi etirofi khudi Jomi, «Bahoriston» nazirai «Guliston» ast. Agar mundarijai «Guliston»-u «Bahoriston»-ro ba tariqi muqoisa az nazar guzaronem, mebinem, ki «Bahoriston» taqlidi kurkuronai «Guliston» nabuda, bo sabki umumi va ruhi insondustii khud tazmini on ast. Jihathoi umdai umumie, ki dar shabohati «Bahoriston»-u «Guliston» ba nazar merasand, az inho iboratand: Jomi dar payravii nomi asari bezavoli Sadi «Guliston» asari kheshro «Bahoriston» unvon guzoshta, tarhi «Bahoriston»-ro misli «Guliston» dar yak muqaddima, hasht bakhsh va yak khotima afkanda, mutobiqi unvoni «Bahoriston» «bakhshhoro» «ravza», yane bogcha nomidaast, ki on istifodai ejodkoronai debocha, hasht bob, yane hasht darvozai «Guliston» va anjomi on ast. Bar zammi in, Jomi dar talifi «Bahoriston» sunnati «Guliston»-ro dar sabki nigorish davom doda, onro bo nasri musajjai omekhta bo nazm insho kardaast. Hangomi nigorishi «Bahoriston» muallifi on tajriba, donish, binish va orzuvu omoli khudro ba qalam ovarda, dar raviyai «Guliston» baroi ifodai aqoidu afkor va nazariyai khud az naqli voqeahoi zindagi, hikoyathoi tarikhi, rivoyatu latifa va mutoibayu masalhoi khalqi istifoda mebarad. Az jihati mavzu faqat bobi yakumi «Bahoriston»-u bobi duvumi «Guliston» hammavzu buda, bobi savumi asari Jomi mavzui bobi yakumi asari Sadiro takror mekunad. Bobhoi panjumi hardu kitob dar yak mavzuand, lekin az jihati hikoyathoi istifodashuda tamoman farq dorand. Mavzuoti bobhoi III, IV, VI, VII, VIII «Guliston» dar «Bahoriston» istifoda nashuda, bobhoi II, IV, VI, VII, VIII «Bahoriston» az lihozi mavzu tamoman nav meboshand. Hamchunin, Jomi dar taqsimbandii bobho jihati mutaqobili hodisahoi ba ham zidro, ki dar «Guliston» takidan sabt yoftaand (misli «Dar sirati podshohon», «Dar akhloqi darveshon», «Dar ishqu javoni», «Dar zafu piri»), istifoda namekunad.

Du-se hikoyati «Bahoriston» az jihati mavzu va hatto mazmun ba chand hikoyati «Gulistoya» qarobat dorand. Vale dar chunin mavridho niz Jomi say menamoyad va ba on muvaffaq megardad, ki guftorash az navishtahoi Sadi farq kunad. Baroi misol hikoyati «Iskandari Rumi»-ro az har du asar meorem: «Guliston»: «Iskandari Rumiro pursidand: Diyori Mashriqu Magrib ba chi girifti, ki muluki peshinro khazoinu umru mulku lashkar besh az in budaastu eshonro chunin fathe muyassar nashuda? Gufto:-Ba avni Hudoi azza va jalla har mamlakatero, ki giriftam, raiyatash nayozurdam va nomi podshohon juz ba nekuyi naburdam:

Buzurgash nakhonand ahli khirad,

Ki nomi buzurgon ba zishti barad».

«Bahoriston»: «Iskandarro guftand: – Ba chi sabab yofti, on chi yofti az davlati saltanatu vusati mamlakat bo sigari sinnu hadosati ahd? Guft: – Ba istimolati dushmanon, to az goilai dushmani zimom toftandu az taohudi duston, to dar qoidai dusti istihkom yoftand. Bayt:

Boyadat mulki Sikandar, chun vay az husni siyar

Dushmanonro dust gardon, dustonro dusttar!».

CHi nave ki mebinem, hangomi inshoi hikoyat Jomi yagon kalimai Sadiro istifoda naburda, baraksi u, dar on sanati sajro ustodona ba kor burda, dar futuhoti Iskandar, muvofiqi aqidai khalq, tadbiri «bo dushmanon murosovu bo duston durustpaymoniro» dar joyi avval meguzorad. Dar natija, hikoyat goyai nav kasb mekunad.

Dar hikoyati «Hotami Toy» Sadi khorkanro az Hotam buzurghimmattar va Jomi gulomi yatimro az u karimtar ba qalam doda, dar hikoyati Sadi mehnati jismoni chun boisi ozodii shakhs takid shuda, dar hikoyati Jomi bartarii karamu sakhovati insoni kamsarvatu kambizoat nisbat ba sadaqadihihoi namoishkoronai moldoron sitoish karda meshavad. Ba hikoyatho tavajjuh farmoed:

«Guliston»: «Hotami Toyro guftand: – Az khud buzurghimmattar dar jahon didayi yo shunidayi? Guft: – Bale, ruze chihil shutur qurbon karda budam umaroi arabro. Pas ba gushai sahroe ba hojate berun rafta budam. Horkashero didam, pushtae faroham ovarda. Guftamash: – Ba mehmonii Hotam charo naravi, ki khalqe bar simoati u gird omadaand? Guft:

-Har ki non az amali khesh kh(v)arad,
Minnat az Hotami Toyi nabarad!

Man uro ba himmatu javonmardi az khud bartar didam».

 «Bahoriston»: «Hotamro pursidand, ki hargiz az khud karimtare didayi? Guft: – Bale, ruze dar khonai gulome yatim furud omadamu vay dah sar gusfand dosht. Filhol yak gusfandro kushtu pukhtu peshi man ovardu maro qitae az vay khush omad. Bikhurdamu guftam: – Valloh, in base khush buvad. On gulom berun raftu yak-yak gusfandonro mekushtu on mavzero mepukhtu peshi man meovardu man az on ogoh ne. CHun berun omadam savor shavam, didam, ki beruni khona khuni bisyor rekhtaast. Pursidam, ki in chist? Guftand, ki vay hamai gusfandoni khudro kusht».

CHunin ast farqiyati «Bahoriston»-i Abdurahmoni Jomi az «Guliston»-i Sadii SHerozi dar mavridhoi kame, ki hikoyathoi onho mavzuu hodisahoi mushtarakro faro megirand.

Dar omadi gap qayd kardan zarur ast, ki obrazi Hotam chun shakhsi sakhi dar adabiyoti tojik khele mashhur buda, dusti Jomi Koshifi asari khud «Hotamnoma»-ro, ki bo nomhoi «Risolai Hotamiya», «Qissa va osori Hotami Toy» va «Hotami Toy» niz shinokhta shudaast, soli 891/1496 navishtaast. YAk nuskhai khubi qalamii on, ki soli 907/1502 az tarafi khattoti mashhur Sultonalii Mashhadi kitobat gardidaast, tahti raqami 4388-1 (varaqhoi 2a-32a) dar zakhirai dastnavishoi sharqii AF Jumhurii Uzbekiston mahfuz ast. Tarikhi talifi asarro khudi muallif  chunin zikr menamoyad: «Az vafoti Hotami Toy dar in tarikh, ki sanai ihdo va tisina va samonamiatai (yane 391/1486 — A. A.) hijriyai nabaviya ast, nuhsadu si sol guzashtavu hanuz bahori zikrash ba rayohini ofarin orostaastu chamani neknomii vay ba piroyai sanovu tahsin pirosta. Bayt:

Namonad Hotami Toy, valekin to abad

Bimonad nomi balandash ba neki mashhur».

«Hotamnoma»-i Koshifi ba nasri rivoyatii badei taalluq doshta, muallif ba vasilai jam ovardan va imloi rivoyatu hikoyathoi dar kitobho didaash va az mardum shunidaash simoi idealii  Hotamro nigoshta, ba in vosita sakhovatu javonmardi va olihimmatiro targib mekunad.

Kitobi khalqii «Sarguzashti Hotam» niz mahsuli hamin davron buda, soli 1967 dar Dushanbe ba hullai tab orosta gardidaast.

Farqi digari «Bahoriston» az «Guliston» on ast, ki SHaykh Sadi bobhoi kitobi khudro biduni hech guna muqaddima sar mekunad. Ammo Jomi dar ogozi har ravza bo unvoni «Foida» muqaddimai khurde meorad, ki on mohiyat, mavzu va maqsadi hamon bobro muayyan mekunad. SHoir khotimai «Foida»-horo bo sher khulosavu jambast namuda, tasirbakhshivu khotirmonii navishtahoyashro beshtar megardonad. CHunonchi, ravzai chahorum, ki «Dar sifati mevabakhshii darakhtoni bogistonu judu karam va shukufareziashon ba bazli dinoru diram» nom dorad, bo chunin «Foida» ibtido meyobad: «Jud — bakhshidani chizest, boisti be mulohazai garaze va mutolabai ivaze, agarchi on garaz yo ivaz sanoi jamil yo savobi jazil boshad». Badi in du qitai zerin ovarda meshavad:

«Kist karim?—On ki na bahri jazost

Har karame, k-oyad az u dar vujud.

Har chi buvad bahri sanovu savob,

Bayu sharo gir, na ehsonu jud!

Va:

Har ki maqsudash az karam on ast,

Ki barorad ba olam ovoza,

Boshad az misri judu shahri karam

Honai u buruni darvoza!»

Sadi na tanho bisyor hikoyathoro chun mushohidahoi shakhsi ba qalam medihad, balki az sarguzashti voqeii khud niz naqlho mekunad. Dar «Bahoriston» Jomi faqat uslubi hikoyatu rivoyatro ba kor burda, tanho guftoru raftori mutabari peshiniyonro meorad, ki khud dar onho  ishtirok  nadorad.

Tafovuti digari «Bahoriston» az «Guliston» on ast, ki porahoi manzum dar hikoyathoi mansuri «Guliston» juzvi tarkibii tasviri voqea, mukolama va natijagirihoi mantiqiro tashkil medihand. Dar «Bahoriston» qitahoi manzum, odatan, chunin khususiyat nadorand va az khatti syujet berun memonand. Qitayu ruboi va baytu masnavihoi mavridi taqriri «Bahoriston» ba
misli manigiriho (moral) dar tamsilhoi (basnyahoi) YUnoni Qadim mohiyati khulosahoi falsafi, siyosi va akhloqii naqlu hikoyati mansurro dar shakli
fashurdai hikmatomez chun natija ifoda menamoyand. In tobishro dar chahor misole, ki dar bolo ovarda shudand, mushohida kardan oson ast. Baroi taqviyati davoi khud boz yaktoi namunaro chun dalel az «Guliston»-u «Bahoriston» meorem.

«Guliston»: «Duzde gadoero guft: —SHarm nadori, ki dast az baroi jave sim peshi har laim daroz mekuni? Guft:

—Dasti daroz az payi yak habba sim

Bih, ki biburrand az donge nim».

«Bahoriston»: «Turkero guftand: —Kadom dusttar dori: gorati imruz yo bihishti fardo? Guft:—Imruz dast ba gorat bikushoyamu har chi yobam, biraboyamu fardo bo Firavn dar otash daroyam. Qita:

On shunidasti, ki turke vasfi jannat chun shunid,

Guft bo voiz, ki on jo goratu toroj hast?!

Guft: «Ne». Gufto:  «Batar boshad zi duzakh on bihisht,

K-andar u kutah buvad az goratu toroj dast!».

Tanosubi nasru nazm dar hikoyathoi digari «Guliston» -u «Bahoriston» ham taqriban ba hamin minvol ast.

Harchand mashhurtarin asari nasri badeii asri XV «Bahoriston» ast, tamomi in asr va, khususan, nimai duvumi on dar tarikhi adabiyoti forsu tojik az jihati inkishofi nasr maqomi khose dorad. Bo vujudi in, asarhoi manzum sadhoro tashkil dihand, osori mansur angushtnamo meboshand. Ba tarzi digar guem, rangorangiyu boigarii khosi nazmi on zamon dar nasrash ba nazar namerasad. Nasri on davr, ki miqdoranu hajman nisbat ba nazm kam ast, irtifoi nazmro nadorad. Vale nasri davraro komilan az rivoj bari nametavon shumurd. Nasri badeii forsu tojik dar in zamon bo se roh jarayon dosht: 1) nasri sirf badei; 2) nasri ilmii rivoyati, ki ba nasri badei irtiboti nazdik dorad, zero tarikhnigoru tazkiranavison va donishmandoni sohahoi digar bisyor qismathoi asarhoi tarikhiyu ilmii khudro bo uslubi qissahoi badei, istifodai hikoyatu naqlho, savolu javobho navishtaand; 3) murosiloti davlati, maktuboti baynidavlati, talabnomahoi jamiyati va munshaoti shakhsi, ki az jihati sabku uslub dar nihoyati badeiyat qaror girifta, sarfi nazar az shevai iborapardoziyu munshiyona, bazeshon to darajai sher merasand.

Hamai in az darajai khubi inkishofi nasri nimai duvumi asri XV darak medihad. «Bahoriston»-i Jomi, «Anvori Suhayli» va «Hotamnoma»-i Koshifi, «Fursnoma»-i SHohquli, «Hay ibni YAqzon»-i Ruzbehon, «Ajoyib-ul-makhlukot»-i SHahobi Mudavvin, «Dorobnoma»-i Begami, «Latoif-ut-tavoif»-i Alii Safi silsilai asarhoi barjastai nasri zamonro tashkil medihand.

Soili niz dar payravii «Guliston» asari mansuri omekhta ba nazm talif karda budaast, ki dar yakjoyagi muhimtarin jihathoi zindagii jomeai on ruzro inikos mekunand.

Talifi kitobhoi sharhi holi buzurgon niz mamul bud, ki «Nafahot-al-uns»-i Jomi purarzishtarini onhost. Manoqibhoi roje ba Jomi navishtai Abdulgafuri Lori, Mavlono Purshams, Abdulvosei Nizomi namunahoi khubi nasri yoddoshti buda, asari Giyosiddini Hondamir «Makorim-ul-akhloq» niz ba silsilai sharhi holi buzurgoni adab dokhil shuda, zindagi, sirat, muallafot va ejodiyoti Navoiro bayon mekunad, ki soli 1360/1981 dar Kobul intishor yoftaast.

«Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Davlatshohi Samarqandi roje ba adibonu mamduhoni onho naqlu rivoyathoi margub dorad. Dar bisyor asarhoi akhloqi, kutubi sufiya, ahvoli vaziron va holati hunarvaron niz porchahoi dilchaspu muassiri badei ba nazar merasand.

Sabki soddabayonu pandomuzi Jomiro bisyor adiboni muosiri u mepisandidand va ba on muvofiqi qudrati nigorandagii khud payravi mekardand, ki navishtai Kamoliddin Husayn Voizi Koshifi (v. 910/1505) namunai barjastai on ast.

Sabki   nigorishi   «Bahoriston»   barobari   vahdat dar kulliyot, ki musajja va akhloqiyu talimist, dar juziyot vobasta ba matlabi bobho, hodisai voqeai tasvirshavanda, hadafi badei va mujiboti digar tagyir pazirufta, rangorang jilva menamoyad. Dar hikmatho hamesha khosiyati kutohbayoni, pandomuzandagi va takidi guyandai mutabari on ba tarzi naql ba kalam ovarda meshavad. Masalan: «Abuhoshimi Sufi, quddusa sirruhu, guftaast, ki kuhro bo nugi suzan az bekh kandan osontar ast az zangi kibr az dil biyafkandan». «Abulhasani Fushanji, quddusa sirruhu, guftaast, ki dar dunyo hej chiz nokhushtar nest az duste, ki dustii vay az baroi garaze boshad yo ivaze». «YUsuf ibn al-Husayn, quddusallohu sirruhu, guftaast: «Hamai nekuiho dar khonaestu kalidi on tavozuu furutanivu hamai badiho dar khokaestu kalidi on moyivu mani».

SHakhsiyathoi mutabare, ki Jomi az zaboni onho hikmat meorad, az jihati zamonu makonu millat mahdudiyate nadorand. Jomi guftori hakimoni YUnoni Qadimu Eroni Boston — Arastu (384 —322 qabl az melod), Buzurgmehri vaziri Anushervon (531—579), yake az posdoroni farhangi kuhani Ajam Ibni Muqaffa (724—769), ashkhosi tarikhii Arabu CHin, Eronu Hind, shoironu mutafakkiron va orifonu donishmandonro chun khulosahoi hayoti meorad. Dar khudi hamin munosibati Jomi nisbat ba tamadduni jahon va afkori umumibashari insoniyat chun vujudi vohid va hastii yagona zuhur menamoyad.

Unsuri namoyoni shevai nigorishi «Bahoriston» dar mukolamasozihoi muallifi on, ki ba manoi botinii sukhan ahamiyati makhsus medihad, ayon megardad. Jomi dar tasviri sahnachahoi oddii khurdi maishi, ki dar avji dramavi ba qalam doda meshavand, ba tarzi hayratangeze holati psikhologii tarafaynro sabt namuda, dar vaziyathoi purshiddati mazhakavi, hajvi, fojiavi va gayra masalahoi siyosat, davlatdori, jangu sulh, akhloq va problemahoi ijtimoiro ba miyon guzoshta, hal mekunad. Hulosahoi u vobasta ba qahramonho shakli muhokimahoi olimona, natijagirihoi hakimona va hozirjavobiro ba khud megirand. Vale dar hazlu mutoibaho, ki beshtar janbai ijtimoi dorand, ehtiromu tavajjuhi khosi navisanda hamesha ba tarafi mazlumonu namoyandagoni tabaqahoi mehnati buda, dar guftori onho, ki tarafi muqobil dar munosibat ba onho hissi nazarnogiri, nopisandi va nochizshumori izhor medorad, hozirjavobiyu khiradmandi, istehzovu tamaskhur, piskhandu nafrati onro ba muqobili ahli riyo, sitamgaron, tanparaston, kohilon, muftkhuron, badakhloqon va gayraho nishon medihad. Az javobhoi namoyandagoni tabaqahoi boloi befazilati, johili, simoi manfur va botini puchi onho huvaydo megardad. In shevai nigorishi «Bahoriston», ki ba tarzi ifodai latifahoi khalqi nazdik ast, tafakkuri khalqro ifoda namuda, bori digar khalqiyati asarro namoish medihad. YAk namuna meorem: «Bakhlul (shoiri hajvnigori talkhzaboni darbori Horunarrashid dar asri VIII — A. A.) bar Horunarrashid daromad. YAke az vuzaro guft: —Bashorat bod mar turo, ay Bahlul, ki amiralmuminin turo bar sari qirodavu khanozir (maymunho va khukho) sardoru amir gardonid! Bahlul guft: —Gush ba man doru farmoni man ba jo or, ki az jumlai raoyoi mani. Qita:

Ba shahriyorii govu kharam dihi mujda,

Raiyyate, ki buvad khosi shahriyor, tuyi!

SHumori lashkariyonam zi khirsu khuk kuni,

Nakhust kas, ki daroyad  dar in shumor, tuyi!».

Albatta, holathoi mustasno niz mavjudand. Vale aqidahoi navisanda dar «Bahoriston» khele gunogun va bazan mukholifi yakdigar ifoda yofta  boshand ham, dar in asari olamshumul janbai tanqidi base purquvvat buda, dar tamomi mavorid andeshahoi musannif nekbinona va optimistonaand, nekivu zeboi va husni khulq barin goyahoi musafforo talqin menamoyand. Hatto daryoftu foshu mahkum namudani zishtivu badiho ba khotiri rasidan ba in niyati nek ba qalam   doda meshavad.

Zaboni nigorishi «Bahoriston» jolibi diqqat buda, guftori zerini M. Tavhidipur, ki doir ba zaboni asri XV guftaast, pesh az hama ba «Bahoriston» taalluq dorad: «Dar nasr sabki makhsusi davrai mugul, ki poyai on dar muglaqnavisi va kasrati (farovonii — A. A.) istemoli kalimotu lugoti arabist, dar on davra matruk mondu ba joyi on sabki digare ba vujud omad, ki asosi on bar istiorotu tashbehotu kinoyoti farovon qaror dosht va az takalluf dar lugoti arabi ori bud».1

«Anvori Suhayli»-i Husayn Voizi Koshifi, «Latoif-ut-tavoif»-i Safi ibni Husayn Voizi Koshifi, «Takmilai Nafahot»-i Abdulgafuri Lori bo hamin uslubi sodda navishta shuda boshand ham, dar bayni asarhoi nasrii asri XV «Bahoriston» az jihati soddagii zabon va ravonii tarzi bayon mumtoz buda,  korbasti sanati saj chun unsuri uslubie, ki ba vasilai kalimahoi mushobehu mutazodi barobarvazn, bazan hamqofiya va hamesha vohidhoi hamohang, zebi sukhanro afzun megardonad, maqomi khos dorad. Bar zammi in, saj sukhanhoi Jomiro misli kalomi Sadi marmuztar ba sado medarorad. Tavajjuh farmoed: «Hiradmandoni karim mol ba duston gumorandu bekhiradoni laim az baroi dushmanon bigzorand». «Har ki bo zerdaston shevai mushtzani bar dast girad, dar lagadkubi zabardaston bimirad». CHunon ki ba mushohida merasad, Jomi ismhoro bo ismho, sifathoro bo sifatho va felhoro bo felho musajja mesokhtaast, ki yake az darboisthoi saj ast.

Dar shevai navishti nasri badeii Jomi naqshnigorii darozsukhan, az qabili «qurai mashvarat dar miyon andokhtan» ba joyi «mashvarat kardan», «dast  dar  domani  mutobiatu  farmonbari  zadan»  ba  joyi  «itoat kardan», 

1.M.Tavhidipur.   Muqaddima.— Jomi.   Nafahot-al-uns, Tehron, 1337, sah. 151.

inshoi muzayyani purtakalluf, arabibozi, ihomparasti va tasannuoti digar, ki khosi tarikhnigoronu inshonavisoni darborist, ba kor nameravad. Vale Jomi dar munshaotu maktuboti khud beshtar tahti nufuzi peshiniyon qaror girifta, ba darozgui, muqaddimapardozi va iborattirozi say menamoyad.

Umuman, sabki inshonavisi dar on ahd chunin bud.

Hullasi kalom, nigorandai «Bahoriston»-i bekhazon va bisyor osori digari mondagor Mavlono Nuriddin Abdurahmoni Jomi adibest, ki tamomi ejodiyoti khudro ba nafi mardum nigaronidaast. U dar osori bo sanati balandu zaboni sodda navishtaash afkori hakimonai adabiyoti panjsadsolai tojiku forsro jambast namuda, ba vasilai tasviri ishqi poki Laylivu Majnun, YUsufu Zulaykho, Salomonu Absol va Ashtaru Jido, tavsifi adolatparvarii Anushervon, khiradmandii Buzurgmehru Aflotun, donishmandii Iskandari ideali, naqli zindagiyu raftori buzurgoni irfon va adiboni nomdor, insonparvarivu vatandusti va rafoqatu barodariro tarannum mekunad, adlu insof, donishu khirad, mehnatu osoish va nekukoriro targib menamoyad, pasthimmativu tanparvari, durugguivu firebgariro ba zeri tanqid megirad, khulosa, ba odamon tarzi kasbi kamoli odamiyatro   talim   medihad.   Zubdai   talimoti insondustonai  u  in ast:

SHam  shav, sham, ki khudro suzi,

To ba on bazmi kason afruzi!

Abr shav, to ki chu boron rezi,

Bar gulu khas hama yakson rezi!

Nihoyat, soli 1966 muallifi in satrho ba vositai nashriyoti «Irfon» matni ilmi-ommavii «Bahoriston»-ro ba chop rasond, ki khele mukhtasar boshad ham, dar muddati kutohe dar kitobkhonaho kamyoft gardid, zero shavqi khonandagon ba in asari jovidonii Jomi kalon ast. Hamin talabotro ba nazar girifta, nashriyoti «Maorif» onro az nav (soli 1987) chop kard, ki dar on az asli matn faqat chand jumlai dushvorfahm az avvali debocha, 12 hikoyat az bobi yakum, chor mutoyaba az bobi panjum, chor hikoyat az bobi shashum va yak jumla az maqolai «Azraqi» (bobi haftum) ikhtisor gardid. Nashri navi asar yak hodisai guvoro va yak nav posi khotiri muallifi risolai jovidonai behamto khohad bud.

Az zamoni bunyodi «Bahoriston»-i bekhazon panjsad sol guzasht va, albatta, dar in muddati darozi nim hazor sol, ki az havodisi ruzgor pur bud, barge chand az in «Bahoriston»-i jovidon az tundbodi tarikh va gardishi davron zard shuda, misli bargi khazon ba khonanda huznero ilqo menamoyand. Vale ba tarzi kulli «Bahoriston»-i hameshasabzu purtarovat hamon orostavu perosta buda, nasimi jonbakhshe tarovati gulho va buyi ruhnavozi rayohini onro ba mashom rasonda, ba chashmon ziyo, ba dilho safo, ba ravonho jilo va ba jismho shifo mebakhshad.

HOTIMA

Dar dil chunon megasht va dar khotir chunon meguzasht, ki in noma ba zudi ba okhir nayanjomad va khoma dar tayi maqosidi¹ on holiyo az junbish nayoromad. Ammo chun oyinai tabi guyanda zangi malomat girift va ba sayqali sidqi ragbati shunavanda saqolat napaziruft, bad-in qadar iqtisor aftod.

Q i t a

Bast2 kun, Jomiyo, bisoti sukhan,

Ki az on khubtar bisote nest.

Lek khomush nishinu dam darkash,

Tabro gar dar on nishote nest.

Nest kofi bisoti tabi tu niz

Agar az some3 inbisote4 nest.

Va har chi az maqulai5 nazm guzashta, ba nozime mansub nagashta, zodai tabi muharriri6  in risola ast va natijai fikri muqarriri7 in maqola.

R u b o i

Jomi har jo, ki nomae insho orost,

Az guftai kas ba oriyat hej nakhost.

Onro, ki zi suni khud dukon purkolost,

Dallolii koloi kasonash na sazost.

Ummed ba makorimi8 akhloqi mutoliakunandagon on, ki chun bar khalale mutalle shavand, ba zayli afv va igmoz9 bipushand va dar ifshoi on 6a zaboni gayb va etiroz nakushand. 

Q i t a

CHun bubini zi oshnoe aybe,

Gar ba begonagon naguy, beh.

Z-on ki dar keshi okhirandeshon

Aybpushi zi aybjuii beh. 

Dar tarikhi qati atnobi 10 itnob11 va tayi asbobi ashob: 

Q i t a

Takupuyi khoma dar in turfa noma,

Ki Jomi bad-u kard tabozmoyi,

Ba vaqte shud okhir, ki tarikhi hijrat

SHavad nuhsad, ar hasht bar vay fizoyi12 .

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