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Adabiyot dar asrhoi XVII-XVIII

Asri XVII- nimai avvali asri XVIII davrahoi bisyor muhimi tarikhi adabiyoti tojik meboshad. Dar ahdi Joniyon yakchand havzahoi adabi vujud dosht. Kalontarini on Samarqand va Bukhoro budand. Hamai shoironi in du havza az 150 nafar beshtar bud. Az in miqdor beshtar az 20 nafar shoironi hunarmand budand. Bazei onho dehqoni mekardand. Simohoi durakhshon va peshqadami adabiyoti in davr Maleho, Sayido, Sarafroz, Fitrat va Mulham budand.

Muhammadbade Malehoi Samarqandi soli 1650 tavallud yofta, avvali asri XVIII vafot kard. Padari u az odamoni sohibmarifat va mutabari Samarqand buda, dar madrasahri in shahr dars meguft va ba sheru shoiri muhabbati farovon dosht. Maleho dar nazdi padarash ba shsrgui ogoz kard. U to sinni 30 solagi asosan bo rohbarii padarash ba omukhtani ilmhoi aqli mashgul bud. Donishomuzii khudro vay az omukhtani zaboni arabi va ilmhoi dini, az qabili fiqh, tafsir va gayra ogoz menamoyad. Soli 1678 bad az vafoti padar Maleho ba safari Huroson va Eron baromada, bo ahli adabi in mamlakat muloqotu suhbatho mekunad.

Badi bozgasht az Eron Maleho dar qozikhona ba kor daromada, ba mudarrisii madrasai SHaybonikhon niz mansub gardid. U dar barobari adoi vazifai shari ba shergui va takmili tazkirai khud mashgul shud.

Maleho tazkirai khudro “Muzokkir-ul-ashob” nomidaast. Az jumlai 165 shoire, ki dar qismi asosii tazkira zikr shudaand, 56 nafarro shoironi Eron tashkil mekunand, ki muallif bo onho shakhsan vokhurda, hamsuhbat shudaast.

Namunahoi dar tazkirai Maleho omadan osori shoironi asri XVII baroi muayyan kardani khususiyathoi ravnaqi adabii in davr ahamiyati buzurg dorand.

SHoiri zabardast va mashhuri asri XVII Saidkamol Fitrati Zarduzi Samarqandi bud. U az bayni khalqi mehnatkash tabaqai hunarmandon sabzida baromadaast. Fitrat soli 1657 dar Samarqand tavallud yofta, barobari hunari zarduzi dar khondan va az khud kardani ilmho qobiliyati khub nishon dod.

Fitrat barobari tahsil dar yake az madrasahoi Bukhoro faoliyati adabii khudro niz ravnaqu vusat doda, dar sher ba dastovardhoi kalon sohib shud va ba zudi dar radifi shoironi mashhurtarini zamon qaror girift.

Fitrat dostoni “Tolibu Matlub” va dar tamomi shaklhoi asosii nazmi liriki (qasida, gazal, ruboi, qita va gayra) asarhoi ziyode ejod kardaast. Soli vafoti u malum nest.

Mullo Abdulloi Mulhami Bukhoroi az shoironi tavono va nomdori asohoi XVII-XVIII buda, ba hunarmamdoni shahri Bukhoro taalluq dosht. U az javoni tarzi zindagii qalandaronaro ikhtiyor karda, hamrohi qalandaroni jahongard ba sayohat baromad. Az shahrhoi Movarounnahru Huroson bargashta, U yak jo qaror girifta ba kasbi khud khirgohtaroshi mashgul shud. Zindagii Mulham bo podorivu azobu mashaqqat meguzasht. Soli vafoti Mulham chun soli tavalludi u malum nest.

Mulham dar du janri adabi hunarnamoi kardaast — gazal va masnavi. Masnavii u bo nomi “Laylivu Majnun” malum ast. Mulham sohibdevon buda, gazaliyoti u simoi ejodiashro chun shoiri gazalsaro lishon medihad.

sayidoi-nasafi

Buzurgtarin shoiri asrhoi XVII-XVIII Sayidoi Nasafi bud (vafot bayni solhoi 1707-1711). Padaru modari Sayido dar Bukhoro istiqomat doshtand. U ba tabaqai hunarmandon nazdik shuda, az bayni onho dustonu hamfikron paydo kardaast.

Sayido hanuz dar javoni az rui niyozmandi ba kasbu hunar pardokhta, bo hamin vosita zindagii khudro tamin mekard. CHunonchi, dar in bayt u takid kardaast:

Ba zuri dastu bozu mekhuram, ey Sayido, ruzi,

Maro chun Kuhkan khuni jigar boshad beh az shiram.

Sayido dar gazaliyotash az qashshoqiyu gurusnagi, garibiyu bekasi, kasodiyu beqadrii sanatu hunar, khorivu zillati ahli fazlu adab shikoyathoi jonsuz namudaast. Vay beshtari umri khudro ba sakhti guzaronidaasg.

Ruzgoram hama umr ba sakhti meguzarad,

Ustukhonro chu humo ruzii man sokhtaand.

Ba gayr az shoironi nomburda, dar viloyathoi tojiknishin ustodoni kalomi bade hast ba cap burda, asarho ejod mekardand. Masalan, dar Qarotegin shoir va olim Jomi ibni Kamoliddini Qarotegini (muallifi masnavii “Mazhari kul”’, Hoji SHohi ibni Hoja Abdurahmoni Hisori (vafot 1657). Rifati Hisori va digaron budand.

Ejodiyoti shoironi asri XVII va limai avvali asri XVIII nishon medihad, ki adabiyoti tojik dar chunin yak sharoiti dushvori tarikhi dar markaz va nohiyaho rivoj meyoft. SHaroiti dushvor, istedodi adabi va malakai evodii khalqi tojikro az ravnaq boz doshta natavonist.

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