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Odobi Salom guftan – Qoidai salomgui

CHi tavr boyad salom dod?

YAke az fazilathoi neki insoni, ki obruvu nufuz va manzalati uro baland mebardorad, in guftani salom ba khurdu buzurg va rioyai odobi on meboshad. Peshiniyon in husni odobro dar vujudi farzandon parvarish namuda, az khurdi talim medodand. On az amalhoi solehi farzandon mahsub meyoft. Dar jomeai asrimiyonagi in amal joygoh va ahamiyati makhsus dosht va az buzurgsolon to khurdsolon onro rioya mekardand. Aksari adibon va olimon niz dar osori khud ba tarzi odob va fazilathoi salom izhori andesha kardaand va amali onro niz khostor meshudand. Bo maqsadi rasidan ba kamoli insoni kushish mekardand, ki ba atfol avval odobi salom dodanro omuzonand.

Odobi salom dodan

Baroi rasidan ba in maqsad rivoyathoi ziyodi jolibro niz ovardand, ki dar khotiru zehni kudak va har murabbi naqsh mebast. Murod az in, albatta, arjguzori ba inson bud.

Hamin tavr salom behtarin rukni marifati insoni ba shumor meraft. Az khurdi to davrai kamolot az jonibi volidayn nazorat va takid megardid. In guna munosibat va takidhoi pay dar pay asos meshud, ki farzand odobi salomro rioya namoyad va dar hama holat baroi ijroi in amal omoda boshad. Ravoni kudak nisbat ba salom ba darajae faol gardida bud, ki hamesha va dar hama holat mekhost ba kalonsolon salom dihad.

Agarchi imruz dar ruzgori mo odobi salom rioya shavad ham, vale nametavon onro javobgui talabot va idomai anana hisobid. Ham dar maktab va ham dar joyhoi jamiyati, hatto dar baze khonavodaho salom va odobi on rioya nameshavad, padaru modar niz ba in masala kam ahamiyat medihand.

Az in ru, lozim donistem, ki nazari ejodkoronu mutafakkironi peshinro doir ba arzishi salom ijmolan takid namuda, dar in zamina say kardem, ki istifodai ruknhoi salom va fazilathoi onro bori digar yodovari namoem.

Mavlono Jaloliddini Balkhi barhaq ba takid dar «Masnavii manavi» ibroz doshtand:

Az nasihat noqison komil shavand

V-az nasihat mudbiron muqbil shavand.

V-az nasihat toza gardad har dile

V-az nasihat hal shavad har mushkile.

Dar haqiqat, agar nasihat durust ba miyon guzoshta shavad va ba zehni kudak yo navras hamin guna joy doda shavad, dilpurona metavon umed bast, ki khurdsol raftoru kirdori khudro digar menamoyad va nombardori padaru modar megardad. Zero nasihat dar mafkurai mardumi mo, pesh az hama, tashakkul dodani qobiliyati madanii farzand ba shumor meravad va bo in roh metavon javhari aqlonii uro gani gardonid. Nasihat, ki manoi tojikiash pand dodan meboshad va yak nav maslihat ba shumor meravad, behtarin omili tarbiya ast.

Abuhomid Muhammad ibni Muhammadi Gazzoli dar talkhisi kitobi «Ehyo-ul-ulum—addin» va «Kimiyoi saodat» qazovat menamoyad, ki «dili kudakon misli zamini navkoram ast va on chi ki mo dar on kisht mekunem, hamon mesabzad».

Dar takidi Imom Muhammadi Gazzoli masalai «kisht» va natijagiri az on ba khotiri qavi budani hofizai kudak takid shudaast, yane talimi onho dar in davron tasiri musbat merasonad. Dar haqiqat, kudak dar hofizaash har onchiro agar gunjonad, onro metavonad to okhiri umr nigoh dorad. Dar in guna holat kudak baroi onro az yod dur nakardan sayi makhsus menamoyad. Salom niz az arzishhoi manavi va farhangie meboshad, ki on az avval to ba okhiri umr hamchun husni insoni bo shakhs boqi memonad.

YAke az avvalin sharthoi tarbiyai inson ham omuzonidani odobi salom ast. Az in ru, az davrahoi khelo pesh odobi salom va javob guftan ba on az jonibi padaru modaron ba farzandon dar khurdsoli bo juziyotash yane chi guna dasthoro peshi bar girifta, chi guna istodanu andake kham namudani qomat va kushoda nigoh doshtani chehra va gayra talim doda meshud.

Mutaassifona, alhol dar jomeai mo tasiri kalonsolon ba khurdsolon khelo kam shudaast. Dar kucha, mahallaho, hatto dar dehot kase bar kase erod namegirad va kase dar payi islohi hamdigar, ba khusus, navrasonu javonon nest. Az in navrason va navjavonon istifoda karda, khudro nihoyat ozod megirand va ba salom dodan hatto khush nadorand. Bazan baroi az joy khestan va dast peshi bar karda salom dodan havsala namekunand. In amali kheshro yak nav khudsitoi mepindorand. Dar baze holatho ba rohguzar hatto piskhand mezanand va jamiyat niz ba in parvoe nadorad. Dar choykhonaho, majlishoi mahalla va jamoatho in masala tahlil nameshavad va hamai in nuqsonhoro tanho ba maktab va omuzgor havola menamoyand, ki in nodurust meboshad. Kori tarbiyavi ba pindori mo kori umum meboshad. Az khonavoda sar karda, to hamsoyahoi nazdiku dur, ahli jamoatchigi dar har jo ki navrason va javonon jam meshavand, boyad doir ba masalai odob va akhloq sukhan guyand va hamagonro ba ijroi amalhoi soleh va odobu rioyai salom davat namoyand. Bazan modaron va khoharon niz dar sari kucha nishasta boshand ham, hangomi guzashtani rohguzar az joy namekhezand. Baroi jinsi zan in amal az ruyi oyini milli qubhi insoni ba shumor meraft. Malum meshavad, ki dar khonavodaho niz qarib dar borai madaniyat, shistu khez, guftoru pindor, tarzi rioyai muoshirat va saru libos dar joyhoi jamiyati, berun az khona va umuman muoshirati hamdigari kam yo umuman sukhan nameguyand.

Dar guzashta az rui baze sarchashmaho mardumi mo pesh az noshto kardan va yo pas az on badi duoi non yo bad az jam kardani dastarkhon baroi to dah daqiqa va yo az in beshu kam doir ba odobi salom, nekiyu nakukori, khayru ehson, ehtiromi khurdu buzurg va digar amalhoi neki insoni bo ovardani misolho sukhan meguftand va farzandonu ahli khonavodaro takid mekardand, ki makhsusan berun az khona ba ijroi farizahoi akhloqi diqqat dihand va bazan shakhsan khudi volidayn ijroi onro nazorat menamudand. Pas az khuroki shom niz in amalro takror menamudand. Hub meshud, ki in ananahoro boz az sari nav jori namoem va rioyai onro tamin gardonem.

Salom pesh az hama insonro khushkhulqu boodob, botamizu bofarosat, narmdilu garmdil, diljuvu didadaro, narmguftoru garmmuomila, purmehru tavozukor mesozad. Az in ru bo manzuri niyozhoi manavii jomeai kununii mo khususan khurdsolonu javonon, ki az osori manavii asrimiyonagii millii mo ittilooti andake dorand, qaror dodem, ki tavajjuhi onhoro ba in rukni asosivu manavii tarbiya beshtar jalb namoem.

Fazilati salom

Salom chand fazilat dorad, ki donistani on ba manfiati shakhs meboshad. Salom, pesh az hama, ba pokii jismonii inson tasir merasonad. On alfozi qabehro az zaboni inson dur mesozad va guyandaro fozilu khiradmand megardonad. Kudak agar ba berahmtarin shakhs bo lafzu lahni tiflona salom guyad, rahmdil meshavad va jahlash ba fazl mubaddal megardad. Az in ru salom baroi khushhol gardonidani inson niz tasir merasonad. Muhim on ast, ki salom adovat, khusumat, bukhl, kina, hasad barin khislati insoniro raf mesozad. Salomi az rui sidq dar dili inson joy girifta, savobi besh dorad, zero tavassuti on shakhs tadrijan doroi khislathoi hamida: rostqavlu rostguy, dilsofu rahmdil, mushfiqu mehrubon, dilsuzu gamkhor, khalqdustu mardumnavoz, raiyatparvaru mehnatqarin, sodiqu vafodor, khushzabonu khushmuomila, halimu dilju, didadarovu mahbub, gamkhoru gamgusor megardad.

Agar dar kucha farde salom medihad, pesh az hama, ba tabi kasi digar tasiri nek meguzorad va uro az andeshai ziyodati ozod menamoyad. Agar tabash khira boshad ham, bo shunidani salom bolida megardad.

YO khud kase bo shumo dilsardie dorad, yane bo shumo gapi nest, agar ba shumo salom dihad, on badbinivu sarddili gum khohad shud. Besh az in dustu muqarrabi shumo, kheshi shumo, barodaru khohari shumo agar az shumo dur zindagi kunad, noma menavisad va shumo ba u noma menavised, avvali nomai shumo bo salom ogoz meyobad, ki bo khondani on khushhol va sidqan khursand meshaved. Az in jost, ki nasli kalonsol boyad farzandoni khudro dar khona, bogcha, maktab baroi az in nemati muqaddas fayzyob shudan rohnamoi namoyand. Dar in kor lahzae takhir nakunand, ki oqibati andak gaflatvarzi dar in roh nokhushihoi gushnoshunidero ba bor meorad.CHunonchi shoir meguyad:

Raftam, ki khor az po kasham,

mahmil nihon shud az nazar,

YAk lahza gofil gashtamu

sadsola roham dur shud.

Fazilati salom ba ruhu ravoni inson tasiri musbat merasonad. Agar khohem, ki az buzurgsolon ehtirom binem, tabi onhoro bolida sozem va onhoro shod gardonem, boyad odobi salomro rioya namoem va kushish sozem, ki pesh az onho, sari vaqt va bo ovozi narmu foram salom dihem. Salomi mo boyad baodobona boshad. Agar nishasta boshem, darhol khesta, dast peshi bar namoem va bo chehrai kushod bo yak nafas giriftan, dastro peshi sina guzoshta, poyhoro ba ham va qomatro rost karda, sarro kame ruy ba zamin nihoda bo andake tabassum va bo chehrai garm salom dihem. Boyad tarze ovoz barorem, ki ba izzati nafsi digaron narasem. Va boyad on bo lahni narmu shirinu gushnavoz boshad. Salomdihanda badi salom, avvalan, boyad az tarzi sukhani khud rozi shavad, soniyan, ba har gunae ki javob megirad, ba on qanoatmand boshad va zinhor boyad az tarzi javob norizo nagardad. Bazan shoyad odam dar holati mukhtalifi ravoni qaror dorad va nametavonad salomro durust javob gardonad va yodaruni az tagi dil ba on javob meguyad. Dar in guna holat on na boyad mavridi muhokimai botinii kasi digar qaror girad. Baraks, bo shukrguzori az raftori khud qanoat hosil namoyad, ki qarzi kheshro ba anjom rasonidaast.

Dar surati digar, khudash yo khurd boshad yo buzurg, metavonad salom dihad va dar surati javob nashunidan boz khudash botinan javobi salomro takror namoyad. Dar in guna holat savobi salom beshtar ba in shakhs merasad va in niz yake az amalhoi soleh ba shumor meravad.

Boyad yodovar shud, ki hangomi ziyorati ahli qubur (kasone, ki vafot kardaand) shakhsi ziyoratkunanda salom medihad va khudash onro javob meguyad. YAne, dar in hol shakhse, ki baroi ziyorat raftaast, masulu vazifador ast, ki ba salom javob dihad. Bo in amal, albatta, sohibi savob megardad. Ba juz in bo in amali sharif yak talaboti ziyoratro ba jo meorad. Hulosa bo javob dodani khud ba joyi shakhsi shunavandai salom etibori kas az miyon nameravad.

Tarz va usulhoi salom

Salom yak amali solehi inson buda, tavassuti on kamoloti manavii u muayyan karda meshavad. Dar miyoni mardumi tojik boshad, on ba yak rukni ananai milli tabdil yofta, az jonibi khurdu buzurg az ovoni kudaki to ba okhiri umr rioya meshavad.

Salom bo tarzi khos ifoda shuda, yak chand usuli bayon dorad, ki dar poyon baze az onhoro bar tartibi muayyan meorem.

YAkum. Agar nishasta boshem, az joy barkhosta dasti rost ba peshi sinai khud meguzorem va qomati khudro rost namuda, bo tabassum va lahni shirin salom meguem.

Duyum. Agar rost boshem, dast peshi bar menamoem va bo chehrai kushoda, ovozi narm salom meguem va intizori javob meshavem.

Seyum. Agar buzurgsol dast daroz nakunad, hej goh kushish nasozem, ki pesh az u dast daroz va uro majbur namoem, ki bo mo bo dast salom kunad, ki in az rui odob nest.

Hub meshavad, agar joyi munosib boshad, buzurgsol khudash dast daroz kunad va bo tabassum, lutf va ovozi narmu shirin ba khurd dasti salom dihad va az in amalro bo qanoatmandi ijro namoyad.

Tibqi rivoyati Anas, Rasuli akram ba kudakon tabassum menamud va har goh az nazdiki eshon meguzasht, salom meguft.

CHahorum. Hangomi vorid shudani yagon shakhs ba khona va yomehmonkhona agar nishasta boshem, barkhosta dast peshi bar menamoem va salomro az dil meguzaronem va baroi bo dast salom kardan shitob namekunem.

Panjum. Dar marakaho tanho dast peshi sina burda, bo chehrai kushoda bo ishora (khamu rost kardani sar) salom guftan az rui odob ast. Baland salom guftan, khandida salom guftan va chehraro turush namuda salom dodan, bo dast salom kardan az rui odob nest.

SHashum. Agar ba maraka davat meshaved, ba majlis medaroed yo ba mehmonkhona vorid megarded va mebined, ki hozirin nishastaand, dast peshi bar karda, bo dilaton salomro guzaroned va bo chehrai garm, nimtabassum karda, sar junbonida dar joye, ki davat baroi nishast meshaved, nishined. Dar in guna holatho az digaron der namoned. Der mondan az rui odob nest. Agar uzr va yo sababe doshta boshed, bakhshida meshavad.

Haftum. Hangomi vokhuri bo shakhsi az khud kalon tanho dast peshi bar namuda, chehraro kushoda bo izhori khushnudi salom guftan az rui odob ast. Pesh az vay dast daroz karda bo dast vokhuri kardan mumkin nest. Agar shakhsi kalonsol dast daroz namoyad, dasti rostro baroi salom daroz kardan, dasti chapro ba peshi sina guzoshtan az rui odob ast.

Hashtum. Savora ba piyoda salom meguyad. Moshinsavor, aspsavor, kharsavor bo ishorai khamu rost kardani sar ba piyoda salom meguyad. Piyoda agar dast peshi bar karda javobi salomro gardonad, az rui odob ast.

Az Abuhurayra rivoyat ast, ki Hazrati Muuhammad farmud: savora bar piyoda, ravanda bar nishasta va kam ba bisyor salom namoyad.

Nuhum. Piyoda dar roh ba har yak rohguzar, khoh savor boshad, khoh piyoda, dast peshi bar karda salom guyad, az rui odob ast. Nishasta salom dodan, dast dar kisa salom guftan, bo sadoi baland salom dodan, shukhi karda salom guftan az rui odob nest.

Dahum. Salom dodani khurd ba kalonsol shart ast. Vobasta ba joy va mavqe boyad har yak shakhs az khud buzurgro bo salom peshvoz girad va ba u salom dihad. Salom dodan ba kalonsolon hatmi meboshad. Dar surati rioya nashudan va yo dar holati pareshoni budan boyad khurdsolon naranjand. Dar in guna holat husni odobi khurdsolon bolo meravad.

YOzdahum. Hangomi ayodati bemor avval bemorbin salom meguyad va dast peshi bar mekunad va bo chehrai kushoda ovoz mebarorad va kushish boyad namoyad, ki bemor tavassuti in salom rohat bubinad.

Mafhumi salom va maqomi on to islom va badi islom

Salom kalimai arabi buda, manoyash osoish, sulhu amoni, osudaholi meboshad va shakli tojikii on mafhumi «durud» ast.

Dar zamoni pesh az islom ajamiyon bo nishoni mehr va ehtirom ba hamdigar durud mefiristodand va hamdigarro bo durud peshvoz megiriftand. Makhsusan, hangomi jashnho durud guftan va bakhshoishi gunohi hamdigar yake az sifathoi neki niyogoni mo ba shumor meraft. Dar miyoni mardum, ba khusus, dar ayyomi Navruz durudu shodbosh guftan ba hukmi anana daromada bud va odamon baroi az khud dur kardani kina ba hamdigar durud meguftand. Durudgui az darbori shoh ogoz meyoft va ba durudguii kudakon ba anjom merasid. Kohinon durudguiro dar miyoni jomea tablig mekardand.

Dar Avasto va digar sarchashmahoi toislomi mafhumi durud va tarzi durud guftan niz borho takid shudaast. Malum meshavad, ki guzashtagoni mo niz to zamoni vurudi islom ba farhangi salom dodan tavajjuhi khos medodaand. Dar miyoni guruhi ashrofon va darboriyon durud guftan rost bud. Durud guftan dar bisyor holatho, ba khusus, hangomi jashnhoi milli beshtar rioya meshudaast va on hamchun rohi az badi dur shudan va rostiro sitoish kardan tashviq megardidaast. Baroi az gunohi hamdigar guzashtan peshiniyon mafhumi durudro istifoda mekardaand. Hangomi tavalludi kudakon ham durud guftan miyoni ajamiho mamul budaast. Sitoishi kohinon niz bo durud ogoz meshudaast. Hamchunon firistodani durud ba Ahuramazdo mamul budaast. Ajamiyon ba vositai durud hamdigarro ba dustiyu rafoqat va rostivu nakukori davat menamudand.

Makhsusan dar Avasto durud guftan hamchun juzi talimot va farhangi milli sitoish yoftaast. Dar bobhoi mukhtalifi in kitob vobasta bo niyoish mafhumi «durud» korbast meshavad va on arzishi baland niz doshtaast.CHunochi omadaast: «Getiro neru bod. Durud ba geti». Dar in jo durud guftan ba geti ishora shudaast, ki mazmuni nihoyat baland dorad. Dar joyi digar omadaast: «Rosttarin donishi mazdoofaridai ashavanro durud mefiristam». YO dar joyi digar takid shudaast, ki: «Ba rosti durud». Hamin guna takidho dar Avasto khelo ziyod meboshad va besh az 500 bor mafhumi «durud» dar in kitob takid shuda, tamomi pahluhoi zindagi bo on payvand gardonida shudaast. Az hama muhim tamomi andesha, guftor va raftor niz bo durud payvand shudaast. CHunonchi: «Andeshavu guftoru kirdori nekro, ki dar in jo va dar har joi digar varzida shudaast va varzida khohad shud, durud meguem va (khud) niz bo jon(-u dil) ba neki hamekushem».

Ba neki kushidan va durud guftan behtarin oini mardumi Ajam ba shumor rafta, dar zindagii haruza az on istifoda meshudaast va on badtar niz dar shakli digar tavassuti islom boz ham roij gardida, tashakkul yoftaast.

Dar davrai zuhuri islom dar Osiyoi Markazi va pas az on miyoni tojikon ehtirom guzoshtan ba hamdigar tavassuti rioyai odobi salom boz ham gustarish yoft. On ham ba odat va ham ba sunnat tabdilyoft va dar munosibati odamon hamchun rukni qadr kardani hamdigar shinokhta shud. Dar in davra salom muqaddas va tabarruk elon gardid. Ba yake az nomhoi muboraki Hudovand payvand shud va ba on arzishi muqaddamtar az odob doda shud. Aknun zuhuri salom ba sifati tarbiya beshtar arzishi etiqodi va marifati paydo namud va ba tafakkuri mardum hamchun marifati islomivu milli joygohi khosro kasb namud.

Ba khotiri takid shudani salom dar kitobi «Quron» mafhumi «salom» bo salavot nazdik karda shud va on ajri buzurgtarro ba khud kasb namud. Dar Surai «Niso», oyati 86 omadaast, ki: «Va chun salom doda shavad, pas ba gunae behtar az on salom dihed, yo ba hamon kalima javob dihed. Ba durusti, ki Hudo bar har chiz hisobkunandaast».

Dar in sura salom dodan va javob gardonidan ba on makhsus takidyofta, manzalati salom arjguzori shuda, bori digar takid shudaast, ki in amali khayrest, ki Hudovand bar amali neki odamon onro vojib donista, dar raftori nekashon salomro hisobanda pindoshtaast.

Dar joyi digari surai «Niso», oyati 94 omadaast, ki «Ey muminon, chun dar rohi Hudo safar kuned, (nek) tahqiq kuned va kasero, ki ba shumo bo salom murojiat kunad, magued: «Mumin nesti» – matoi zindagonii dunyoro matalabed va nazdi Hudo ganimathoi bisyor ast».

Dar surai «Nur», oyati 24 boshad, masalai salom va tarzi rioyai on dar mavridi ehtirom guzoshtan hangomi ba khonai digaron vorid shudan takid meshavad: «Ey muminon, ba khonahoe gayri khonahoi khesh nadaroed, to in ki ijozat talabed va bar ahli on salom dihed, in baroi shumo behtar ast, buvad, ki pandpazir shaved».

Dar oyathoi 27, 28, 29-i in sura niz sunnati salom dodan takid shudaast. Ammo dar oyati 24 avval masalai salom va bad ba khonavodai digaron be ijozat nadaromadanro takid menamoyad. Har du takid ham mohiyatan janbai balandi akhloqi doshta, dar tarbiya tasiri musbat merasonad.

Hamchunon, dar surahoi Hashr, Toho, Rad, Anom doir ba mohiyati salom va ehtirom guzoshtan ba odamon takidhoi jiddi omadaast, ki har yak fard boyad onro rioya namoyad. Dar surahoi mazkur donistani salom va arj guzoshtan ba on va tavassuti salom rasidan ba rifoh, vahdat va osoish yoftani tanu ruh bayon shudaand.

Dar barobari on ki dar «Quron» mohiyati salom bayon gardidaast, inchunin dar hadisho niz ehtirom guzoshtan ba salom, rioyai on, tasiri salom ba ruhi inson va adlu osoish ovardani on ifodayoftand, ki ahamiyati bagoyat buzurgi tarbiyavi dorand. Dar hadishoe, ki dar on sukhan az salom meravad, ehsos meshavad, ki janbai akhloqi beshtar meboshad va baroi tarbiya namudani farzandon dar ruhiyai insondusti va ehtirom guzoshtan ba kalonsolon tasiri balandro dorost. Masalan, dar hadise Rasuli akram meguyad, ki: «Agar du musalmon hangomi muloqot ba yakdigar salom va musofaha (dasti salom kardan) kunand va az Hudovand talabi omurzish namoyand, omurzida meshavand».

YO dar joyi digar omadaast, ki az Amirulmuminin Umar ibni Hattob rivoyat ast, ki Hazrati Muhammad guftaast:

«Agar du musulmon hangomi didorbini bar yakdigar salom dihand, pas mahbubtarini onho nazdi Hudo hamon ast, ki khandonruy boshad va ba hamdigar dast bidihand, sad rahmat baroi onho nozil shavad. Baroi salomdihanda navad rahmat va baroi javobdihanda dah rahmat ast».

Dar joyi digar boshad, ba rivoyati Abdulloh ibni Salom omadaast, ki Hazrati Muhammad guftaast:

«Ey mardum, salomro dar baynaton rivoj dihed va ba darveshon taom dihed va payvandi kheshovandiro nigoh dored, to khushbakhtona dar bihisht daroed».

Dar hadisi digar meguyad: «Salom nome ast az nomhoi Hudoi taolo, pas fosh dored uro miyoni shumo, har kiro bined, yane salom gued, tavozu kuned».

Dar in chahor hadis, pesh az hama, marifati salom va maqomi salom takid shudaast. Makhsusan, tavassuti hadisi chahorum minbad salom guzoshtan sunnat gardid va beshtare az musulmonon baroi ehtiromi yakdigari ba hamdigar salomgu shudand va salomro beshtar sitoish namudand. Bo payvand shudani salom ba nomi Hudovand arzishi akhloqi va farhangii on bolo raft va ba yak juzi manaviyot tabdilyoft. CHunin maqom giriftani salom ohista – ohista ba arzishi akhloqii millati tojik niz roh yoft va ba yake az ruknhoi odob tabdil gardid. Badan salom hamchun juzi odob baroi khurdu buzurg ahamiyat paydo namud va baroi fardi musulmon rioyai on hatmi gardid.

Mardumi tojik ham bo on guna ahamiyate, ki salom paydo namud, onro chun juzi farhangi khud paziruftand va baroi rioya va talimi on tadbirho andeshida, dar in zamina risolahoi alohida tahiya kardand va arzishi onro dar husni odobi insoni muhim shumorida, qimatashro bo shevahoi mukhtalif sharh dodand. Masalan, takid mekardand, ki «agar muslime ba jamoate salom dihad va on jamoat ham ba in muslim javob gardonand, ajri on muslim ba sababi in ki nomi poki Hudoro ba yodi on jamoa andokhtaast, duchand khohad shud va agar javob nadihand, ba sababi in ki vazifai khudro ado kardaast, vijdonash rohat khohad namud».

Dar miyoni mardumi tojik chunin hadisho to darajae arzish paydo kardaand, ki hatto hangomi nomguzori ba farzandon az on makhsus istiqbol menamudand va farzandonro bo ehtiromi khosa Abdussalom nomguzori mekardand, ki in anana to imruz idoma meyobad. Baroi misol kalimai Abdussalom, ki nomi mardona ast, ba manii bandai Hudo meboshad va salom ba juzi sifati Hudovand dar rohi ba dast ovardani osoishu osudaholi muqaddas meboshad.

Az kitobi «Quron» sar karda, minbad dar kalomi Paygambaramon Hazrati Muhammad tavassuti hadishoi u va takidi rohbaroni mazhabhoi islomi va payravoni vay mafhumi salom, qadri salomguzor, naqshi salomguzor va yake az sunnathoi islomi budani on ba marotib takid meyoft va on chun rukni marifati islomi arjguzori megardid.

Abuabduloh Muhammad ibni Ismoil al-Bukhori dar fasli «Har ki az dodani salom bakhili kard» menavisad.

Az Abdulloh ibn Amr ibn Os rivoyat hast, ki u guft:

Duruggutarin shakhs kasest, ki tavassusti chashmonash bakhili kunad va bakhil kasest, ki az dodani salom khuddori kunad (Hadisi 104).

YO in ki dar hadisi 1043 omadaast, ki:

Anas ibn Molik guft: Man Paygambarro didam, ki vaqte az nazdi kudakon meguzasht, ba onho salom medod. Inchunin az Abuhurayra rivoyat ast, ki:

Rasuli Akram farmudaand:

Bakhiltarin inson kasest, ki dar vaqti salom namudan bakhili menamoyad (Hadisi 1042).

Dar aksari chunin hadisho hikmati akhloq, odobi salom va arzishi on dar jomea ifoda yofta, hamchun sarchashmai manavi miyoni mardum ehtirom va afzaliyat paydo namudaast.

BAZE SARCHASHMAHOI DIGAR, KI BA TAVZEHI SALOM BAHSHIDA SHUDAAND

Digar az sarchashmahoe, ki dar borai salom sharhu tavzeh medihand, asarhoi donishmandoni ilmi fiqhu kalom va zumrae az namoyandagoni tasavvuf meboshand, ki doir ba mohiyat va arzishi salom nazaru andesha bayon doshta, behtarin vositai munosibati bayni odamon budani onro takid kardaand. Dar in mavrid manbai istifodai onho niz hadisho, rivoyatho va digar sarchashmahoi osori islomi meboshand. Masalan, dar kitobi «At-targibu va-t-tarhib»-i Imom Abdulazim al- Manzuri, ki namunai hadisho va baze rivoyoti digar ovarda shudaand, shakhsiyati Paygambar, husni muoshirati u, hilm va tahammuli u va sakhovatmandiyu bakhshishhoyashro sharh medihad. Dar bobi alohida maqomi salomro, ki az jonibi paygambar bayon yoftaand, takid karda, az jumla menavisad:

Rasuli Akram guftand:

«Se chiz baroyat dustii barodaratro kholis megardonad:

vaqte ki bo u vokhuri, salom bidihi;

vaqte ki ba majlis hozir shud, ba u joy bidihi;

bo dustdoshtatarin nomhoyash davat bikuni».

Dar joyi digar hadisero takid kardaast, ki ba tavassuti on Rasuli akram maqomi shakhsi avval salomguftaro baland mebardorad:

«Sazovortarin shakhs ba rahmati Hudo kasest, ki avvalin shuda salom medihad». YO «Salom sababi baland shudani martabavu akhloq ast». Dar in hadisho niz maqom va martabai salom dar munosibati insoni takid yoftaand. Guzashta az in, dar kutubi fiqhi, dar asari «Saheh-ul-Bukhori»-i Abuabdulloh Muhammad ibni Ismoil-al-Bukhori dar zerfasli «Fazoilu-s-salom» takidhoi farovon duchor megardad, ki nihoyat arzishmandand. Dar kitobi digari khud «Al-adab-al-mufrad» Ismoil – al – Bukhori dar bobi «Ogozi salom» roje ba fazoili salom va farmudai Rasuli Akram dar in bora menavisad: Az Abuayyub rivoyat ast, ki Paygambar guft:

Baroi mardi musulmon ravo nest, to ba barodarash az se ruz ziyodtar qahri boshad. Agar onho az yakdigar duri juyand, dar holi ru ba ru shudan ba hamdigar, behtarini onho kasest, ki bo salom ogoz bikunad (Hadisi 985).1

1 Imom Bukhori. Al-adab-al-mufrad. Qohira, 2005 sah 240

Dar asarhoi «Riyoz-us-solehin»-i Imom Navavi va bisyor digaron niz tarbiyai inson va makhsusan odobi salomu gardonidani javobi on bo juziyotu nazokati tarafayn takid shudaand. Dar tasavvuri in donishmandon pokii akhloq az on iborat bud, ki inson boyad az mardumozori, duzdi, gaybatu buhton, durug, fireb, hillagari, makkori, havobalandi, kibru gurur, takabburu buzurgmanishi, odambadbinivu rishvakhuri, kutahnazari komilan biparhezad va tavassuti salom va arj guzoshtan ba on nekbin, nekiroda, odamdust, khoksor va furutan ba voya rasad va bo kamoloti manavii khesh dar miyoni jomea sohibobruy va ba martabai balandi insoni sharafyob shavad.

Zuhuru tashakkul va tahavvuli tasavvuf in goyaro inkishof dod va meyorhoi akhloqiro boz ham taqviyat bakhshid. Bisyori adiboni orif va namoyandagoni barjastai ahli tasavvuf dar bayoni munosibati inson ba Hudovand masalahoi akhloqiro pesh ovarda, ba sharhi munosibathoi odami dakhl kardand va meyorho va arzishhoi munosibati hamdigariro sharh dodand, ki dar miyoni onho salom va rioyai odobi on joygohi makhsusro dar bar megirad. Dar miyoni in namoyandagon Mavlono Jaloliddini Balkhi, SHaykh Attor, Sanoi va digaron dar in irtibot nazari kheshro bayon karda boshand, Husayn Voizi Koshifi ba sharhi mufassali odobi insoni tavajjuh zohir karda, arzishi salomro dar munosibati insoni mufassalan sharh dodaast. Mavlono Kamoliddin Husayn Voizi Koshifi dar kitobi «Futuvvatnomai sultoni» bobero bo nomi «Dar odobi salom kardan» ovardaast, ki dar on joy, makonu mavze, shartu sharoiti salom, fazilati salomu odobro sharh dodaast. Muvofiqi talimoti akhloqii Kamoliddin Husayn Voizi Koshifi salom joy va maqomi khosero dar jomea doro meboshad. CHunonchi: «Agar pursand, ki dar chand mavze salom boyad kard, biguy, dar haft mavze. Avval, chun barodari tariqro bini, salom boyad kard. Duyum, chun dar roh ravi, ba odamon salom boyad kard. Seyum, chun ba dari khonai barodar ravi, salom boyad kard. Va inro salomi istizon (ijozat khostan) guyand. CHahorum, chun ba jame daroi, salom boyad kard. Panjum, chun az mavze, ki nishasti, barkhezi va jame on jo boshand, salom boyad kard va inro salomi vido guyand. SHashum, chun ba maqbarae rasad, salom boyad kard. Haftum, chun ba khonai khud daroyad, bar ahli bayti khud salom kunad.

Agar pursand, ki dar chand mavze salom naboyad kard, biguy, dar shash mavze. Avval, dar hammom. Duyum, bar kase, ki ba qazoi hojat mashgul boshad. Seyum, ba quronkhon. CHahorum, ba namozguzor. Panjum, bar zanoni nomahram. Va agar dar in mavzeho kase salom kunad, javob nadihand, osi (gunahkor) naboshand.

Agar pursand, ki odobi salom kardan chand ast? Biguy haft: Avval, pok boshad. Duyum, savora bar piyoda salom kunad, istoda bar nishasta va nishasta bar takyazada. Seyum, on ki khurdtar ast, boyad, ki bar buzurgtar salom kunad va aqqal bar aksar salom kunand. CHahorum, dar salom kardan ruy khandon va peshoni kushoda dorad. Panjum, ba ishorat salom nakunad, balki ba lafz biguyand, ki «Assalomu alayk»yo «salomu alayk» va agar jamoate boshand, «Assalomu alaykum». SHashum, iborahoi juhhol va arozil razilona ba joi salom naguyad. Misli sabohulishq ast yo ishq ast, yo sokinulishq ast, ki inho bidat ast va az tariq khorij. Haftum, chun du ba yakdigar rasand va musofaha (dast ba dast vokhuri kardan) kunand. Agar pursand, ki odobi javob dodan chand ast, biguy, haft: Avval on ki ba tozaruyi javob dihad. Duyum, on ki ba ziyoda javob guyad. Seyum, agar kase boshad, ki khoriji millati islom boshad va bar in kas salom kunad, dar javob aleyk guyad. CHahorum, boyad ki bar tahorat (tozavu ozoda) boshad. Panjum, agar guruhe istoda boshand, yak nafar javobi salom dihad, basandaast. SHashum, javobi salom bo lafz dihand, na ba ishorat. Haftum, boyad, ki chunon javob dihand, ki salomkunanda shunavad.

Agar pursand, ki fazilati salom dar chist, biguy, dar on ki taqdim kunand va zudtar salom guyand»2. Dar in qismat adib kushish kardaast, ki joygohi salomro dar miyoni odamon va tarzi salom guftanro sharh dihad va az takidi in orif malum meshavad, ki salom dodan va rioyai on yak rukni arzishmandi marifati insoni ba shumor meravad. Durust rioya kardani salom va dar kadom holatho salom guftanro orif yake az amalhoi solehi insoni pindoshta, baroi rasidan ba darajai kamolot rioyai onro muhim meshumorad. Dar barobari in Koshifi sharthoi salom va tartibi onro niz muayyan kardaast. Dar in jo niz orif baroi rioyai sharthoi salom mavodi mutamadbakhsh aniq peshnihod va dar zaminai omuzishi hadishovu digar rivoyathoi islomi sharthoi avvalindarajai salomro bayon kardaast.

2 Husayn Voizi Koshifi, Futuvatnomai sultoni. Dushanbe: Adib 1991.

Dar asarhoi digari in orif misli «Anvori Suhayli», «Akhloqi Muhsini», «Risolai Hotamiya» va gayra niz roje ba masoili favquzzikr bahshoi sudmand surat giriftaast.

Donishmandi digare, ki ba sharhi salom pardokhtaast, Alii Safi meboshad. U dar risolai khud – «Odob-ul-ashob» muhimtarin fazilathoi insoniro takid karda, dar bobi salom niz nuktahoi qimatmand ibroz namudaast, ki ovardani baze az on ba mavrid meboshad. Donishmand baze fazilathoi salomro chunin sharh medihad:

«Adabi avval ibtido kardan ba sababi salom bar har ki shinosad va bar har ki nashinosad. Pushida namonad, ki ifshoi salom sunnatest mamur… Agar jame boshand, salomi yake az eshon kofist. Lekin agar hama salom kunad, afzal ast. Sunnat ast, ki chun du musulmon ba ham rasand, pesh az on ki sukhan guyand, avval salom kunand va hej kas az ulamo dar in khilof nadorad. Va har kas pesh az salom (kalom) ogoz kunad, javob meguyad. Ibtidokunanda ba salom mubarrost az kibru nakhvat. Pas, agar du kas, vaqte ki ba yakdigar salom kunand, javobi salom bar har du vojib meshavad va ulamoro dar in masala ittifoq ast.

Duyum, salom kardan ast ba sigae, ki ulamo muqarrar kardaand (Assalomu alaykum va rahmatullohi va barakotuh). Adabi seyum, javob guftani salom ba sigae, ki ulamoi islom qaror dodaand. Pushida namonad, ki javobi salom farz ast. Agar jame boshand, yake az on jam javob dihad, on farz az gardani digaron soqit shavad va agar hej kas javob nadihad, osi shavand va gunahgor boshand va agar hama javob dihand, goyatan fazilat ba kamol boshad. Javobdihanda ba in nav (javob) dihad, ki «Va alaykum as-salom va rahmatullohi va barakotuh». Agar salomkunanda vahid buvad va aqalli javob on ast, ki: «Va alaykassalom» guyad…

Adabi chorum, tarki takhsisi baze mardum ast ba salom. Ulamo guftaand, ki chun kase bar jame daroyad va khohad bazero biduni baze makhsus gardonad ba salom in makruh ast va in fel nafrat va kudurati digaron meshavad. Valekin dar shorei om yo bozor, ki mardumi bisyor jam boshand, bazero ba salom takhsis kunad joiz ast.

Adabi panjum, boyad ki salomkunanda az baroi ehtiromi barodari mumin pusht kham nakunad, ki makruh va mamnu ast. Salom bo ishorati sar, kitf, dast va amsoli on be talaffuz mamnu ast va makruh.

Adabi shashum, rafi savt ast dar salom kardan. CHun kase bar jame daroyad va khohad, ki salom kunad, boyad, ki barobar az rost va yo chap daroyad va salom dihad bar vajhe, ki eshonro bishnavonad, bo kadom sunnat salom nakarda boshad. Boyad, ki mujib niz ovozi khud baland kunad, ki mubtadirro bishnavonad. Va agar kase bar kare salom kunad, avvalo on ast, ki ham bo lafz salom kunad va ham ba dast ishorate kunad, bar vajhe, ki on kar daryobad, to mustahaqqi javob shavad. Va agar mubtadi miyoni salom va ishorat jam nakunad, bar in javob vojib nashavad. Agar kare bar vay salom kunad, boyad, ki dar javobi vay jam kunad miyoni talaffuz va ishorat bar vajhe, ki on kar daryobad, to farziyati salom az gardani vay soqit shavad. Va agar bar gunge salom kunad va vay ba dast ishorat kunad, javob shavad, farziyat az gardani vay soqit shavad, zero ki ishorati vay qoim maqomi iborat ast va agar gunge bo ishorat bar vay salom kunad, dar javobi vay boyad, ki jam kunad miyoni lafz va ishorat, to farziyati radi salom az vay soqit shavad.

Adabi haftum, salom kardani savora ast bar piyoda va ravanda bar nishasta va andak bar bisyor, sagir bar kabir va tariqi sunnat in ast. Lekin agar kase mukholifat kunad, masalan, piyoda bar savora salom kunad yo kabir bar qalil makruh nest. Ammo jame nishasta boshad, ki guruhe ravanda ba har hol nishasta salom boyad kard va agarchi on jami nishasta qalil yo sagir boshand va ravanda kasiru kabir.

Agar jame zanoni jamila joe nishasta boshand, yak mardi begonaro ravost, ki bar eshon salom kunad va javobi salom bar eshon vojib shavad. Va agar jame zanoni jamila bar yak mard salom kunand ham, ravost va javob bar mard vojib shavad. Va agar jame mardoni begona salom kunand, ravost va javob bar on zanon vojib shavad, ba sharte ki donad fitna mekhohad. Va agar yak zani jamila ba jami mardoni begona salom kunad, ba hamon shart ravost, javob bar on mardon vojib shavad.

Adabi hashtum tarki salom ast bar zani jamila va tarki javobi salomi vay. Ulamo bar onand, ki salomi zan bar zan misli salomi mard ast bar mard, ammo dar salomi mard bar zan ikhtilof ast.

Baze guyand, ki zan boyad, ki bar shavhar va ba har ki mahrami sharii vay boshad, salom kunad va kaniz bar moliki khud mustahab ast, ki har yak az mard yo zan ibtido salom kunad va bar muslim alayhi javob vojib shavad va ravo nabuvad, ki zani jamilai begona bo in salom kunad, zanro javob dodan makruh ast. Lekin agar gayri zani jamila boshad, salomi mard bar vay ravost va javobi zanro baroi salom vojib ast va baraks niz hamchunin.

Adabi nuhum, tarki salom dar mavozei makruha va on chi dar kutub ba nazar daromad, yozdah mahal ast, ki dar on mahalho makruh ast va agar salom kunad, javob vojib nameshavad.

Avval, mahalli qazoi hojat ast. CHun kase ba qazoi hojat nishasta boshad, salom kardan ba vay makruh ast va agar kase salom kunad, javob vojib nameshavad.

Duyum, mahalli muboshirat ast, ki salom dar on mahal makruh ast va javob nashavad.

Seyum, mahalli khob va pinaki ast, ki salom dar on mahal karohiyat dorad va mustahaqqi javob nashavad.

CHahorum, hammom ast, ki salom kardan dar hammom ravo nest, az jihati on ki metavonad, ki musallamun alayhi ba gusl kardan muhtoj buvad. Dar hinni janobat vayro javobi salom naboyad dod. Pas agar mutahaqqiq shavad, ki musalmon alayhi ba ob ehtiyoj nadorad, salom kardan dar vay bar hammom ravo buvad va javob vojib buvad. Panjum, vaqti taom khurdan ast va on mahal ast, ki shakhse luqmai taom dar dahan dorad va lekin dar miyoni taom khurdan ast. Ammo (donad, ki) luqma dar dahon nadorad, salom ravost va javob vojib shavad… Dahum, tarki salom ast bar fosiq, majobir va zolim.

YOzdahum, salomi vido ast dar hinni muforiqat az ashob. CHun bo jame yoron nishasta boshad va khohad, ki az eshon judo shavad, sunnat on ast, ki bar eshon salom kunad»3. Dar tarikhi adabiyoti fors-tojik qarib adibe nest, ki ba juziyoti tarbiyai inson dakhl nakarda boshad. SHoironu navisandagoni fors-tojik chi dar ashori khurdi liriki va chi dar osori epikii khesh ba masoili tarbiya va talimi inson diqqati makhsus dodaand. Hatto asarhoi komilan akhloqi-tarbiyavi va talimi talif namudaand. Az jumla: «Kalila va Dimna», «Sindbodnoma», «Saodatnoma», «Rushnoinoma», «Kashful-mahjub», «Kimiyoi saodat», «Hadiqat-ul-haqiqat», «Mantiqut-tayr», «Masnavii manavi», «Makhzan-ul-asror», «Matla-ul-anvar», «Buston»-u «Guliston» va gayra. Tanho dar asrhoi H va nimai avvali asri H1 tibqi tasdiqi muhaqqiqon 166 asari akhloqi talif gardida budaast. Dar hamai in osor ba juziyoti tarbiyai inson, shogird, murid tavajjuhi makhsus zohir karda meshavad. YO in ki dar kitobi fiqhii «Durratulvoizin» (bobi 27, dar bayoni fazilati salom dodan) omadaast:

3 Fakhriddin Alii Safi. Odob-ul-ashob. Durdonahoi nasr, j.3., Dushanbe, Adib, 1991, s.277-279

«Abdulloh ibni Masud az Rasul farmudaand, ki Assalom nomest az nomhoi Hudoi taolo. Pas ifsho kuned salom dodanro dar bayni khud. Har musulmone ba yakdigar salom dihad va javobi salom guyad, farishtagon bar on bandai mumin haftod marotiba salavot firistand va agar har musulmone hamdigarro dida, salom nadihand va javobi salom naguyand, farishtagon bar on haftod marotiba lanat firistand».4 Dar adabiyoti tasavvuf bisyore az shoiron, az jumla, Mavlono Jaloliddini Balkhi niz dar gazaliyoti khesh az mafhumi salom istifoda karda, ba muhimoti salom ehtirom guzoshtaast. CHunonchi u meguyad: Rav on rubobiro bigu maston salomat mekunand, V-on murgi obiro bigu maston salomat mekunand. V-on miri soqiro bigu maston salomat mekunand, V-on umri boqiro bigu maston salomat mekunand. V-on miri gavgoro bigu maston salomat mekunand, V-on shuru savdoro bigu maston salomat mekunand. Ey «mah» zi rukhsorat khijil, maston salomat mekunand, V-ey rohatu oromi dil, maston salomat mekunand, Ey joni jon, ey joni jon, maston salomat mekunand, Ey tu chuninu sad chunon, maston salomat mekunand. In jo yake ba khesh nest, maston salomat mekunand, YAk mast in jo besh nest, maston salomat mekunand. Ey orzui orzu, maston salomat mekunand, On pardaro bardor z-u, maston salomat mekunand.

4 Durratulvoizin. Tahiya va peshguftori Hoji Muslihiddin Mukarramzoda, Kitobi I, nashri II. Hujand, 2003, sah. 98

Dar gazali shoiri orif va sufi sukhan az ishqi ilohi ast. Baroi ehtirom salomu sujudi kheshro ba Hudo ibroz medorad. Bayoni andeshahoi ginoii shoir, ki nihoyat purehsos meboshand, tavassuti ifodai oshiqona majozan ba Hudo ravona shudaast va dar on munosibati dilu ruh ba ham omezish yoftaast. SHoyad khonandagoni hassos ba mafhumi «maston» ba istihola nazar andozand. Dar in jo shoir majozan sukhan meguyad. In mafhum az manoi mastie, ki az sharob mast meshavand, ba kulli farq mekunad va dar taammuqi shoir mafhumi «mast» ba manoi oshiq budan ba jamoli Hudo meboshad. Dar in mani shoir tamomi vujud va hastii kheshro, ki amali orif va sufii pok ast, sarfi rohi Haq karda, bo rasonidani salomi khesh ba Hudo khudro tasalliyat medihad. Salom hamchun radif omada, payi ham takror meshavad va bori digar muhabbat va samimiyati shakhsi sufiro dar rohi rasidan ba Haq ibroz medorad. Umuman, gazali mazkur bori digar az muhim budani salom va kalidi rohi haqiqat budani on darak medihad.

Istifodai radifi «maston salomat mekunand» dar gazali digari Jaloliddini Balkhi bisyor jolib va nodir ast.

U pas az kalimai avvali gazal «salomat mekunand»-ro istifoda mebarad va bad ba ilovai «maston» dar okhiri misrahoi juft meorad:

Rindon salomat mekunand, jonro gulomat mekunand,

Masti zi jomat mekunand, maston salomat mekunand.

Dar ishq gashtam fontar, v-az hamginon qalloshtar,

V-az dilbaron khushboshtar, maston salomat mekunand.

Gavgoi ruhoni nigar, selobi tufoni nigar,

Hurshedi rabboni nigar, maston salomat mekunand…

Dar ogozi yak gazali digarash in orifi buzurg vojai «salom»-ro bisyor ba mavrid, ki bozgui holati oshiqi asil ast, istifoda mekunad:

Ba haqqi on ki bikhondi maro zi gushai bom,

Ishorate, ki bikardi ba sar ba joyi salom.

YAne, dar in jo ba on ishora shudaast, ki chun mashuq dur va az balandi ast, namekhohad guftani salomro digaron ham fahm kunand. Binobar in, ba joyi salom bo sar ishora mekunad.

Mavlono Jaloliddini Balkhi dar «Masnavii manavi» meorad:

YAk salome nashnavi az ahli din,

Ki nagirad okhiri on ostin.

Maqsadi in orifi buzurg rivoji salomi betama ast. YAne salom boyad kholisona boshad.

Hoqoni dar yak bayti khud az mafhumi salom shoirona istifoda karda, onro chunin korbari kardaast:

Ba salomi charb, ey jon, binavoz joni moro,

Ba salomi khushk khush kun dili notavoni moro.

Anvari niz ba mafhumi salom tabir karda, maqsadi khudro bo ifodai salom bayon namudaast:

SHud faromush maro rohi salomat zi gamat,

CHi shavad, gar ba salomat dili man shod kuni?

Nosiri Bukhoroi niz az tabiri salom istifoda karda, bo yak nazokat va zeboi maqsadashro chunin ibroz menamoyad:

Ey khoja, salom allayk, man azmi safar doram,

V-az bomi falak pinhon man rohi guzar doram.

SHoir dar bayti mazkur murojiati kheshro bo «salomu alayk» shuru karda, murodi dilashro hunarmandona ifoda gardonidaast.

Abdurahmoni Jomi, ki dar adab guftan ustod ast va dar bisyore az ashorash akhloqi hamidaro sitoish mekunad, dar bayoni salom va rioyai on niz nazari khosa bayon karda, dar bayte doir ba salom va odobi javobi on andesha meronad va ba shikoyat ba qahramoni lirikie, ki ba salom javobi sard meguyad, siteza karda, andeshaashro chunin jambast mekunad:

Sad salom ar shunavi az pasu pesh,

Be alayka nakushoi labi khesh.

In chi joh astu jaholat, ki turost

V-in chi tugyonu zalolat, ki turost?!

SHoir ba kase, ki salomro aleyk namegirad, yak qator alfozi qabehro ravo medonad va bori digar az qadru qimati salom dastgiri namuda, digaronro niz hushdor medihad, ki hangomi salom bo tavozu va dar javobi on hamesha omoda boshand. Dar surati digar chunin alfozi qabeh nasibashon khohad gasht.

Toshkhojai Asiri niz az shoironi fozil va maktabdidae ba shumor meraft, ki dar bobi salom va joygohi on dar kalom makhsus takid ba amal ovarda, qimati salomro dar munosibati odami yak rukni muhim pindoshta, meguyad:

Digar, husni anjomi zebi kalom,

Salomun alaykum, alaykum salom !

SHoironi sadai HH va muosir ba misli ustod Sadriddin Ayni, Abulqosim Lohuti, Abdusalom Dehoti, Mirzo Tursunzoda, Mumin Qanoat, Loiq SHerali va digaron niz ijmolan dar ashori khud az tabiri salom istiqbol karda, doir ba odob va farz budani rioyai on izhori aqida kardaand.

Umuman, dar adabiyoti fors-tojik ba salom va ehtirom guzoshtan ba on az jonibi adibon tavajjuhi khosa zohir shuda, muhimoti salomguzori bo shaklu shevai mukhtalif boztob gardidaast. Binobar in, muhim budani salom dar munosibat bori digar tasdiq shuda, ijroi on az tarafi khurdu buzurg ba hukmi anana daromadaast. Mo niz boyad kushish namoem, in sunnati milli va mazhabii kheshro giromi dorem va rioyai onro dar jomea tamin namoem. Aknun ba matlab nazdik shuda, fazilat va odobi salomro dar maktab sharh khohem dod.

Fazilati salom dar muassisai talimi

Dar muassisai talimi niz navrason va javonon barobari ba dast ovardani malumot va donish boyad odobi baland doshta boshand. On ba sirati vay buzurgiyu farah hamroh menamoyad. Maktabbacha boyad fazilathoe doshta boshad, ki on ba raftoru kirdori u husn zam namoyad. YAke az in fazilatho odobi salomi u meboshad, ki on dar haqiqat ba vay husni manavi meafzoyad.

Baroi kudakoni bogcha va khonandagoni muassisahoi tahsiloti umumi donistani fazilathoi salom va rioyai on hamchun kalidi odob shart meboshad. Onho agar dar roh ba kalonsolon dast peshi bar karda, salom guyand, odob ast. Agar yak nafar kalonsol boshad, metavonand bo ovoz salom guyand, agar yak chand nafar boshand, metavonad tanho dast peshi bar girifta salom namoyand. Dar in holat dasti chap ba dasti hamrohash qaror girifta, dasti rost ba peshi sina guzoshta, mafhumi «salom»-ro istifoda menamoyad.

In tarzi salom guftanro ba kudakon murabbiyaho va omuzgoron to zamoni khub yod giriftanashon talim medihand. Hangomi ba anjom rasidani dars, mashguliyat va berun shudan az bogcha ba omuzgoron, murabbiyon hatman «khayr» guftan az adab ast.

Dar surati rioyai chunin fazilati salom malum megardad, ki kudak odobi salomro yod girifta, ba qatori farzandoni soleh hamroh shudaast. Baroi ba in darajai kamolot rasonidani kudakon boyad padaru modaron, khoharu barodaron, hamsoyaho, omuzgoronu murabbiyon kushish namoyand.

Honandagoni muassisahoi tahsiloti miyonai umumi (ibtidoi va asosi) boyad donand, ki onho davra ba davra boadabtar meshavand va odobi salom husni amali onhoro afzun megardonad. Vobasta ba in boyad talosh namoyand, ki dar hama jo va dar hama holat odobi salomro rioya namoyand va baroi durust ba anjom rasonidani fazilathoi salom kushish ba kharj dihand. Hub meshavad, ki dar hamai muassisahoi talimi ba gayr az zinai ibtidoi, ki dar on jo «salom» guftan roij meboshad, mafhumi «Assalom» ham baroi shogird va ham baroi ustod qabul karda shavad. In tarzi bayon avvalan ba sinnu soli kudakon va noboligon muvofiq ast, soniyan, baroi talaffuzi khonanda mushkili nameorad va kholisan manoi osudaholi va sulhu osoishro ifoda menamoyad. Dar joyhoi zerin bo istifodai in tabir salom guftan tavsiya doda meshavad:

Dar roh az khona to maktab, kuchavu khiyobon, nazdi maktab va dar havlii maktab. CHun odat khurdon ba buzurgon «Assalom» meguyand va agar buzurgsolon ba khurdsolon salom dihand, boke nest va on az tarbiyatdida budani kalonsol shahodat medihad. SHarti salom dar in mavrid az khurdsol ba kalonsol meboshad.

Dar rohravi maktab avval shogird salom meguyad. Dar sinfkhona boshad, avval ustod salom meguyad va shogirdon javob medihand.

Pasi ham sar barovarda, bo yakchand ovoz salom dodan va hangomi salom dodan shukhi yo baland khandidan az rui odob nest. Nizomi rioyai salomro boyad ba shogirdon ustod, padaru modaron, barodaron va khoharon omuzonand va rioyai salomro nazorat barand.

Honandagoni in zinai tahsilot dar khona ba padaru modar, khoharu barodar, kheshu tabor va kasone, ki mehmoni khonadoni onho meshavand, metavonand bo rioyai odob va bo chehrai kushoda va ovozi narm «Assalom» guyand. Pisaron dast peshi bar namoyand va dukhtaron kame bo sar tazim namoyand, in husni odob va zebi salomi onho meboshad.

Dar dokhili naqliyot, dar joyhoi jamiyati boyad avval khurdsolon ba buzurgsolon dast peshi bar karda salom dihand. Agar kalonsol bo fikre band boshad va ba salom javob gufta natavonad, boyad khurdsol naranjad va az salomi dodaash qanoatmand boshad.

Dar kuchaho, nazdi havli va dar guzargohho boyad khonandagon namuna boshand va ba khurdu buzurgi shinos va noshinos bo chunin tabir salom guyand: «Assalom». Faromush nakunand, ki behtarin amali solehi khonandai boodob salomi u meboshad va baroi sohibi chunin amal shudan padaru modar va ustod masul meboshand. Kushish namoed, ki farzandon – khonandagon salomro husni marifati khesh qaror dihand.

Dar zinai tahsiloti ibtidoii kasbi, ki aksaran khonanda meboshad, tarzi salom guftan ba misli muassisahoi tahsiloti umumi idoma meyobad. Muallim bo mafhumi «Assalom» ba khonanda murojiat menamoyad va khonanda niz bo chehrai kushoda va bo dast peshi bar namudan «Assalom» meguyad.

Dar zinai tahsiloti miyona va olii kasbi uslubi salom guftan va tarzi bayoni on murakkabtar megardad. Zero in tabaqa dar jomea maqomu manzalati khos dorad va chashmi ahli jomea ba amali onho beshtar meaftad. Az in ru, tarzi salom guftan va javob giriftani onho va rioyai fazilathoi salom baroi in qishri jomea nihoyat arzishmand meboshad.

Dar in zinahoi tahsilot baroi donishjuyon ifodai mafhumi«Assalomu alaykum» peshnihod megardad. Ustodon dar javobi salomi shogird meguyand: «Vaalaykumu – s -salom».

Donishju dar rohrav va yo havlii muassisai talimi dast peshi bar karda, ba ustod avval «Assalomu alaykum» meguyad, ki in az rui odob ast Hesta dast peshi bar karda, salom gufta, husni salom ast. Bo hamdigar salom guftan kamoli odobi insoni meboshad, ba donishjuyoni az khud zinai past va yo baland salom dodan nishonai kamoloti manavi meboshad, dastaki bo hamkurson va duston salom kardan behtar meboshad. Pesh az ustod dast daroz kardan va be ishora dast daroz kardan az rui odob nest. Dar naqliyot, dar kuchayu guzargohho ba kalonsolon va khurdsolon salom dodan az tarbiya dida budan shahodat medihad. Dar hama jo dar surati nishasta budan khesta dast peshi bar karda salom dodan az fazilati nek shahodat medihad Dar vaqti salom dodan baland khandidan, shukhi kardan husni amalro mekohonad Bo chehrai kushoda, lafzi shirin, tabassumi narm va dili garm salom guftan az doshtani farosati balandi salomdeh guvohi medihad. Dar joyhoi jamiyati, marakaho va chorabiniho tanho bo ishora salom dodan va dast peshi bar karda bo sadoi past salom guftan az tarbiyadida budan dalolat mekunad.

Donishjuyon agar az tatil bargashta pazmon shuda boshand, hamdigarro dar ogush girifta, salom namudan az rui odob ast. Pisaron tanho ru ba rui hamdigar se bor meguzorand va dasthoi rosti yakdigarro mefishorand, ammo hamdigarro busa namekunand. Dukhtaron hamdigarro ogush girifta, az rukhsora va yo peshonii hamdigar busa menamoyand. Az labon busa namudan az rui odob nest.

Hamai in fazilathoi salomro padaru modar, barodaru khohar, ustodonu olimon va masulini muassisaho ba shogirdon mefahmonand va rioyai onro nazorat mekunand.

Javobi salom

Vobasta ba takidhoi favquzzikr javobi salom arzishi khudro dorad. Javobi salom az hisobi khurdsolon boshad, chunin surat megirad: onho dast peshi bar namuda, ba kalonsolon javob meguyand.

Buzurgsolon niz salomro bo odobi baland ba anjom merasonand. Onho niz metavonand dast peshi bar girifta, javob guyand va metavonand qomatashonro rost namuda, dasthoyashonro ba qomatashon rost karda, javob gardonand. Az har du jonib chehraho boyad kushoda, ovoz narmu shirin va sado gulgulador boshad.

Buzurgoni asrimiyonagi javobi salomro doroi haft shart paziruftaand, ki goliban hadafi targibi akhloqi hamida meboshad.

Dar mantiqi oddii ifoda javobi salom boyad chunin surat bigirad:

bo chehrai kushoda javob guftan;

javobi mufassal dodan;

agar noshinose shumoro ba kase monand kunadu salom dihad, javob guftan;

dilu niyati pok doshtan hangomi javob guftan;

agar guruhe dar kucha istoda boshand, kase salom (berun az guruh) guyad, yak nafar baland javob dihad (digarho zamiri, beovoz) kifoya ast;

javob boyad bo lafz va shunavo gufta shavad, to salomkunanda shunavad va bo imovu ishora surat nagirad;

javob boyad favran gufta shavad va biduni takhir, yane shunavanda agar ojile doshta boshad, boyad javobi salomi khudro shunavad.

Muhim on ast, ki vaqte khonandagonu donishjuyon salomu alayk mekunand, mehru muhabbat, sidqu safo, dustivu rafoqati onho samimitar gardida, onhoro ba ham nazdiktar menamoyad.

HULOSA

Adab tojest az nuri Ilohi,

Bineh bar sar, birav har jo, ki khohi.

Jaloliddini Balkhi

Halqi tojik maqole dorad, ki «Farzand aziz ast, vale odobash az on aziztar». Ba nazari Hoja Hofiz boshad: «Har kiro nest adab, loiqi suhbat nabuvad». YO khud Jaloliddini Balkhi takid mekunad, ki:

Az adab purnur gashtast in falak,

Az adab masumu pok omad malak,

Beadab tanho na khudro dosht bad,

Balki otash dar hama ofoq zad.

YAk rukni odobi inson salom dodan va javob giriftan meboshad. Salom in muayyankunandai shakhsiyati kalonsolon va ifodagari unsurhoi tarbiyavi dar kamoloti manavii navrasonu javonon meboshad. Az in ru, dar talimi odobi salom hamchun unsuri muqaddasi sarnavishtsoz naboyad lahzae takhir namud.

Omuzishi osori adabii asrimiyonagii fors-tojik nishon medihad, ki dar markazi tasviri adibon tanho inson va tarbiyai manavii on meistad. Hatto mutafakkiron ba zohiri inson chandon tavajjuh zohir nakardaand, dar mantiqi oddii ifoda zohirparastiro onho napaziruftaand. CHunonchi:

Suratatro chi kunam? Gar tu nadori sirat,

Man ba yak pul nakharam surati besiratro.

Salom dodan garchande zohiran ba amalhoi inson ijro shavad ham, ammo tarzi ijro va bayoni on marifati uro miyoni jomea oshkor menamoyad va rukni muhimtarini odob ba hisob meravad.

Agar dar joyhoi jamiyati, mahallaho, kuchaho, dehaho tarzi salomu alayk rasm shavad, kudakon, navrason, navjavonon va javononi mo odobi salomro rioya namoyand, muhiti jomeaamon boz ham beshtar farhangi meshavad va madaniyatamon rushdu takomul meyobad.

Umed dorem, ki in dastur ba sifati rahnamo ba shogirdoni aziz khidmat namuda, onhoro dar ruhiyai ehtiromi arzishhoi milli tarbiya menamoyad.

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