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AHOLII DUNYO – KURAI ZAMIN

SHumora va afzoishi aholin rui Zamin. Insoniyat tarikhi duru daroz dorad. Az ruzi ba dunyo omadan to imruz vay davrahoi gunoguni tarikhiro az cap guzarondaast, Muvofiqi fikri olimon ajdodi odamoni kununi 40-50 hazor sol muqaddam dar kurai Zamin pahn gardidaand. Az in khusus boqimondahoi onho, ki az hama gushayu kanori jahon yoftaand, guvohi medihad. Oihoro odamoni navin meguyand, ki az Osiyoi Pesh ba tamomi kurai Zamin pahn gardidaand. YAk qismi onho qalamravi janubi sharqy, sharqi, shimoli sharqii Osiyo va tamomi Avstraliya va Okeaniyaro faro giriftaand. Qismi duyumi onho  ba vositai gardanai Bering (khushkie, ki 40 hazor sol pesh dar joi gulugohi hozirai Bering vujud dosht) avval ba Amerikai SHimoli va bad ba Amerikai Janubi pahn gardidaand. Qismi seyumi onho dar Afrika va qismi chorumi onho  dar Evropa va Osiyoi Garbi maskun shudaand.

Hamai in guruhho ba shumorai imruzai aholii jajon., khalqho, najodho va davlatho asos guzoshtand. To erai mo aholii jajon sust meafzud va mutei tabiat bud. Dar asrhoi 8 va 7 pesh az milod (to solshumorii mo) hamagi dar kurai Zamin 5-10 million nafar aholi zindagi mekard. Badi inkishof yoftani oloti mehnat dar ibtidoi davrai mo miqdori aholy ba 250-300 million nafar rasid. Holo dar kurai Zamin ziyoda az 6 milpiard nafar aholy hayot ba cap mebarad. Aholii jahon dar sathi kurai Zamin nobarobar joygir shudaast. Hususan, dar mintaqahoi khunuki Zamin, dar mintaqai kuhhoi baland, biyobonhoi tropiki va mintaqai mutadil aholi nihoyat kam ast. Materiki Antarktida boshad, tamoman aholin doimi nadorad. Joi az hama seraholii kurai Zamin Osiyoi Janubi SHarqi, deltai daryoi Nil, Evropai Garbi, qismi  sharkii Amerikai SHimoli va Markazi meboshad.

2. Najodhoi asosi va pahnshavii onho. Tamomi odamoni kurai Zamin ba yak namudi biologi dokhil meshavand, ki onro inson menomand. Ba hamin mani mutafakkiri buzurgi forsu tojik Sadii SHerozi chunin guftaast:

Bani odam azoi yakdigirand,

Ki dar ofirinish zi yak gavharand.

Dar in misraho paydoishi yagona doshtani inson ba tavri ravshan bayon yoftaast. Ammo dar yak vaqt odamoni nohiyaho va mamlakathoi kurai Zamin az yakdigar bo simoi zohirii khud; sokhti badan, rangi pust, mui cap, qolabi cap, chashm, abru, peshona, lab, dandon va gayra farq mekunand. In ba sharoiti gunoguni tabii mutobiq shudani insonro nishon medihad, ki on khosiyati irsi (merosi) paydo kardaast va ustuvor meboshad. Muvofiqi on alomatho olimon jamiyati insoniro ba se najod judo namudaand: zardpust, siyohpust va safedpust. In taqsimot faqat doroi mohiyati ilmi buda, ba najodparasti yagon umumiyat nadorad. CHunin taqsimotro mo dar asari olim va mutafakkiri tojik Muhammadkhojai Behbudy niz mushohida menamoem. U dar asari khud “Muntakhabi geografiyai umumy” aholii kurai Zaminro ba se ne, balki ba chor najod judo kardaast. U gayr az se najodi malum khinduhoi Amerikaro hamchun najodi ahmar (surkhpustho) farq menamoyad.

Dar davrai mo dar bayni in va yo on khalqho, albatta, namoyaidagoni najodhoi gunogunro didan mumkin ast. Qati nazar az on, dar aksari mamlakatkhoi jahon yake az najodhoi asosy bartari dorad.

Najodi siyohpust (ekvatory) dar Afrika az biyoboni Sahroi Kabir ba tarafi janub pahn gardidaast. Onho  qisman dar qismi janubii Iyoloti Muttahidai Amerika va Braziliya zindagi mekunand. Onhoro mustamlikadoron az Afrika hamchun gulom ovarda budand. Alomati asosii in najod pusti siyoh, muyhoi jingila, chashmoni siyoh, kamrishi, binii pahn va laboni gafs meboshad.

Najodi zardpust (muguloidho) dar qalamravi Osiyoi Markazi SHarqi va dar Amerika (hinduho) maskun gardidaand. Onho pusti zardcha, mui siyohi rost, rukhsorai barjasta, chashmi tang dorand.

Najodi safedpust (evropoidi) dar Evropa, Osiyoi Garbi va Afrikai SHimoli bartari dorad. Holo dar natijai az Evropa muhojirat kardan namoyandagoni in najod to Amerikai SHimoli, Janubi, Avstraliya. Zelandiyai Nav pahn gardidaand. Baroi in najod pusti safed yo gandumgun, mui mavjdor va rosti malla yo siyoh, binii tegador va rukhsorai nafisi daroz khos meboshad. Tojikon ba najodi safedpust (evropoidi) dokhil meshavand. Onho  muy chashmi siyoh, rish va buruti ggfsu guly, binii rosti barjasta va peshonii rost dorand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Odamoni navin chi tavr dar kurai Zamin pahn gardidaand?
  2. To davrai mo dar kurai Zamin chi kadar akholy zindagy mekard? Holo dar kurai Zamin chy qadar aholy hayot ba cap mebarad?
  3.  Dar sathi kurai Zamin aholy chy tavr joygir shudaasg?
  4.  Halqhoi jahon ba chand najod judo meshavand?
  5. Az kharitai aholii jahon pahnshavii najodkhoi asosnro nishon dikhed. 7. Baroi chy najodho az yakdigar farq mekunand?

Barobarhuquqii najodho. Ilm isbot kardaast, ki az rui alomathon asosy, zohiri, morfologi, dokhili, fiziology va khususiyathoi ruhi khalqhoi najodhoi gunogun az yakdigar kam farq mekunand. Gayr az in, ilm oshkor namudaast, ki hamai najodho va khalqho az yak jins paydo shudaand. Onho az jihati biology (khonadorshavy), ijtimoi va madany (azkhud namudani madaniyati yakdigar) imkoniyati kaloni bo ham omekhtashavi dorand. Dar natijai omekhtashavii biologii namoyandagoni khalkhoi najodhoi gunogun najodhoi mobayny ba vujud omadand.

Misol, malagasiho az omekhtashavii zardpuston (muguloid) va siyohpustoi (ekvatory yo zangi) paydo shudaand. Hamai in dalelkho az on guvohi medihand, ki insoniyat az ruzi azal yagona bud. Ammo ba in nigoh nakarda. yak guruhi olimoni burjuazi alomat va khususiyatkhoi farqkunandan bayni najodhoro baroi asonok namudani aqidai najodparastii khud istifoda mebarand. Muvofiqi aqidai onho khalqahoi safedpust ba najodi oli, khalqhoi zardpust va siyohpust ba najodi past dokhil meshavand. In goyai gayriilmy dar bayni bisyor khalqho bo shaklhoi gunogun zohir megardad. Darajai olii on goyai najodparasti meboshad, ki baroi yaz bayn bardoshtani on soli 1965 Asambleyai Generalii Sozmoni Milali Muttahid shartnomai baynalkhalqi ba imzo rasond.

SHartnoma hama guna shaklhoi goyahoi najodparastiro jinoyat nomid. Dar haqiqat dar bayni khalqkho farqiyati hakiqi vujud nadorad. Hamai onho barobarhuquq meboshand. Onho faqat az jihati darajai marifat va peshrafti ilmu tekhnika, iqtisodiyot farq dorand. M. Behbudi marifatiokii namoyandagoni najodhoro yake az alomathoi asosii peshravii onho hisobidaast. Ammo aqibmonii ijtimoi va madanii onho  ba farqiyati tabiii najodho vobasta nest. Ba on sistemai mustamlikadori va siyosati nobarobarin iqtisodi, tekhnikiyu tekhnologie, ki mamlakathoi mutaraqqii kapitalisti nisbat ba sobiq mustamlikakhoi khud dar miqyosi jahon guzaronda istodaand, javobgar meboshand.

Sayohati Mikluho-Maklan ba Gvineyai Nav va isboti barobarii pajodho. Dar davrai olim va sayyohi rus N.N.Miklukho-Maklay (1846-1888) goyai najodparasty nisbat ba davrai mo purquvvat bud. Bo in goya olimoni burjuazi siyosati mustamlikadori, nestkunii odamoni tahjoii Amerika. Afrika. Avstraliya va Osiyoi Janubi SHarqiro pardapush mekardand. Onho ba ahli jahon talqin mekardand, ki khalqkhoi zardpust va siyohpust najodhoi pastand, qobiliyati mehnati aqli nadorand, boyad doim ba mehnati jismony mashgul boshand. Miklukho-Maklay baroi halli muammoi nobarobarii khalqkho solhoi tulony khalqhoi kurai arzro omukht.

Soli 1871 ba Gvineyai Nav omada, ba tahkiqi tarzi zindagi va madaniyati khalqhoi mahalii on jo mashgul shud. U az rui mavodi ilmii jamkardai khud ba khulosae omal, ki hamai odamoni kurai arz hamavlodu hamnajod meboshand. In isbot va tasdiqi guftahoi mutafakkironi forsu tojik Sadii SHerozy meboshad, ki yakchand asr muqaddam az tadqiqoti Miklukho-Maklay paydoishi yagona doshtani hamai khalqhoi jahonro dar ashori khud tarannum kardaast. Mo ham avlodi in mutafakkiri buzurgem va dar faoliyatu zindagii khud ba merosi insondustii u takya menamoem.

Holo dar Jumhurii Tojikiston namoyandagoni khalqhoi gunogun zindagi mekunand. Misol, uzbekho, qazoqkho, turkmanho, qirgizkho, totorkho, rusho, gurjiho va digaron. Hamai onho barobarkhuquq meboshand. Az muzaffariyathoi istiqloliyati khalqi tojik yak khel istifoda mebarand.

Ananahoi dini va mazhabii khudro ozod ba jo meorand.

Savol va suporish

  1. Ba kadom maqsad olimoni burjuazi goyai najodparastiro bofta barovardaand? N. N. Miklukho-Maklay badi sayohathoi khud ba chi khulosa omad?
  2. Dar Jumhurii Tojikiston namoyandagoni khalqhoi kadom najodho iqomat dorand?
  3. Az kharitai chahon Gvineyai Navro nishon dihed.
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