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UFUQ VA TARAFHOI ON

Ufuq, samthoi asosi vamiyona

Muayaynkunii tarafho, naqshai mahal, aksgirii qutby va marshruta (rohpaymoi)

Hangomi sokhtani naqsha, misli sokhtani kharitahoi jugrofy va topografy, avvalan samti sathi zamin muayyan karda meshavad.

Pesh az sokhtani naqshai mahal mo boyad atrofro khub biyomuzem.

qutbchenkunak

Dar in hangom, qismi namoyoni onro mebinem, ki guyo ba osmon bar mekhurad. Ana hamin ufuq nomida meshavad.

Ufuq – khatest, ki osmon va sathi zamin yo sathi ob va somonro judo mekunad.

Samthoi asosii ufuq shimol, janub, sharq va garb meboshad. Ba gayr az samthoi asosy, ichunin samthoi miyonguzar niz hastand: shimoly-sharqi, shimoly- garby, janubi-sharqi va janubi-garby.

Dar mavridhoi alohida, ba gayr az 8 samt, muayyan kardani samthoi nisbatan daqiq lozim meshavad.

Inhoro dar bar megirad: shimoly – shimoly-garby, garby – shimoly-garby, garb – januby-garby, januby – januby-garbi, janubi – januby-sharqy, sharqy – shimoly-sharqi va shimoly – shimoly-sharqy. Ufuq 16 samt dorad.

qutbche

Onhoro bahrnavardon rumbhoi ufuq menomand.

Baroi samthoi ufuqro durust muayyan kardan boyad avval tarafi shimoliro muayyan kard. Silas, digar samthoi ufuqro mayyan kardan lozim ast.

Qutbi muayyan kardan mumkin ast. Inchunin kutbnamo va digar vositahoro niz istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Osontarin tarzi paydo kardani samhoi ufuq – in istifoda kardani kutbnamo meboshad.

Aqbaraki kutbnamo hamesha shimol va janubro nishon doda meistad.

Qutbnamo – in asbobest, ki samtro az ruyi meridiani magnity nishon medihad

Bisyor tarzhoi muayyankunii samthoi ufuq mavjud ast. Barkhe az onhoro nishon medihem:

Ruzona hangomi sof budani osmon samthoi ufuqro muayyan kardan dushvor nest: soati 13.00 Oftob dar janub meistad. Subhi tobiston dar soati 7.00 Oftob dar sharq meistad, begohy dar saoti 19.00 dar garb. SHab boshad az ruyi Sitorai

Azimut – kunjest, ki dar miyoni samti shimol (ba nimkurrai Januby – ba janub) va samti yagoy ashyoi dur meboshad.

Azimut odatan ba samti harakati namoyoni kurrai osmony (dar kharitaho az ruyi samti harakati akrabaki soat) hisob karda meshavad.

Qutbnamoi ohanraboy avvalin bor dar CHin 4000 sol pesh sokhta shudaast. Dar on kutbnamo, dar dokhili sanduqchai chuby sange guzoshta tuda bud. Suzani ohanie, ki ba sang chasponda tuda bud, hamesha janubro nishon medihad. Onro sayyohon va tochironi chiny dar hama vazi holati havo istifoda mekardand. In kor az khatarhoi gunogun peshgiry mekard.

Dar avvali asri XIV ustoi itolyoy Flavio Jioyya miqyosi kutbnamoro mukam – mal kard. Dar miyoni kartoni davra u suzani ohanraboy joygir kard va kartonro khat kashida ba 32 rumb taqsim kardaast.

Qoidahoi korkunii kutbnamo

  1. Kutbnamo (kompas) ba joe guzoshta meshavad, ki metal naboshad.
  2. Boyad muntazir shud, to aqrabak qaror girad.
  3. Korro zamone shuru kardan l ozim ast, ki akrabaki shimolro nishon dodaistoda, dar sifr istad.
  4. Boyad nugi akrabak daqiqan ba nishondihandai shimol durust karda shavad.
  5. Baroy muayyankunii azimuta, boyad bayni nishonai shimol va nishonae, ki obektro nishon medihad az ruyi gardishi akrabaki soat hisob karda shavad.

CHi tavr va ba kadom samt sabzidani rastanihoro nazorat karda, metavon samthoi ufuqro muayyan kard. Masalan, darakhte, ki tanho mesabzad dar qismi shimol shokhahosh kamtar ast, nisbat ba qismi janub.

Halqahoi darakhton, ki hangomi burish ayon meshavand, dar samti janub az hamdigar dur joygir meshavand, dar samti shimol boshad ba hamdigar nazdik joygir meshavand. Dar sanghoe, ki dar sahro tanho khobidaand, tanho dar samti shimoliash ushna meruyad. Dar murchakhonahoe, dar jangal yo dar dashtho hastand, samti janubash nisheb, samti shimolash boshad shebdor meboshad. Dar daryobodi rudho sohilhoi januby muloimtar va sohilhoi shimoly boshad tundtar ast.

CHenkunii fosila. Fosilai bayni ashyohoi nazdikro bo rulekta va metr chen kardan mumkin ast. Masalan, darozy va bari sinf, khona, utoq. Roh yo marshrute, ki hangomi safar, ekskursiya tay shudaast bo metr yo ruletka chen kardan vaqtgir va dushvor meboshad. Dar chunin holatho masofaro bo qadamho chen kardan kulaytar meboshad.

Hangomi bo qadamho chen kardan darozii miyonai qadamro donistan zarur ast. Baroy muayyan kardani darozii miyonai qadam chunin amalhoro ijro kardan lozim ast:

  1. Tavassuti ruletka masofai muhit chen karda shavad. Masalan, 200 metr.
  2. In masofa bo qadam chen karda shavad.
  3. Hisob mekunem. Farz kardem, ki 200 metrro bo 250 qadam rafted…

Pas, 20 000 sm : 250 = 80 sm.

Hamin tavr, darozii miyonai qadam ba 80 sm barobar ast. Ba gayr az in, maso- faro az ruyi vaqti dar safar sarfshuda muayyan kardan mumkin ast. Agar 1 km-ro dar 15 daqiqa tay kuned, pas dar yak soat 4 km-ro tay karda metavoned.

Bazan baron chenkunii masofa asbobhoe istifoda meshavand, ki masofayob nomida meshavand.

Masofayobro metavoned khudaton az porchai kartony bisokhed (ras.7). Baroy bo fosilayob muayayn kardani masofa, fosilayobro dar barobari chashm bo daston ba masofai darozii dast nigah dored.

Dar in hangom foislayobro ba chapu rost harakat dodan lozim ast, to ki tamo- mai obekt tavassuti tirezacha ayon shavad. Raqami dar miqyos nishondodashuda ba masofai bayni mushohidakunanda to obekt barobar ast.

Muayyankunii samthoi ufuq az ruyi Sitorai qutbi

SHab (hangomi sof budani osmon) Sitorai Qutbiro chunin paydo kardan mum­kin ast: vay dar nimkurai shimoly tamomi shab namoyon ast va dar hamai fas- li sol shimolro nishon medihad. Baroy yoftani Sitorai Qutbi avval guruhi sitoraho bo nomi Dubbi .Akbar (Hirsi kalon (dar miyoni khalq Haftdodaroni kalon meguyand) paydo kardan lozim ast.

Haft sitorai rushan, ki shakli raqami haft monand ast.

Agar dar fikri khud tavassuti devorai hamin haft sitora khat kashida gu- zarem, dar masofai pand marotiba durtar az in devora Sitorai kutbiro didan mumkin ast (ras. 8).

Samtyoby dar mahal yake az mahorathoi muhim meboshad, ki dar hayoti odam lozim meshavad. Samtyoby hangomi shinovary (bo kishty) va parvozho (bo tayyora) bisyor zarur meshavad.

Samtyoby hangomi safarho va eksqursiyaho, omukhtani kurrai zamin istifoda meshavad, to ki gum nashuda, bidony dar kujo hasty.

Savol va suporishho

  1. Bo misolhoi obekthoi gunogun dar borai tarzhoi samtyoby andeshaatonro bayon kuned.
  2. Ba ekskursiya raved. Dar natijai ekskursiya navised, ki chy guna az ruyi samthoi ufuq samtro paydo karda tavonisted.
  3. Rasmi 8-ro istifoda karda, osmonro mushohida kuned va sitorai Qutbiro paydo kuned.
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