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ANATOMIYA

anatomiyaANATOMIYA (Anatomia; az yun. anatome – chok kardan), anatomiyai odam, ilmest oid ba shakl, sokht va inkishofi organizmi odam vobasta ba kori sistemayu uzvhoi alohida va tasiri mutaqobili muhit. A. az jumlai fanhoi asosii tibbi nazari va amalist.
Malumoti nakhustin roje ba A.-i odam dar asarhoi olimoni qadim Arastu, Buqrot, Zakariyoi Rozi, Abualii Sino, Ibni Rushd va dig. mavjudand. Ravnaqi A. dar SHarq beshtar ba faoliyati ejodii Abualii Sino vobasta ast. Asarhoi bezavoli u oid ba A.-i odam solhoi ziyod sarchashmai asosii malumoti in soha budand. Dar «Qonuni tib»-i SHaykhurrais dar robita ba A.-i odam mavzuhoi jolib joy doda shudaand.
Omuzishi anatomiyai organizmi odam az tavsifi muttasilu daqiqi namudi beruni va sokhti darunii uzvho iborat ast. Baroi oson shudani omuzishi sokhti badan uzvhoro muvofiqi sokht, amal va inkishof muttahid namuda, dar borai onho malumot medihand (A.-tasnifi).
A. ba chunin faslho taqsim meshavad: osteologiya – talimot oid ba ustukhonho; artrosindesmologiya – talimot oid ba bandi ustukhonho (az on jumla oid ba bugumho va payvandho); miologiya – talimot oid ba mushakho; splankhnologiya – talimot oid ba uzvhoi daruni (nafaskashi, hozima, ikhroj, tanosul); angiologiya – talimot oid ba sistemai raghoi khun va limfa; nevrologiya – talimot oid ba sistemai asabhoi markazi va kanori; endokrinologiya – talimot oid ba gadudhoi tarashshuhi dokhili; esteziologiya – talimot oid ba uzvhoi ehsos. On bobi A.-ro, ki tagyiroti shakl va sokhti uzvhoro roje ba har guna davrahoi hayoti odam meomuzad, A.-i sinnu sol menomand (ba in fasl A.-i kudak ham dokhil meshavad). A.-i plastiki (talimot oid ba sokhti berunii badan va tanosubhoi on) ahamiyati bevosita kalon dorad. Zero donistani in fasli A. nafaqat ba rassomon va haykaltaroshon, balki ba ikhtirokoroni libosu poyafzor niz lozim ast. Inchunin A.-i topogrofi (talimot oid ba joygirii mutaqobili uzvho, boftaho, ragho va asabho dar in yo on qismi badan) baroi tibbi amali, khususan baroi jarrohi, ahamiyati kalon dorad. Omukhtani sokht va shakli organizm vobasta ba kori sistemayu uzvhoi alohida vazifai A.-i funksionali meboshad. Talimot oid ba sokhti khurdtarini uzvhoyu boftahoro gistologiya darbar megirad. Anatomiyai patologi (talimot oid ba shakl va sokhti uzvhoyu boftahoi illatnok) az A. chun ilmi mustaqil judo shudaast. A. usulhoi gunoguni tadqiqot (az tashreh bo yorii neshtar to usulhoi mikroskopiyai elektroni, rentgenografiya va g.)-ro istifoda mebarad.
Dar Tojikiston A. bo tasisi kafedrai anatomiyai DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino (1939) tashakkul yoft. Felan oid ba sohahoi mukhtalifi A. dar kafedrahoi A.-i DDTT, DMT, DDOT, DDH, Donishkadai tarbiyai jismonii Tojikiston va g. pajuhish anjom medihand. Olimoni soha dar jumhuri ba halli problemahoi tasiri omilhoi gunoguni muhit ba sokht va shakli boftayu uzvhoi badan hini bemorihoi azoi hozima, jigar, dilu ragho, limfa va g. dar sharoiti kuhiston, khususiyathoi majroi khunu limfa dar mavridi jarrohii tukhmdon, bachadon, meda, masona (peshobdon), pust, jigar, guzai chashm, shush, shikamparda va g. mashgul meboshand. Dar rivoji A. dar Tojikiston sahmi olimon Rahimov YA.A., Etingen A.E., Abdurahmonov F.A., Usmonov M.U., Qurbonov S.S., Muhammadqulova M.M., Karimov M.K. va dig. kalon ast.
Ad.: Abdurahmonov F., Anatomiyai odam, j. 1 – 2, D., 1995 – 1998.

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