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BALGAM

sputumBALGAM (Sputum), yake az khilthoi chahorgona. B. hangomi bemorihoi gunoguni uzvhoi nafas judo shuda, dar vaqti surfidan khorij megardad. Miqdori B. az chand ml (hangomi bronkhit va pnevmoniya) to 1 – 2 l (hangomi bemorihoi fasodnoki shush, nig. Bronkhoektaz) meshavad. Ikhroji B. ba faoliyati bronkhho va mavqei bemor vobasta ast (mas., ikhroji B. hangomi ba pahlui solim daroz kashidani bemor ziyod meshavad). B. odatan bebuy ast, vale hangomi pusish dar shush khele badbuy megardad.
Holat va rangi B. ba tarkibi on vobasta ast. B. moe, chaspak va galiz meshavad. B.-hoi luobi, zardobi, fasodi, luobiyu fasodi, zardobiyu fasodi va khuni ham vujud dorand. B.-i luobi berang, shaffof, chaspak buda, dar davrahoi avvali bronkhit, gazaki shush, ziqi nafas mushohida megardad. B.-i zardobi moei shaffof va kafkdor ast; hangomi obvarami shush judo meshavad. B.-i fasodnok kabudcha buda, dar shush hangomi pusish tavlid meyobad. B.-i khunin kame khun doshta, hangomi bemorihoi gunoguni shush va dil ikhroj meshavad. Dar B. unsurhoi hujayravii khun, hujayrahoi omos, torhoi elastiki, soddatarinho (mas, amyoba), kirmho (ekhinokokk, kirminai askaridaho), zanburugho, bakteriyahoi gunogun va g. vujud doshta metavonand.
B. manbai bisyor bemorihoi siroyati ast. Baroi peshgirii chunin bemoriho ba rui farsh va roh tuf kardan yo ba kafi dast surfidan mumkin nest. CHunki bakteriyahoi B. hangomi dastfushuri ba kasi digar meguzarand yo dar chizhoi dastrasida (pul, dastaki dar, moshin va g.) boqi memonand. Dar vaqti surfidan, dahonro bo ruymolcha yo pushti dasti chap pushondan lozim ast. Bemorone, ki B. judo mekunand, boyad ba tufdoni makhsusi sarpushdor tuf kunand; pas az surfidan, furu burdani B. zarar dorad. B.-i tufdonro qablan ba mahluli gandzudo (khlorgeksid, khloramin) bezarar gardonida, sipas ba kanalizatsiya merezand. Tufdoni kholiro dar mahluli soda jushonida bezarar mekunand. Baroi tahqiqi laboratorii B. onro dar zarfi toza jam meorand (mahluli gandzudo namerezand). Bad az balgampartoi dahonro obgardon kardan lozim ast. Hangomi bemorihoi siroyatie, ki ikhroji B. yake az alomathoi onhost, rioyai qoidahoi gigienai shakhsi khele zarur meboshad. B. baroi tashkhisi bisyor bemoriho (khususan amrozi uzvhoi nafaskashi) ahamiyati kalon dorad.
B.-ro baroi sanjish behtarash pagohiruzi dar kosachai Petri gundosht. Qabl az surfidan, dahonro bo mahluli furatsilin (1 : 50 000) va sipas bo obi jushonidai khunuk obgardon mekunand. Agar B. dar mavridi bronkhoskopiya girifta shuda boshad, pas natijai tashkhisi on nisbatan etimodbakhsh ast. Baroi tadqiqi B. az usulhoi makroskopi, fizikiyu khimiyavi, mikroskopi, bakteriologi va biologi istifoda mekunand.
Dar vaqti paydo shudani surfai balgamdor boyad ba dukhtur murojiat kard.

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