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INKISHOFI ORGANIZMHO VA MUHITI ZIST

Organizm be muhiti zist vujud doshta nametavonad. Az in jost, ki inkishofi organizm be muhit va biduni omilhoi tasirrasoni on gayrimumkin ast. CHunone ki medonem, tukhmi murg tanho dar harorati muayyan inkishaf meyobad, agar harorati muhit mutadil naboshad, ravandi inkishof qat megardad. Hamchunin baroi mavjudoti obi tarkibi ionii ob muhim ast. Masalan, miqdori muayyani oksigen, gazi karbonat va gayraho.

Tasiri sharoiti muhitro ba organizmho, ba zinaho judo mekunand, chunonchi, haddi aqal (minimali), haddi aksar (maksimali), mutadil (miyona). Dar inkishofi janin davrai nomusoid niz mavjud ast, ki mavridi on janin ba tasiri omilhoi nomatlub tob nameorad. Az hamin sabab, har organizm dar muhiti khosi hamon namud inkishof meyobad. Agar sharoit tagyir yobad, inkishof sust yo qat megardad.

priroda

Masalan, baroi inkishofi mutadili parrandagon va shirkhuron vitamini D lozim ast. On dar zeri pust bo tasiri nurhoi ultrabunafshi oftob paydo meshavad yo ba organizm hamrohi gizo meoyad. Hangomi narasidani in vitamin ustukhonho sust inkishof meyoband. (rasmi 7.11).

Dar ravandi tanzimi faoliyati organizm gadudhoi usorai dokhili (endokrini) ahamiyati kalon dorand.

CHunonchi, dar vaqti narasidani garmoni gadudi siparshakl sabzish sust shuda, dar natija uzvhoi digari sistemai endokrini niz purra inkishof nameyoband (rasmi 7.12).

Agar dar tarkibi gizo aminakislotahoi ivaznoshavanda naboshad, yane aminokislotahoe, ki dar organizmi shirkhuron va odam hosil nameshavad, pas rushdu inkishof sust yo  batamom qat megardad (rasmi 7.13).

Moddahoi bisyor malumand, ki bo tasiri onho inkishofi mutadili janin khalaldor karda meshavad, masalan, konsentratsiyai namakho, nurhoi rentgeni va gayra.

Tasiri omilhoi nomusoid dar odam bazan boisi sust shudani sabzish yo ba vujud omadani nuqsi modarzod megardad. Ba chunin omilhoi ziyonovar istifodai mashruboti spirtdor, nashamandi, tamokukashi, be nazorat istifoda burdani doruho mansuband. Mashrubot ba faoliyati mutadili hujayraho khalal rasonda, dar natija ravandi sabzishu inkishofro ba takhir meandozad, hujayrahoi asabro illati megardonad. Bozdorii sabzishi janin ba tasiri duoksid va oksidi karbon (So2, So) vobasta ast, ki on ba boftaho dokhil shudani oksigenro kam menamoyad. Tamokukashi bo paydo shudani mutatsiyahoi zararnok bois megardad, ravandi faoliyati janinro dar batn vayron mekunad

Tasiri jizoi kamsafeda ba inkishofi kallamushіo:

A – kallamushe, ki jizoi on aminokislotai lizin nadorad,

B – kallamushe, ki ba jizoi on lizin ilova shudaast,

V – kallamushe, ki jizoi on aminokislotai valin nadorad,

G – іamon kallamushe, ki ba jizoi on valin ilova shudaast.

Dar tarkibi dudi tamoku nikotin mavjud ast, ki hujayrahoi asabro zahrolud gardonida, boisi paydoishi bisyor illathoi jismoni meshavad. Dar khotir doshtan lozim ast, ki inkishofi organizm pesh az bordorshavi ogoz meyobad. Dar davrai kudaki va sinni javoni istemol kardani mashrubot khele zararnok buda, ba gametaho tasiri nomusoid merasonad.

Az hamin sabab, shakhsone, ki ba mashrubot va tamokukashi mayl dorand, farzandoni giriftori bemorihoi modarzodi ba dunyo meorand. Az in jost, ki dar tajribai tibbi mafhumi makhsus bo nomi farzandoni shanbegi, yane kudake, ki ibtidoi on dar holati masti guzoshtaast, pahn gardidaast.

Albatta, chunin fikr, ki guyo holati hushyori tanho baroi izdivoj lozim nodurust ast. Alkogol zakhirashavii qobiliyati purrai insonro sust gardonida, dar holathoi lozimi qobiliyati ejodkorii onro boz medorad. Tasiri omilhoi nomusoid ba organizm muvaqqati nabuda, balki dar tamomi tuli hayot idoma meyobad va bisyor vaqt ba inkishofi nasl zarar merasonad. Dar khotir doshtan lozim ast, ki ba hamai tagyirote, ki dar muhit ba amal meoyad, ba organizmhoi zinda tasir merasonand. Masalan, sokhti doimii khud, faoliyati uzvu boftaho, holati fiziki va khimiyavii hujayra, mahluli boftahoi khun va gayrahoro

nigoh medorand. Hosiyati organizmhoi zinda, ki dar sharoiti muhiti tagyiryobanda faoliyati dokhili va khosiyathoi asosii sokhtori khudro nigoh medorand, gomeostaz (az yunonihomios – yakkhela va stasus – holat) nomida meshavad. Asosi gomeostaz ba irsiyat vobastagi doshta, on dar rafti tahavvulot (evolyutsiya) naqsh bastaast. Samarai on dar bisyor holatho ba majmui hissachahoi irsi, yane genhoi organizm va genotip mushakhkhas aloqamand ast. Gunogunshaklii genotip dar hududi namud, boisi tafovvuti fardho va reaksiyai onho ba muhiti beruna megardad.

Misoli khosi aksulamali umumii organizm ba tasiri omilhoi muhit – holati stressi meboshad.

Stress aksulamali organizm nisbat ba tasiroti nomusoid buda, ba faoliyati hayot tasiri manfi merasonad va boisi ikhtiloli gomeostaz megardad. Dar chunin mavrid faoliyati bisyor unsurhoi organizm nihoyat tezutund meshavad (asabho, mushaki uzvhoi nafaskashi, raghoi dil, gadudhoi endokrini).

Tagiryobii faoliyati unsurhoi nomburda boisi afzudani qobiliyati ustuvorii fardho nisbati omilhoi nomutadil khohad shud. Sarfi ziyodi nerui muhofizatii organizm va afzoishi ravand mubodilai moddaho az jumlai aksulamalhoe meboshand, ki shakhsro ba holati stress meorand. Baroi halli masalahoi muhimi hayot odam boyad khudro najot dihad, yane az tasiri holathoi stressovar gurezad yo ba onho muqobiliyat nishon dihad. ,

Dar natijai mehnati vaznin dar sharoiti iqlimi qahratun odam khasta shuda, ruhiyai u ba vazi stressi meaftad. Baze odamoni purtoqat dar natijai tasiri durudarozi holati tarsu vahm sistemai tanzimgar kharob gashta, ba paydoishi bemori musoidat mekunad.

Baroi khalal nayoftani quvvai muhofizatii organizm olimoni tib usulhoero daryoft namudaand, ki qobiliyati odamro ba mehnat dar muhiti gunogun muayyan mesozad. Har uzv hamon vaqt nagz kor mekunad, ki agar baroi faoliyati on sharoiti musoid faroham boshad.

Doimiyati sokhti hujayraho, boftaho va uzvho ba mekhanizmi tanzimkunandai strukturai gomeostaz vobasta ast.

Majmui ravandhoe, ki ba barqaror kardani qismhoi osebdida yo vayronshudai organizm ravona shudaand, tajdid (regeneratsiya) nomida meshavad (az lotinii regeneratio – barqarorshavi). Du navi tajdid vujud dorad: fiziologi va jubroni. Tajdidi fiziologi barqaror shudani miqdori hujayraho yo qismi onho meboshad. Az nav barqaror shudani organoidhoi hujayra (mitakhondriya, plastidho va gayra)-ro tajdidi dokhilihujayravi menomand.

Tajdidi fiziologi khosi hamai organizmhoi zinda ast, ammo dar hayvonot va rastaniho on yakkhela jarayon namegirad.

Dar bandpoyon tajdidi fiziologi ba inkishofi onho aloqamand ast. Masalan, dar kharchangshaklon va kirminai hasharot dar davrai tulak skeleti beruni, ki onro khitin menomand, judo meshavad, zero gunjoishi khitin baroi onho muvofiq nest va badi chand muddat on az nav mesabzad. Dar shirkhuron va odam epiteliyai pust judo shuda (pustpartoi), dar muddati chand ruz az digar barqaror megardad. Hujayrahoi epitelii ruda boshad, dar muddati 1,5-2 ruz purra az sari nav ivaz meshavand. Hamchunin, hujayrai eritrositho niz ivaz meshavand va davomoti faoliyati onho az chor moh ziyod nest. Organizmhoi zinda dar tabiat bazan duchori omilhoi kharobiovar meshavad. Barqaror shudani hujayrahoi nobudgashta yo vayron gardidani tomii organizmhoro dar natijai oseb didan, tajdidi jubroni menomand. Dar jonvaroni sokhtashon sodda, masalan, rudakovokho, kirmho

va gayraho qobiliyati barqaror kardani qismhoi gumkarda bo tezi surat megirad. CHunonchi, dar gidra organizmi tom az hisobi 1/200 qismi on ba vujud meoyad.

Ba hama malum ast, ki halqakirmho (kirmi loykhurak)qobiliyati balandi tajdid doshta, az yak hissachai tan barqaror meshavand. Dar sitorahoi bahri (tipi suzanpuston) nafaqat suzanhoi alohida, balki az hisobi onho organizmi solimro sabzondan mumkin ast (rasmi 7.14). Tajdidi uzvhoi purra dar muhradoron niz dida meshavad. Agar ba kaltakalos yagon jonvari digar tahdid kunad, dumashro mepartoyad va ba joi on dumi nav paydo meshavad.

In khosiyati mutobiqat dar natijai intikhob ustuvor megardad, zero kanda shudani dum dar joyhoi makhsus ba amal meoyad. Baze muhrahoi dum joi makhsusi kanda shudanro dorand. YAne surokhie mavjud ast, ki muhraro ba du qism judo mekunad (onho bo ham bo yorii tagoyaki tunuke payvastbuda, dar natijai zud qat shudani mushakho dum meshikanad).

Dar obkhokihoi dumdor, az jumla, samandarho dar joi burida shudani qismi poyon, qismi nav inkishof yofta, to darajae ba peshina monand meshavad. Organizmhoi sokhtashon murakkab ba monandi shirkhuron, az jumla, odam, qobilyati barqaror sokhtani uzvhoi berunaro gum kardaand. Tajdid badi lat khurdan faqat bo rohi sihat shudani jarohat meguzarad. Uzvhoi darunii onho boshand, masalan, jigar,

gurda, shush dar vaqti oseb yoftan binobar afzudani hujayraho andoza yo massai khudro barqaror mekunand. Gayr az in, tabadduloti dokhilihujayravi boisi ziyod shudani miqdori organoidho gashta, faoliyati hujayrahoi uzvhoi mazkurro metezonad. Tajdid nafaqat dar mavridi osebhoi mekhaniki va zahroludi az moddahoi khimiyavi, balki dar natijai bemoriho niz ba amal meoyad. Virusi bemorii zardparvin hujayrahoi jigarro vayron mekunad.

Dar vaqti shifo yoftan ravandi barqarorsozi jarayon girifta, joyi hujayrahoi favtidaro purra mekunad. Hujayrahoi jigar az tasiri mashrubot niz mefavtand. Duru daroz va bisyor istemol kardani mashrubot khosa baroi onhoe, ki bemorii zardparvinro az sar guzaronidaand, bisyor ziyon dorad. Zero dar joyi hujayrahoi favtidai jigar boftai payvandi inkishof meyobad. Dar natija vazifai jigar khalaldor shuda, bemorii vaznin – serrozi jigar paydo meshavad. Tajdid dar rastaniho ham dida meshavand. Dar vaqti shudgori zamin reshahoi gumoy va digar alafhoi begona burida va az ham judo meshavand. Vale badtar az har qismi reshai buridashuda rastanii nav meruyad.

Az yak barg rastanii begoniyaro sabzonidan mumkin ast. Hamin tavr, tajdid imkon medihad, ki hayvonotu rastaniho ba tasiroti omilhoi beruna ustuvor istoda, zinda monand. Donistani qonuniyathoi barqarorshavii uzvho dar tib khele zarur ast. Masalan, vaqte ki dar khurok vitamini A namerasad, dar boftaho ravandi tajdidi hujayraho vayron meshavad. Ba tarkibi khurok ilova namudani in vitamin boisi barqaror shudani holati mutadili boftaho megardad. Baroi hamin, dukhturon baroi tezondani tajdid va muolijai bemorihoi siroyati va osebho doruhoi tabii va suniro istifoda mebarand. Dar natija bemor zud shifo meyobad. Hamin tavr, binobar omukhtani hodisai tajdidi biologi imkoniyat paydo meshavad, ki baroi salomatii inson muboriza barem.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Kadom omilhoi muhiti beruna ba inkishofi janin tasir merasonand?
  2. Mohiyati tasiri badi mashrubot va tamokukashi baroi inkishofi janini odam dar chist?
  3. Faoliyati kadom sistemahoi organizm doimiyati muhiti darunaro nigoh medorad?
  4. Dar natijai tasiri omilhoi nomusoidi muhit dar faoliyati uzvho va sistemahoi organizm chi guna tagyi- rotho ba amal meoyad?

Istilohot:

  1. Filogenez – inkishofi tarikhii guruhi sistematiki muayyani organizmhoi zinda.
  2. Monandii janinho – hodisae, ki monandii namoyandagoni gunoguni sinfhoro dar hududi tip shahodat medihad.
  3. Tajdidi reporativi – barqaror shudani hujayrahoi nobudshuda, ki dar natijai lat khurdan yo bemori ba amal omadaast.
  4. Tajdidi dokhilihujayravi – barqaror yo ziyod shudani sokhtori dokhili hujayraho, ki baroi past shudani jubroni faoliyati kori bofta ravona shudaast.
  5. Transplantatsiya – kuchonidani boftaho yo uzvho dar rastaniho, hayvonot va odamon.
  6. Regeneratsiyai fiziologi – az nav barqaror kardani hujayrahoi nobudshuda, ki dar natijai faoliyati khudi boftaho ba amal omadaand.
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