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biniBINi (Nasus rhinos), dimog, qismi avvali rohi boloi nafas; az se qism – beruni, kovoki va javfho (tavassuti surokhihoi tang bo javfhoi ilovagii bini tamos dorad) iborat ast.
B.-i beruni az tagoyakho, ustukhon va pustu mushakho tarkib yoftaast. Qabati pusti B. gadudhoi ravganbaror dorad. Onho khususan dar pusti atrofi surokh va nugi B. bisyorand. Dar vurudgohi kovokii B., dar hududi pustu luobparda, muy mesabzad.
Kovokii B., ki onro devorai mobayni ba du qism judo mekunad, ba tavassuti surokhihoi B. ba berun va tavassuti surokhihoi aqibi daruni B. ba halqum hamshafat ast. Ustukhoni komi sakht devorai poyon va lavhachai masomavii ustukhoni turshakl devorai boloi kovokii B.-ro ba vujud meorad (az on shokhchahoi asabi shomma meguzarand). Devorai mobayni haddi qismhoi rost va chapi dokhilii B. buda, qismi aqib ustukhoni va qismi pesh tagoyaki ast. Dar devorai pahluii daruni B. suffaho (poyoni, miyona va boloi) mavjudand, ki onho qismi chap va rosti daruni B.-ro ba rohhoi boloi, miyona va poyoni judo mekunand. Rohhoi boloi va mobaynii B. surokhihoi khurd dorand. Ba vositai onho kovokii B. ba javfhoi ilovagi «meguzarad». Dar rohi poyonii B. surokhii noi biniyu ashkdon joy giriftaast, ki az on ba kovokii B. ashk meshorad.
Javfhoi ilovagi chahor juftand; haymori, jabini, asosi va turshakl. Javfhoi haymori az hama kalon buda, andozai har yake qarib 30 sm3 ast. SHakli javfi haymori piramidai seruyaro ba khotir meorad. Devorai dokhilii on bo kovokii B. hamhudud buda, surokhie dorad, ki ba rohi miyonai B. kushoda meshavad. Poyoni javfi haymori ba reshai dandonhoi bolo, khususan dandonhoi kursii yakumu duyum, khele nazdik joy giriftaast.
Javfi jabini dar ustukhoni peshoni joygir buda, andozaash qarib 3 – 5 sm3 ast; on ba tavassuti naychai borik ba B. payvast meboshad. Devorai poyoni javfi jabini devorai boloii kosakhonai chashm ast. Devorai mobayni javfi chapi jabiniro az javfi rosti on, devorai aqib boshad, javfi jabiniro az qismi jabinii magzi sar judo mekunad.
Javfi turshakl az hujayrahoi judogonai ustukhoni iborat ast va binobar in labirint nom dorad. Labirinti turshakl bo qismi darunii kosakhonai chashm hamhudud buda, az magzi sar bo lavhachai tunuki ustukhoni judo shudaast.
Javfi asosi dar tanai ustukhoni asosii kosai sar joygir meboshad. On bo tashkilahoi hayotan muhim – surkhragi khob, javfi varidi, asabi chashm va asabi setora hamhudud ast. Javfi asosi va yak qismi javfi turshakl bo rohi bolii B. payvast meboshand.
Kovokii B. bo luobparda pushida shudaast. Epiteliyai luobparda muyakchaho doshta, onho muntazam mavjson junbida meistand.
Qismhoi luobpardai rohi boloii B. qismi boloii sufrai miyonai bini va qismi ru ba ru budai miyondevori bini qismi shomma nom dorad. Zero dar in jo hujayrahoi darrok joygir shudaand. Qismi boqimondai kovokii B.-ro qismi nafaskashi menomand. Dar gafsii luobpardai sufrai poyon va qismi aqibi sufrai miyonai B. qabati isfanji hast, ki az shabakai khunraghoi ziyod iborat meboshad. Javfhoi ilovagii B. niz bo luobprda pushida shudaand.
B. va javfhoi ilovagii on vazifai nafaskashi, muhofizat va rezonatorro ijro mekunand. Havo az surokhii B. guzashta az zarrahoi chang toza meshavad. Zarrahoi kaloni changro muyi vurudgohi B. nigoh medorad; yak qismi gardu chang va bakteriyaho bo jarayoni havo ba rohhoi pech dar pechi B. guzashta, ba sathi luobparda menishinand. Beist lappidani mijgonakhoi epiteliyai muyakdor luobi bo jismhoi begona oludaro az kovokii B. khorij mekunad (sipas bo balgam berun yo furu burda meshavad). Bakteriyahoi ba kovokii B. rohyoftaro luobi B. bezarar megardonad. Havoi khunuk az rohhoi borik va pech dar pechi B. meguzarad. Onro luobparda, ki bo khun khub tamin shudaast, garmu namnok mekunad. Hujayrahoi asabi shommai luobparda imkon medihand, ki buyhoi gunogun his karda shavand. Kovokii B. va javfhoi ilovagi vazifai rezonatori ovozro ijro namuda, ba sado khushohangi va lahni khos mebakhshand.
YAke az illathoi kovokii B. ki zud-zud ba amal meoyad, gazaki shadid va muzmini luobparda ast. Dar surati dushvor gardidani nafaskashi bo B. shakhs ba vositai dahon nafs megirad. Binobar in havoi khunuk biduni toza shudan ba halqum, hanjara, khirnoy va bronkhho dokhil megardad. Dar natija baroi inkishofi gazak dar qismhoi gunoguni rohi nafas sharoiti musoid faroham meoyad (bronkhit, laringit, trakheit, faringit). Tavassuti B. ba dushvori nafas giriftan yo tamoman nafas nagiriftan ba kori shomma tasiri nomatlub merasonad (odam buyro qisman his mekunad yo tamoman his karda nametavonad), ovoz past megardad, manqagi rukh menamoyad, boftahoi organizm az oksigen tanqisi mekashand. Muddati daroz ba vositai dahon nafas giriftani kudakon boisi osebhoi gunogun khohad shud: skeleti ruy va qafasi sina nodurust sabzida, dandonho kajukileb megardand; diqqat, hofiza, somea khalal meyobad. Az in sabab dar surati andake ham vayron shudani nafasgiri bo B. boyad hatman ba dukhtur murojiat kard.
Bazan dar nug yo parrai B. (dar natijai zarbu lat va kharosh khurdan) puchak mebaroyad. Puchaki B. dardmand buda, dard ba chakka, dandon va chashm meguzarad. Pusti nug yo parrai bini surkh va ozurda meshavad. Harorati badan dar in mavrid, odatan, baland ast. Varam metavonad boftahoi hamshafati ruyro niz faro girad. Puchaki B.-ro faqat dukhtur tabobat mekunad. Onro hargiz kafondan va fishurdan mumkin nest, chunki in amal boisi ba kosai sar pahn shudani mikrobhoi fasodovar va orizahoi noguvor khohad gasht.
Gazaki shadid va muzmini javfhoi ilovagii B. (sinusit) aksar vaqt chun orizai zukom, gripp, surkhcha, makhmalak va dig. bemorihoi siroyati ba amal meoyad. Gazaki luobpardai javfi jogi boloro gaymorit, gazaki javfi jabiniro frontit, gazaki hujayrahoi ustukhoni turshaklro etmoidit va gazaki javfi asosiro sfenoidit menomand. Gazaki in javfho metavonand yaktarafa yo dutarafa shavand; bazan yakbora hamai javfhoi ilovagii B. gazak mekunand (pansinusit). Gaymoriti shadid yo muzmin metavonad binobar gazaki atrofi reshai dandonhoi kursii bolo rukh namoyad.
Hangomi gazaki javfhoi ilovagii B. bemoron az ehsosi fishor va dardi javfi illatyofta, zukom, nafasgirii dushvor, his nakardani buy shikoyat mekunand; gayr az in, odatan, khastagi (hangomi mehnati fikri) va dardi sar (bazan ba chakkaho, peshoni, dandonho meguzarad) ba amal omada, harorati badan baland meshavad. Dar mavridi gaymorit varamidani ruy, hangomi frontit varamidanu dard kardani peshona, bazan obvarami pilki bolo, dardi kosakhonai chashm, rushnoitarsi va shoridani ashk ba mushohida merasad.
Amrozi javfhoi ilovagi metavonand boisi paydoishi orizahoi baroi hayot khavfnok (mas., gazaki pardai magzi sar) gardand. Javfhoi ilovagi kam zarbu lat mekhurand, vale khudi B. ba sababi beehtiyoti va falokat zud-zud oseb meyobad. Dar odamone, ki ba hayvonot nigohubin mekunand, gazaki B. beshtar mushohida meshavad. Az zarbu lat, odatan, ustukhonhoi B. zarar mebinand; goho B. kaj va ustukhonho bejo meshavand yo meshikanand. Dar in surat ruy varam karda, atrofi chashm kabud meshavad, az bini khun meravad, nafaskashi yakbora dushvor gardida, ehsosi buy khalal meyobad. Kafidani ragi khuni zeri luobpardai bayndevor, ki madda va dumbal hosil mekunad, beshtar orizai noguvori osebi khurdi B. meboshad. Az B.-e, ki yagon chizi tez onro zakhmdor kardaast, khuni ziyod meravad.
Kudakon hangomi bozi bazan ba B. chizhoi gunogun (tanga, tugma, donak va g.)-ro metiqonand. Binobar in dar natijai basta shudani rohi javfi B. aksar vaqt zukomi sakht paydo shuda, obi B. badbuy va khunolud megardad (nig. Jismhoi begona).
Novobasta ba alomathoi zohirii illat yo amrozi B. har osebdida yo bemor boyad az muoinai dukhtur guzarad. Sarivaqt ba dukhtur murojiat kardan, ba tabobati bosamari iltihobi shadidi uzvhoi nafas musoidat namuda, orizahoi noguvori onro peshgiri mekunad. Osebhoi B. (joi fururafta yo barjastai on, nabudani nugi B. va g.) bo usuli jarrohii plastiki tabobat karda meshavand.
Tavsiyahoi umumi oid ba nigohubini B. va ijroi tainoti dukhtur. Hangomi afshondani B. surokhihoi onro bonavbat rust mekunand, to ki luobi on ba naychai shunavoi va gushi miyona naaftad. Luobi B.-i kudakoni khurdsolro bo pakhta toza boyad kard. Agar B.-i kudak karakhsh doshta boshad, pas pakhtaro ba ravgani vazelin, zaytun yo mahluli shirgarmi sodai nushoki tar karda, ba muddati 10 – 15 daq. ba daruni B. meguzorand va bad boehtiyot (khususan agar kudak shirmak boshad) toza mekunand. Doruhoi obakiro (mutobiqi garmii khona) ba bini tavassuti chakrarez mechakonand. Dar in mavrid bemor menishinad yo rubolo daroz kashida, sarashro ba qafo kham mekunad va andak ba tarafe megardonad, ki doru mechakonand. Dar natija qatrahoi doru devorai pahluii kovokii B.-ro tar karda, ba rohhoi B. meguzarad. Mas., dokhil shudani qatrahoi doru ba rohi mobaynii B. hangomi gaymorit ba ikhroji fasod az javfi pahlui musoidat mekunad. Dar surati rioya nakardani qoidahoi mazkur qatrahoi doru rost ba halqum meravand va tabobat natija namedihad. Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki har doruro muvofiqi voyai tainkardai dukhtur va dar vaqti muayyan qabul kardan lozim ast.
Doruhoi khokaro ba B., odatan, dar darmongoh yo bemorkhona tavassuti asbobhoi makhsus mefiristand. Dar sharoiti khona, dorui khokaro ba surokhihoi B. (bo navbat) ba tarzi chuqur-chuqur nafas kashidan ravona mekunand.
Marham nihodan ba B. tavri digar surat megirad. Ba nugi fatilai pakhtagin marham molida, onro ba daruni B. (taqr. 1,5 sm) medarorand va 10 – 15 daq. intizor meshavand; sipas fatilaro berun meorand.
Bo maqsadi peshgirii gazaki javfhoi ilovagii B., khususan gaymorit, sarivaqt va durust tabobat namudani nazla, pokiza nigoh doshtani javfi dahon, dur sokhtani adenoidho, durust kardani bayndevori kajshudai B. ahamiyati kalon dorad. Baroi on ki bemorihoi B. takror nashavand, organizmro tadrijan obutob dodan zarur ast. Vannahoi havoi va oftobi, mashguliyathoi sproti, obbozi va g. bahri mustahkam gardidani uzvhoi nafaskashi sharoiti musoida faroham meorand. Tarbiyai durusti jismoni muqobilati organizmro ba bemorihoi iltihobi ziyod mekunad.
KL
Devorai lateralii javfi bini: 1 – javfi peshoni; 2 – sadafai miyonai bini; 3 – sadafai boloii bini; 4 – sadafai poyonii bini; 5 – javfi fonashakl; 6 – surokhi balumii nayi somea.
Ad.: Iskhaki YU.B., Detskaya otorinolaringologiya, D., 1980; Anatomiya cheloveka, M., 2004; Ishoqi YU.B. (va dig.), Bemorihoi gushu gulu va bini, D., 2010.

B. SHamsiddinov.

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