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BOZICHA

bozichaBOZICHA, ashyoe, ki kudakon baroi bozi va faoliyati mustaqilona istifoda mebarand. B. baroi olami atrofro omukhtani kudak yori medihad, uro ba faoliyati maqsadnok va boshuurona odat mekunonad, khayolotro inkishof, shavqro ba mehnat, ragbatro ba tekhnika, donish va mushohidakori tashakkul medihad, zavqi badeiro baland mebardorad. B.-ho boyad ba talaboti muayyani tibbi, estetiki, gigieni va tekhniki, inchunin ba sinnu soli kudakon muvofiqat namoyand.
B.-hoi didaktiki ba inkishofi tafakkuru nutqi kudak, tashakkuli donish, kordoniyu malakai u musoidat mekunand. Kudak hangomi bozi shinokhtani ashyo, farq kardani shaklu buzurgi va rangro yod megirad, bo tanosubi miqdoru shumora, mafhumhoi makonu fazo shinos megardad. Ba B.-hoi didaktiki, mas., burjhoi konusi bo halqahoi yakranga (baroi bachahoi az 1,5 to 3-sola) va gunogunrang (az 3 to 7-sola), B.-hoi darun ba darun – tabaqchaho, chalakchaho, kuraho (az 1,5 to 3-sola), zochahoi chubin, matryoshkaho (az 1,5 to 6-sola), B.-hoi gunoguni bo murvatho vaslshavanda va g. mansuband. B.-hoi didaktikii murakkab baroi bozii kudakoni sinni gunogun tain shudaand. Mas., manorachai iborat az halqaho (baroi az ham judo va ba ham jam kardan)-ro ham ba kudaki 6-moha va ham ba kudaki 2 – 2,5-sola dodan mumkin ast, vale az duyumi talab boyad kard, ki rang va hajmi halqahoro muayyan kunad; kudaki 3 – 3,5-sola bo hamon manoracha bozi karda, paiham halqahoro intikhob mekunad, onhoro ba tartibi muayyan meandozad; bachai 5-sola metavonad nishon dihad, ki kadome az halqaho kalon yo khurd ast, kadom rang nest, on dar kujo boyad boshad va g. Bo B.-hoi darun ba darun bozi karda, kudakon avval beshuurona ashyoi khurdro ba daruni B.-i kalon meguzorand va hamin tavr, dar amal ba tanosubi buzurgiho sarfahm meravand, bad mafhumhoi buzurgi (kalon yo khurd) va badtar darajahoi muqoisaviro dark mekunand. B.-hoi judoshavanda baroi kudakon avvalin konstruktorho meboshand. Dar mehvar ustuvor kardani manoracha, tob doda jo ba jo kardani chalakcha, ba ham payvastani piramidachaho masalahoe meboshand, ki ba kudakoni sinnu solashon gunogun (az 1,5 to 5-sola) munosiband. B.-hoi chubini iborat az juzhoi murvati baroi bachahoi sinni 4,5 – 5-sola tain shudaand.
B.-hoi obraznok ahamiyati kaloni tarbiyavi dorand, mas., lukhtakho (bo libos, mebel, jihozi ruzgor, khonacha), mujassamai odamon, hayvonot va ashyoi tabiat. Vaqte ki kudak bo onho bozi mekunad, tasavvuroti u oid ba odamoni atrof ziyod meshavad, tafakkur, nutq va hofiza inkishof meyobad.
YAke az mashhurtarin B.-ho lukhtak ast. Baroi bozii dukhtarchahoi 1 – 2-sola lukhtakhoi chashmpush va «sukhangu» muvofiq ast, zero onho shavqu zavqi kudakonro meafzoyand. Baroi kudakoni 1 – 4-sola lukhtakhoi belibosro kharidan behtar meboshad, chunki kudakon onro obbozi doronda, parpech mekunand. Baroi kudakoni 3 – 5-sola lukhtakhoi khurd (35 – 50 sm), ki libosi onhoro ivaz kardan mumkin ast, istehsol karda meshavand. Baroi bo chunin lukhtakho bozi kardan, mebel, qoshuqu tabaqcha, arobachaho va g. niz mavjudand. Lukhtakho boyad gunogun boshand, chunki kudakon «khislathoi» lukhtaki shodruyu gamginro farq mekunand, ba onho dar vaqti bozi vazifahoi gunogun medihand. Baroi bozihoi umumi ba kudakoni 5 – 7-sola lukhtakhoi hajman gunogun – kalon va khurd (6 – 7 sm) zarur ast; lukhtakhoi 20 – 35 sm baroi bozii kudakoni sinni kalontari tomaktabi muvofiq meboshand. «Gap zada tavonistan»-i lukhtakho aknun shart nest, zero khudi bachaho ba joi lukhtak gap mezanand. Dukhtarchahoi sinni khurdi tomaktabi ba lukhtakhoi kalon (45 – 65 sm) havas dorand, chunki onhoro «ba tavri haqiqi» nigohubin kardan mumkin ast.
B.-hoi hayvonoti az masolehi muloim sokhtashuda (khirsakho, gurbachaho, sagbachaho)-ro ba kudakoni sinni 1-sola medihand. Baroi bachahoi 1 – 3-sola hayvonoti rezini va plastmassi, ki kudak onhoro az afsonaho, suratho va mushohidahoi khud medonad, muvofiq meboshand. Bachaho bo onho hangomi sayru gasht (khokbozi, obbozi) niz bozi mekunand.
Kudakon har chi qadar kalontar boshand, ba monandii B. ba aslash beshtar ahamiyat medihand. Onho az 3-solagi dar vaqti bozi lukhtakho, arobachaho, mebel, zarfhoi oshpaziyu khurokkhuri va g.-ro istifoda mebarand. Bachahoi sinni kaloni tomaktabi va khurdi maktabi B.-hoi harakatkunanda (mas., moshinchaho, charkhbolho va kishtichahoi muharrikashon khurdi elektri, yakhdoni charogdor, lampai dargiranda va g.)-ro dust medorand. Baroi bozi kardan ba kudakoni sinni kaloni tomaktabi va khurdi maktabi bazan B. – dekoratsiyahoe lozim meshavand, ki istiqomatgoh (hujra, darakht, khonachahoi rui havli), maktab (parta, takhtai maktabi) va g.-ro inikos kunand.
B.-hoi tekhniki – moshinchaho, traktorchaho va g. imkoniyat medihand, ki kudakon dar vaqti bozi mehnatro inikos namoyand. Baroi kudakoni sinnu solashon gunogun B.-hoi tekhnikii tayyor istehsol karda meshavand. CHunonchi, baroi kudaki 2 – 4-sola parovozi iborat az chand juzhoi kaloni barjasta (deg, dudbaro, charkhho va khonachai moshinist) misol shuda metavonad; baroi kudaki 5 – 7-sola juzhoro ziyodtar (vagoni makhsusi parovoz, fishangi charkhho va g.) kardan lozim ast; baroi maktabiyoni khurdsol B.-hoi murakkabtar – teplovoz, elektrovoz zarurand. B.-hoi tekhniki dastovardhoi tekhnikai hozirazamon, guzashta va oyandaro inikos mekunand. B.-hoi tekhnikii tomaktabiyonro bo mekhanizmi tobkhuranda yo inertsiyavi ba harakat darovardan mumkin ast; baroi maktabbachagon onho metavonand motorhoi elektri, pulti idora, pulti idorai fosilavi va g. doshta boshand. Bachahoi sinni miyonai maktabi ba B.-hoi radioidora, elektroni va g. havas dorand. Baroi bachahoi sinnu soli tomaktabi va khurdi maktabi baze B.-horo kalontar mesozand, to kudak bo fishangho, pedalho va rul kor karda tavonad.
Masolehi binokorii chubin va plastmassi bisyor va gunogunand. Az onho kudakon metavonand roh, kupruk va khona sozand, mas., kubchaho baroi bachahoi 2-sola; kubcha va khishtchaho baroi bachahoi 3-sola; prizmaho, silindrho, takhtachaho, bayraqchaho va g. baroi tomaktabiyoni sinnashon kalon va maktabiyoni khurdsol. Albomhoi makhsus, ki chun zamima ba onho dokhil meshavand, imkoniyat medihand az rui namunahoi dodashuda B. sokhta shavad. Kudakon bo masolehi sokhtmon bozi karda, bo jismhoi geometri shinos meshavand, tasavvuroti onho dar borai shakl, buzurgi, joygirshavi, fazo, samt va g. inkishof meyobad. Bisyor B.-ho protsessi istehsolot va mehnatro ifoda mekunand, mas., majmui «Baroi kadbonui khurdakak» ashyoero darbar megirad, ki baroi khamir kardan zarurand.
Baroi kudaki 3-sola tagorachai plastmassi kifoya ast, ki u khudro shuyandai liboshoi lukhtak tasavvur kunad; kudakoni 5 – 7-sola boshand, kurtai lukhtakro dar tagorai tunukagii «kalon» bo sobunu ob meshuyand. Belchayu khaskashak va satilchaho baroi rubuchini rui havli, parvarishi rastani va hayvonot khizmat mekunand. Bachaho dar mavridi bozi beshtar ba namudhoi az hama jolibi mehnati kalonsolon taqlid menamoyand. Baroi bozii «darmongoh», «sartaroshkhona», «magoza» va g. majmui makhsusi B.-ho istehsol karda meshavad.
Guruhi makhsusi B.-horo konstruktorho tashkil medihand. Onho baroi bachahoi sinnu soli tomaktabi peshbini gardida, az qismhoi gunogun iboratand. Ba bachahoi 2 – 5-sola B.-hoi naqliyoti (avtomobilho, sisternaho, parovozho, samolyotho), ki az 5 – 6 qism iborat buda, ba vositai mekhi pechdor va murvatchaho vasl meshavand, muvofiqand. Bachahoi 5 – 6-sola bo konstruktorhoi mavzui – naqliyoti (dar yak shassi ba navbat vasl kardani moshini borkash, avtomobili sabukrav va g.) va memori (sokhtani khona, kupruk, qala va g.) bo shavq bozi mekunand. Baroi maktabbachagon hamchunin B.-hoi vaslshavanda, ki bo shiresh, mekh yo vintho payvast megardand, peshbini shudaand. Payvast kardani in B. oson buda, sokhti onho niz baroi bachaho fahmost. Bachaho bo konstruktorhoi universali bo shavqi kalon mashgul meshavand. Modeli jam kardaro bo dast yo muharrikchai elektri ba harakat medarorand.
Kudak, ki 2 – 3-sola shud, ba sokhtani B.-hoi dasti havas paydo mekunad. Bazei in B.-ho (mas., garmoshkahoi kogazi) khele oddiand. B.-hoi dastisokhti bachahoi 4 – 6-sola (zavraqchahoi kogazi, firfirakho, kabutarho, oroishoti archa) nisbatan gunogun va murakkab meboshand. Tomaktabiyoni kalon va maktabiyoni khurdsol baroi bozi kardan az kogaz kuloh, soat, saru libosi lukhtak, mebel va g. mesozand. Bachaho az gil va plastilin mujassamahoi odamonu hayvonotro meoroyand, onhoro rang medihand; az alaf, mushkhor, puchoqi chormagz, shokhcha va pustlokh kamon, hushtak, shamsher, sabadcha tayyor mekunand, az bargi darakhton kurta «meduzand» va g.
Az partovhoi ruzgor niz B.-hoi ziyod sokhtan mumkin ast. Quttichahoi kartoniro ba khonai lukhtakho, galtakhoro ba quburchaho, sarpushi konservhoro ba charkhho tabdil medihand. Lattayu pakhtaro baroi sokhtani lukhtakhoi muloim va libosi onho istifoda mebarand.
Dar marhilahoi avval hangomi sokhtani B.-hoi dasti bachaho ba yorii kalonsolon muhtojand. Hangomi bo masoleh va afzori nav kor kardan ba bachaho rohu usuli kor, sharthoi tamini bekhatari va rioyai qoidahoi behdoshtro fahmondan lozim ast.
Bisyor B.-ho bo maqsadi tarbiyai estetikii bachaho tahiya karda meshavand, mas., zochahoi gunoguni bibaboi (zochahoe, ki ba dast pushonda meshavand), lukhtakho, mujassamaho baroi teatri ruimizi, teatrhoi tasviri soyagi va g. Bo yorii onho kalonsolon ba bachaho mazmuni afsonayu hikoyahoro khele shavqovaru jolib mefahmonand. B.-hoi teatri ba inkishofi khayoloti ejodi va nutqi kudakon musoidat mekunand. Tomaktabiyoni kalon bo yorii zochahoi bibabo sahnachahoi khurd namoish medihand. Bachahoi 4 – 5-sola bo istifoda az teatrhoi ruimizi metavonand afsonahoi kutohro sahnaguzori bikunand. Hususan mavzuhoi «Murgi chipor», «Kulcha», «Se khirsak» (baroi tomaktabiyoni khurd), «SHalgam», «Gurba, khurus va ruboh», «Buzaki jingilapo», «Kalidchai tilloi», «Sarguzashti CHipollino» (baroi tomaktabiyoni miyonayu kalon) va g. khele mashhurand.
Bo maqsadi tarbiyai estetiki B.-hoi musiqidor, shaqshaqaho, charkhakhoi zangulador, ki sadoi khush mebarorand (baroi bachahoi az 6-moha to 3 – 4-sola) va baroi bachahoi 7 – 12-sola B.-hoi taninandoz ba monandi surnaychayu karnaychaho, pianinocha va g. istehsol karda meshavand. B.-hoi oroishi, mas., lavozimoti karnavali va oroishoti archa zavqi estetikii bachahoi sinnu solashon gunogunro takmil medihand. Hotamkoriho az chub, plastmassa va karton ba darki kompozitsiyai naqsh, tanosubi zeboii rangho, az rui namuna va yo bo tabi khud sokhtani naqshu nigor yori merasonad.
Bozihoi varzishiyu serharakat baroi tarbiyai jismonii kudakon peshbini shudaand. Onho harkat, nerui mushak, chaloki va nishonrasonii bachahoro taraqqi medihand. Bozihoi «Mohicharo dor» (baroi bachahoi 3 – 4-sola), firfirakho (baroi 4 – 5-sola), «CHaqqon bosh» (baroi 5 – 7-sola) va g. mashhurand. Tubbozi, mashqho bo chambarak (halqa), badminton, tennisi ruimizi va g. ba takomuli jismonii tomaktabiyon kumak merasonand. Tomaktabiyoni kalon va maktabbachaho bo B.-i «Labirint» bo shavq bozi mekunand. Dilkhushakho guruhi makhsusi B.-ho meboshand, mas., lukhtaki bozingar, tubchahoi resmondor, gunjishkakoni nulzan, qurboqqaho, ajuba, ki az qutticha jahida mebaroyad, kulohaku niqobho baroi bozi va g. Dar in radif metavon B.-hoi ruimiziro niz nombar kard, az jumla B.-hoe, ki shavqi bachahoro ba sohahoi gunoguni ilm, tekhnika va sanat bedor mekunand. Beshtar bozihoi ruimizii loto, domino, viktorinaho, shohmotu shashka, futbol, khokkey mamuland. Bisyorii onho mavodi gani doshta, az rui mavzu tarikhi, geografi, astronomi, zoologi, botaniki, matematiki va g. meshavand.
Bozihoi adabi-badei niz khele mashhurand. Onho bachahoro bo asarhoi sanat, rassomon, bastakoron, khodimoni kino va teatr shinos mekunand. Baroi bachahoi sinnu soli gunogun bozi-dasturho barovarda meshavand. Mas., suratchahoi juft: kudaki 2 – 3-sola juft-juft suratchahoi B.-ho, mevajot, tubchahoi gunogunrangro intikhob mekunad; tomaktabiyoni kalon az rui qoidai «CHi namerasad» (dar rui lifofa – marka) yo «ba ki chi darkor» (ba bahrnavard – sukkon, ba rassom – muqalam va g.) amal menamoyand; navrason portreti navisanda va surati qahramoni asari uro, portreti rassom va yake az asarhoi uro yofta megirand. Loto niz baroi sinnu soli gunogun peshbini shudaast. Lotoi botaniki va zoologi ba bachahoi 5 – 7-sola mevofiq ast. Bo lotoi arifmetiki maktabiyoni khurd bozi mekunand.
Baroi tomaktabiyon va maktabiyon suratchahoe mavjudand, ki onhoro buridan mumkin ast. Tasvirhoe, ki dar kub yo takhtachahoi qatkarda joygir shudaand, odatan, yak ashyoi shinosro tasvir mekunand. Onho ba 2 – 4 qism bo khati rost burida shudaand; on qismhoro ba ham vasl karda tasviri tom sokhtan baroi kudakon dushvor nest. Baroi vasl kardan bisyor vaqt rangi aqibi suratchaho yori medihad. Dar tasvirhoe, ki baroi bachahoi 5 – 6-sola tain shudaand, chand ashyo az mavzui afsonaho inikos yoftaand. Tasvirho bo khati rost 6, 9, 12 qism burida meshavand; rangi suratchaho ba syujeti tasvirho vobasta ast. Tomaktabiyoni 6-sola va maktabiyoni khurd tasvirhoi murakkabro vasl karda metavonand (harchand qismhoi onho bisyor boshad ham). Vale, bo vujudi in, kor boyad vaqti ziyod nagirad va kudakro khasta nasozad. Muammohoi kvadratie hastand, ki bo khathoi mukhtalif ba 3 – 4 qism judo karda shudaand. Bachaho boyad az in qismho muvofiqi namunahoi nishondoda naqshho yo mujassamahoi mavzui hosil namoyand.
Baroi B.-ho joi makhsus judo kardan darkor ast (sanduqcha yo jevoncha boshad behtar). B.-hoi bachahoi to 5-solaro boyad kalonsolon bo bachaho yakjoya nigohubin va tamir karda, ba in vasila bachagonro ba ehtiyot kardani B. va dar vaqti bozi rioya namudani qoidahoi behdosht dastur dihand. Az sinni kaloni tomaktabi sar karda, bachaho boyad khudashon ba B.-ho nazorat kunand, onhoro joy ba joy guzorand va bo yorii kalonsolon tamir kunand. Agar kudakon bo tartibi nigoh doshtani B.-ho odat kunand, dar oyanda munosibati onho bo kitob va asbobu anjomi maktabi oson megardad.
Baroi kudakon dar har sinnu sol nafaqat B.-i tayyor, balki baroi sokhtani B.-hoi dasti asbobu masoleh niz lozim ast: baroi dukhtarakon – moshini libosduzi, baroi pisarbachaho dastgohchahoi kharroti, chelongari va g. Ba sokhtani B.-hoi dasti bachahoro az kudaki jalb mekunand. Bo mururi zamon faoliyati ejodii kudak inkishof meyobad. Bachagon B.-ero, ki khud sokhtaand, beshtar dust medorand.
Ba B. nigohubin boyad kard. B.-i rezini va plastmassiro bo sobunu obi garm (bo ilovai mahluli 2%-i soda), sipas bo obi ravon meshuyand; B.-i filiziro bo obi garm shusta mekhushkonand. Libosi zochahoro shusta, darzmol kardan lozim.

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