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Falsafai YUnoni qadim

Paydoishi falsafa dar YUnon va maktabi Mileti

Falsafa dar YUnon dar asri VI pesh az milod, dar shakli kholis tashakkul yofta bud. Falsafai yunoni va rumi hududi 1000 sol az asri VII-VI pesh az milod  to asri VI milodi davom yoftaast. On chor davraro 1) paydoish va tashakkul (asrhoi VII-VI to milod); 2) davrai kamolotu shukufoi (V-IV to milod); 3) davrai tanazzuli falsafai yunoni va ogozi falsafai rumii davrai jumhurii Rim (III-I to milod); 4) davrai zavol dar ahdi imperiyai Rim (I-V milodi)-ro dar bar megirad.

yunoni kadim

Maktabhoi asosii falsafii YUnon inhoand: maktabi Mileti (Fales, Anaksimandr, Anaksimen, Geraklit); pifagoriyon (Pifagor, Gippas, Alkmeon); eliyoiyon az Italiyai janubi (Anaksagor, Ksenofan, Parmenid, Zenoni Eliyoi, Empedokl); sofiston (Protagor, Gogiy, Gippiy, Prodikt, Antifont); maktabi Suqrot, maktabi Aflotun, maktabi Arastu, maktabi atomgaroyon (Levkipp, Demokrit, Epikur); maktabi epikuriyon (Epikur); maktabi kalbiyon (kinikho-Diogen); maktabi ravoqiyon (stoikho-Zenon, Seneka, Markus Avreliy); maktabi navaflotuni (Filo, Plotin).

Faylasufoni maktabi Milet yo tabiiyon asosi ashyo, hastiro in yo on unsuri tabii: ob, yo otash, yo havo, yo mavodi digar shumorida,  dar borai tabiat va paydoishi on bahsho kardaand. Ba Fales kashfi harakati  Oftob, korkardi taqvim va tayini sol ba 365 ruz va 12 mohi 30 ruza va taqsimi osmon ba panj muhitro nisbat dodaand.  Fales asosi hama chizhoro ob medonist, Anaksimandr (610-540 to melod) asosi paydoishi chizhoro dar apeyron mebinad. Ba aqidai Anaksimen (509-428 to melod) hama ashyo az havo ba vujud omadaast. Geraklit otash va harakatro sarchashmai  paydoishi mavjudoti olam mehisobad. u gufta: «Mo nametavonem du bor dar yak rudkhona furu ravem, zero ki mudom jarayoni tozatar rui badani mo merezad». Geraklit jahonro ba monandi daryoi tundu purtalotume, ki bosurat dar jarayon ast va lahzae oromi nadorad, tasvir mekard. Vujud otashi shulavarest, ki hargiz khomush nameshavad.

Maktabi atomgaroyon

Paydoishi  talimoti atomgaroyon bo nomi Levkipp va Demokrit (460-380) vobasta ast. Dar borai hayot va talimoti Levkipp malumot khele kam ast. Ammo Demokrit shogirdi u az maruftarin faylasufi moddagaroi yunoni buda, dar borai u malumotho nisbatan beshtar boqi mondaast. Vay dar shahri Abduga ba dunyo  omadaast. In faylasuf muddate dar kishvarhoi sharqi: Misr, Baynannahrayn va Eron safar karda, bo farhang va afkori ilmiyu falsafii in kishvarho oshno shudaast.

Demokrit bovari dosht, ki hasti az du asli azali: atom (eydos)ho va kholigi iborat ast. Atom-zarrai taqsimnashavanda va tagyirnopaziri miqdoran beokhir va bekholigi buda, az yakdigar bo shakli zohiri va andozai khud farq mekunand va az jobajoshavii onho dar kholigi ashyo va harakat ba vujud meoyad.

Haqiqat, ba aqidai Demokrit, tanho tavassuti aql shinokhta meshavad. Du navi marifat ast: yake haqiqi, digare torik. Ba marifati torik hamai shaklhoi marifati hissii zerin: binoi, shunavoi, shomma, zoiqa, lomisa dokhiland. Ammo marifati haqiqi ba kulli az marifati avval farq dorad. Va on vaqte shuru mekunad, ki vositahoi marifati hissii nomburda az kor aftand va qudrati digari darki mavzuro nadoshta boshand. Hamono ba maydon marifati haqiqi meoyad, ki tavassuti quvvai  tafakkur olati nozuktare surat megirad.

Demokrit niz az jumlai on hakimon ast, ki dar falsafai khud ba inson maqomu martabai baland dodaast. Metavon guft, ki u yak andoza hikmati sofistii Protagorro, ki meguft: «Inson meyori hamai chizhost» isloh namuda, meafzoyad, ki «Odami khiradmand meyori hamai on chizest, ki vujud dorad».

Demokrit ruhro ba otash, ki az atomhoi purtaharruk iboratand, tashbeh dodaast. Vay hamchunin miqdori jahonro beshumor hisobidaast, ham aqida doshtaast, ki baze ba vujud meoyand va baze az miyon meravand, baze beshtar az yak Mohu Oftob dorand va bazero Mohu Oftob nest. Baze shoyad dar asari barkhurdan bo yakdigar az bayn ravand.

Talimoti Demokritro minbad Epikur davom dodaast.

Talimoti Suqrot, Aflotun va Arastu

Suqrot (469-349 to melod) yake az barjastatarin faylasufoni yunoni meboshad, ki dar tarikhi falsafai jahoni naqshi buzurge dorad. Suqrot  ozodandesh va munaqqidi guzaro bud.

Dar markazi falsafai u masalai inson, nakukori, akhloq, huquq, qonunhoi shahrvandi, jangu sulh va gayra qaror dosht. Suqrot vazifai hikmatro justujui haqiqat medonist va ba  nakukori va adolat davat mekard. Vay aqida dosht, ki beadolatiro bo beadolati javob naboyad dod. In misli on ast, ki Isoi Maseh gufta, ki bo badi badiro nametavon az bayn burd va davati galaba  ba adovatro (badiro) az tariqi muhabbat targib karda bud.

Suqrot asosi fahmi usuli akhloq, vatandori va dindoriro bo khudshinosii inson marbut medonist. u davat mekard, ki inson boyad ba ovozi daruni, yane vijdon (daymonion) gush andozad. Vijdon zamonati daryofti haqiqati voqei meboshad va sarchashmai ilohi dorad. Hadafi nihoyii hamai hasti ba aqidai Suqrot inson ast. Manaviyatu akhloqiyati haqiqi donistani har on chi baroi inson doroi nemati neki, zeboi va hamchunin mufid dar rohi rasidan ba saodatmandii hayoti ast. Vay asosi nakukoriro dar khuddori (golibi az boloi nafs), mardonagi (istodagari dar muqobili khatar) va adolat (rioyai qonun va andoza dar korho) medonad. In nakukorihoro inson az tariqi marifat va khudshinosi ba dast meorad. Marifat mohiyati nakukorist.

YAke az khizmathoi buzurgi Suqrot in ast, ki avvalin shuda masalahoi fitri budani donish, kulliyati nakukori va adolat, khudshinosii insonro ba miyon guzosht, inchunin sukhani marufi «Hudro bishnos» ba u nisbat dorad. Az hikmathoi Suqrot: «Man faqat onro medonam, ki chize namedonam» jolibi diqqat ast.

Aflotun dar   soli 427 to melod dar khonavodai ashrof ba dunyo omadaast. Ba osori Aflotun chunin kitobho ba monandi «Difoi Suqrot», «Parmenidos», «Fedon (nafs), Jashn (Pir), «Protogoras» (Sufistoiyon), «Navomis» (Qonunguzori), «Siyosat» va «Jumhuriyat» taalluq dorad.

Aflotun  asosguzori nazariyai ideyahost, ki dar falsafai bo unvoni «musuli Aflotun» maruf shudaast. Muvofiqi in nazariya on chi dar in dunyo mushohida meshavad, aslu haqiqatashon dar jahoni digar, olami tagyirnopaziri maqulot – «olami musul» ast va chizho, jismho, afrodi in jahoni hisshavanda ba monandi soyaho va akshoi haqiqathoi on jahoni digarand va insoni asil va haqiqi, insoni on jahon ast, hamchunin hamai ashyo.

Nazariyai musuli Aflotun ham jihati marifati (gnoseologi) va ham hastishinosi (ontologi) dorad. Aflotun avvalin faylasufest, ki mavzui kulliyat (universum)-ro ba falsafa dokhil kard. Vay aqidai guzashtagonashro, ki yak yo yakchand nakhustunsur yo nakhustillati hasti: havo, ob, apeyron, otash, efir va gayraro mejustand, etirof namekard. Ba sifati chunin illat, mani-logosi ashyo, logosi hastiro mejust. Ba hamin sifat u kulliyat – universumro, ki dar nazariyai musuli u ifoda shudaast, qabul dorad. Ba aqidai Aflotun chizhoi zebo az on ru zeboyand, ki ba zebogii mahz (musul-eydosi zeboi) payvandand, baroi on odamon nakukorand, ki nekuii mahz vujud dorad. Ba hamin tariq, mafhumhoi kulli (musul-eydosho), az mavjudiyati juzii onho muqaddamand. In mafhumho, na natijai amali tajridii zehni inson, balki dar zehni inson hanuz to tavallud budaand va marifat tanho yodovarii onhost. Aflotun zimni in nazariyai khud masalai tanosubi kullu juz, dar marifat va justujui kulliyat dar hastiro guzoshtaast.

Arastu (tavallud 384 – 323 to melod) az buzurgtarin hakimoni zamoni khud va shogirdi Aflotun bud, ki az ustodash dar bisyore az masalahoi hikmatu ilm pesh guzashta, dar tarikhi falsafa bo nomi muallimi avval maruf gashtaast. Vay nakhustin shuda usuli mantiqro tanzim kardaast va onro ba unvoni oloti fikri saheh ba juyandagoni donish va muhaqqiqon taqdim  namudaast. Arastu bunyodguzori maktabi mashshoiya (peripatetika) meboshad. Arastu dar bogi in maktab bo shogirdonash rohravon dars meguftaast. Az in ru, onro maktabi  peripatetikho, ba zaboni arabi «mashsho» -roh raftan va payravoni Arasturo mashshoiyon nomidaand.

Ba qalami Arastu chunin asarho ba monandi «Organon», «Metafizika» yo «Falsafai ulo», «Ravonshinosi», «Politika» (Siyosat), «Akhloqi Nikomakh», «Akhloqi Evdemi», «Ritorika», «Poetika» va gayra mansuband.

Falsafai Arastu  az korkardi ilmi mantiq hamchun hunar va ravishi durust fikr kardan shuru meshavad.  Arastu avvalin shuda donishro ba poyai ilmi nihoda, inchunin ilmhoro tabaqabandi namudaast. Tibqi tabaqabandii u falsafa ba se qism hikmati nazari, amali va sher taqsim meshavad. Hikmati nazari khudshinosi, hastishinosi, riyoziyot, fizika, ravonshinosiro faro megirad. Ba hikmati amali akhloq, tadbiri manzil va siyosat dokhil meshavad. Hikmati sher ba poyai sanat va zeboi ustuvor ast.

Arastu talimoti peshiniyonro dar borai in ki olam az jahor unsur iborat ast, paziruftaast.

Arastu javharro unsuri nakhustini olam mepindorad. Javhar on ast, ki dar chizho nest, balki chizhost. Masalan, yak inson metavonad javon, bemor, tandurust va gayra boshad, ammo hamesha hamon inson ast. Javhar ham ba du qism ast, yo mujarrad ast monandi aql va nafs va yo moddi monandi jism, ki murakkab ast az hayulo va surat.

Arastu ba nazariyai ideyaho, musuli Aflotun erod giriftaast. u zikr mekunad, ki dar falsafai Aflotun robita miyoni kulliyot va juziyot ravshan nest. Aflotun gohe padidahoi hissiro partave yo inikose az kulliyot farz mekard va gohe onhoro ba monandi tasvirhoe, ki ba taqlid az kulliyot ba vujud omadaand, dar nazar megirift. Dar har surat mafhumi «musul» robitai miyoni chizi juziro be mafhumi kulli ravshan namekunad. Zero umuri ehsosshavanda va chizi juzi hamesha dar holi tagyir va tabdil ast, mamulan, mafuli kulli bad az mushohidai juziyot ba  vujud meoyad, dar hole ki Aflotun etiqodmandi khilofi in amr bud. Arastu boshad, vobasta ba in mushkilot vujudi ashyoro haqiqi medonist.

Arazhoi yak javhar iboratand az: chandi, chuni, nisbat, izofa, kujoi, mulk, vaz, fel va infiol. Inho hej kadome khud javhar nestand, balki qobili tagyir va digarguni meboshand. Inson goh javon va zamone pir ast, goh solim, goh bemor, goh bo libos, goh uryon va gayra, ki inho hama aroz hastand, bar javhar. Majmui olam az nazari Arastu az hamin dah maqula: yak javhar va nuh araz iborat ast.

Ba aqidai Arastu modda, yo hayulo vujudi bilquvva va moyai avvali ast, ki metavonad tahavvul yobad va chuniyu chandii on tagyir yobad, ammo vujudi on hamon ast, ki hast. Ammo on chi hayulo ba sui on tahavvul meyobad, surat ast va surati har chiz feliyati on chiz ast. Vujud zamone quvva ast va gohe fel ast, yak tika sang bilquvva mujassama ast, khok bilquvva kuza ast, yane hayulo yo khud moddai kuza ast. Kuza feliyat va surati khok ast. Pas tahavvuli khok ba kuza tahavvuli hayulo ba surat ast. Az quvva ba fel daromadan, yane tahavvuli chize ba sui chizi nav ast.

Arastu tagyiri surat yo guzashtani mavjudot az quvva ba felro harakat menomad va in harakat dar chahor maqula az maquloti dahgona anjom mepazirad, ki iboratand: az vaz, chandi va chuni. Dar jarayoni tagyir faqat surati modda ivaz meshavad.Surat az nazari Arastu kamoli modda ast.

Arastu olamro qadim va azali mepindorad va az tarafe muharriki avvalro, ki Hudost (Demiurg) niz azali va qadim medonist, binobar in vay faylasufi sanavi, dualist meboshad.

Maktabi ilmiyu falsafii Iskandariya

Iskandar dar soli 331 to milod shahri Iskandariyaro dar Misr bino kard. Pas az u sulolai Batolis, ki jonishinoni vay dar Misr budand, Iskandariyaro poytakhti khud qaror dodand. Dar on zamon shahrhoi yunoni ahamiyati ilmiyu falsafii khudro az dast doda budand. Binobar on Batolis (asosguzori in sulola Batlimus Sater 323-282 to milod) Iskandariyaro ba markazi ilmu falsafa niz tabdil dodand.

Donishmandoni madrasai Iskandariya ilm va falsafai yunoniro ba ilmu hikmati sharqi daromekhta, ba on janbai jahoni bakhshidaand.

Maruftarin olimoni in maktab Uqlidus (Evklid tav.s.330 to milod) riyozidon-matematik (handasashinos)-i mashhuri boston, muallifi kitobi «Ibtido», Aristrakhus (tav.310 to melod) az shahri Samos ham chunin riyozidoni buzurg va ba istilohi digar Koperniki Ahdi qadim; Arkhimed (tav. 287 to melod) buzurgtarin nobigai riyozidon, mekhanik va fiziki boston; Batlimus (Ptolomey) qarni duyumi milodi az ulamoi hayat (astronomiya) va jugrofidoni boston, muallifi «Almajasti» va gayra meboshand.

Az faylasufoni qadimtarini in davra Flutin (Plotin) meboshad. Flutin asosguzori falsafai navaflotuni ba shumor meravad. Gayr az u ba in maktab faylasufon Namenyus, Ammonius Sakkas taalluq dorand. Flutin (204 – 269 melodi) okhirin faylasufi ahdi qadim buda, dar Misr tavallud shuda, dar shahri Rum az olam chashm pushidaast.

Talimoti mobaduttabia (metafizika)-i Flutin (Plotin) az se chizi muqaddas ogoz meyobad: ahadiyat, aql va  nafs. Ahadiyat muqaddam, yane pesh az aql ast va  aql muqaddam ba nafs. Aql sodir az ahadiyat ast va nafs sodir az aql, pas har du sodir az ahadiyatand, yake bevosita, digare bavosita.

Ahadiyatro ba durusti nametavon tarif kard, chun u favqi tarif ast va hamchunin naboyad sifate bar u nisbat dod, ki u favqi tavsif ast, dar mavridi u sukut besh az har chiz doroi haqiqat ast.

Hastii jahon az ahadiyati shinokhtanashavanda va didanashavandai gaybii ilohi ogoz meshavad, ki dar ibtido chun aqli jahoni, pas az on chun nafsi jahoni tajalli mekunad. Pas az on nafsi jahoni, nafsi fardi va tani fardi to hayulo – modda, yane ba qavli Flutin – nesti zuhur mekunand.

Falsafa dar YUnoni Qadim

Tartibdikhanda: MIRBOBOEV M.Q , SOLIJONOV R, ABDULATIPOV U.H. FALSAFA

Dokhil kard: Sino Egamberdiev

Sanai dokhilgardida: 2014-02-05

Naqsha

Paydoishi falsafa dar YUnon va maktabi Mileti

Maktabi atomgaroyon

Talimoti Suqrot, Aflotun va Arastu

Maktabi ilmiyu falsafii Iskandariya

 

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