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Dini Buddoiya

Tarikhi dini Budoiya dar asri VI to solshumorii melodi dar Hinduston ba vujud omadaast. Dar in davra prosessi paydoishi munosibathoi nav, ba futur raftani sokhti kabilavi – avlodi na munosibatkhoi ba on khos, chudoshavii chomea ba tabakakhoi gunogun va tashakkuli davlati gulomdori ogoz shuda bud. Munosibatkhoi nav va sharoiti tagyiryofta bo dini peshtarai avlodiyu kabilavi muvofiqat namekard. Tasiri brakhmankho va oini brakhmaniya khele mahdud gashta bud. Guruhhoi nave, ki ba sari kudrat omada budand, alalkhusus ashrofzodagoni harbi tobeiyatro bo brakhmaniya namekhostand. Dini brahmaniya boshad, hukumati brahmanhoro tamin mesokht.

budoiya

SHaroiti tarikhi tabdili dini brahmaniyaro ba dini digare, ki munosibathoi ba vujudomadaro ifoda kunad, taqozo menamud. Buddoiya dar zaminai brahmaniya paydo shud, avval dar shakli firqae az brahtimaniya va sipas dini mustaqil. Zaminai goyavii buddoiya talimoti brahmaniya meboshad, masalan talimot dar borai sansara, karma va gayra. Inchunin ba buddoiya talimothoi falsafi va rivoyathoi on davr tasiri muayane dorand.

Tarafdoroni buddoiya paydoishi dini khudro ba faoliyati shohzodai Hind Siddkhartha Gautama aloqamand mesozad. Dar borai Gautama rivoyathoyu qissahoi ziyod mavjudand. Umuman tarjumai holi Gautama badi panj asri hayotash tartib doda shudaast. Tabqi rivoyatho tavaludi Gautama ba majmui mujizaho payvast ast. U garchi shohzoda bud, vale az ovoni javoni dar borai piri, kasalihoyu marg payvasta fikr mekard. Dar 29 solagi zanu farzandashro tanho guzoshta, zindagii porsoi va ovoragardiro pesh megiradyu badi 7 soli ovoragardi u ba haq merasad, sohibmarifat megardad va nuri marifat aqli uro ravshan mesozad. Sipas Gautama dar muddati 40 sol ba targiboti dini mepardozad.

Mutaqidoni buddoiya guruhhoi rohibonro tashkil doda, faqat az sadaqai mardum zindagi mekardand. Nuqtahoi asosii buddoiyai talimoti ibtidoi dar majmuai Tripitaka /sababi segona/ bayon shudaand. Ahkomi diniro buddoiho chun kalomi ilohi – kalomi Buddo meparastand. Dar on inchunin aslhoi muhimi tashkili jamiyathoi ruhboni bayon shudaand. Muvofiqi aqidai buddoiho chor asli muhim ba Gautama hangomi bayoni vahy ayon shudaast:

  • 1/ zistan – yane ranj kashidan;
  • 2/ sababi ranj – khohishho /orzuho/ ast;
  • 3/ baroi az ranch rakhoi yoftan boyad az orzukho /khokhishkho/ ozod shud;
  • 4/ rokhi khalos shudan az khokhishkhoi tanparastona mutobiki talimoti Buddo amal kardan ast.

Rivoyati khakikatkhoi mukaddas dindorro metavonad ba maqsadi asosii khayotash-nirvana biyorad. Nirvana-kholati oromii abadi, saodat va khushbakhti ast, dar in mavrid inson purra az dilbastagihoi dunyavi ozod meshavad. Dunyobezori yake az ruknkhoi buddoiya boshad kham, kholo az tarafi baze raviyakhoi on befaoliyai, beparvoi ba zindagi, dunyobezori ba faol budan, ishtiroki faolona dar zindagi ivaz karda shudaast, makhsusan dar Makhayana.

Az rui akisai buddoiya chakhon az amvochi zarrakhoi goyavi-Dkharma iborat ast. Az makhlutshavii on khamai ashyoi olam va inson ba vuchud meoyand. Marg chudoshavii payvastagikhoi gunoguni dkharma va dokhil shudan ba tarkibkhoi nav ast. CHizi navi dar natichai in ba vuchud omadaro karma muayyan mekunad  ki sifatu kismati on az amali neku badi dar guzashta sodirkarda vobastagi dorad. Mavqei inson va zindagii u niz tibqi khamon konun ast. Kas naboyad baroi darachai balandtar talosh kunad, balki shukrona namuda, ba targibi talimoti Buddo bipardozad, tibqi on amal namoyad, to in ki dar oyanda darachai balandtar va takvini avlotare uro nasib gardad.

Dar Mahayana talimot dar borai jannat vujud dorad va on darvoza, maqomi ba nirvana tasavvur meshavad.

Dar talimoti buddoiya mavqei muhimro masalahoi akhloqi ishgol kardaast. On ehtirom ba molikiyati kasi digar, adolat, pokii raftoru aqida, sakhovanmandi, nakshtani mavjudoti zinda va gayraro targib menamoyad. Dar asri avvali solshumorii melodi buddoiya ba duraviya taqsim shud: Hinayana va Mahayana-rohi tang, mahdud va rohi vasei najot.

Hinayana ba buddoiyai ibtidoi beshtar takya kardan ast. In raviya Buddoro insone medonad, ki rohi najotro yoftaast. Rohi asosii najotro dar zindagii porsoi, duri az dilbastagihoi nafsoni, dar gushanishini mebinad. Beshtar khalosii shakhsi, fardiro takid menamoyad. Berun az Hinduston Hinayana dar mahallahoi hindunishinpahn gardidaast /Janubu SHarqii Osiyo, SHri-Lanka/. Dar Mahayana imkoniyati najot na tanho baroi rohbaron, balki digar odamoni qatori niz imkonpazir megardad. Dar in mavrid zarurati targibotu tashviqoti budoiya, dakholat ba umuri ijtimoiyu davlatiro takid mekunad. Mahayana ba zamona beshtar muvofiq shuda, az hududi Hinduston /Osiyoi Miyona, SHaqi dur/ pahn gadid. Buddo dar Mahayana ba khudo tabdil yoft, ki ba khotiri u mabadhoi /ibodatgohhoi/ ziyod bino shudand va marosimhoi boshukuhe anjom doda meshavand. Ziyorati “joyhoi muqaddas” rasm gardid. Dar mintaqahoi gunogun vobasta ba odatu ananahoi onho buddoiya shaklhoi mahhallii khudro paydo kard, sehru jodu, etiqod ba mujiza vusat yoft.

Dar Hinduston az asrhoi VI-VII sar karda tanazzuli buddoiya ogoz meshavad va mavqei khudro az dast medihad. Tasiri on dar shaklhoi tozai ba sharoiti tarikhi muvofiq dar kishvarhoi Osiyo beshtar meshavad.

YAke az shaklhoi buddoiya lamaizm meboshad /lamatibetioli, samovi/.dar asrhoi XIV-XV dar doirai Mahayana tashakul yoft. Farqiyati jiddi dar bayni onho parastishi khubilganho /az nav ehyoshuda/-khudohoi zinda, Buddoi tajassum yofta meboshad. CHunin shakhson lamayhoi olirutba, dar tibetiho Dalay – lama /dalay-buzurg/ meboshad. Baroi lamaistho ruhboniyati ommavi khos ast.

Buddoiya dar tuli asrkhoi ziyod dar khayoti mardumi baze kishvarkhoi osiyoi reshai amik davondaast. On ba khamai sokhakhoi khayoti chamiyai va ichtimoi tasir kardaast va marosimkhoi ziyode dorad, az chumla kurboni, khach, ibodat, idkho va gayra. Dar baze kishvarkho, masalan, Tailand, buddoiya dini davlati meboshad. Payravoni on dar sharki Duri Russiya, kishvarkhoi Osiyoi CHanubi, Hinduston, Hitoy ziyodand. Dar Hitoy firkai Dzeni buddoiya dar asosi Makhayana tarafdoroni ziyod dorad. Hamin firka ba Koreya, Vetnam, YAponiya kham pakhn shudaast. Farkiyati in firka kabl az khama dar talimoti on dar borai aloka bo “khakikati mutlaki khikmati Buddo” meboshad. Baze namoyandagoni firka Dzenro chun shakli psikhoterapiya va psikhoandamez medonand.

Suporish va savolkho.

  1. Dinkhoi chahoni az dinkhoi milli chi fark dorand?
  2. Dar chumkhurii mo nishonakhoi buddoiya boki mondaand?

 

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