Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / ADABIYOTI TOJIK DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XVI VA ASRI XVII

ADABIYOTI TOJIK DAR NIMAI DUYUMI ASRI XVI VA ASRI XVII

Dar tarikhi khalqhoi Movarounnahru Huroson asri XVI avvalin asrest, ki tanazzuli feodalizm dar qalamravi mazkur shiddat megirad. Zaminahoi in tanazzul nisbatan barvaqttar ogoz gardida bud. Zuro pas az vafoti Temur (1336-1404) meroskhoroni u baroi sohib shudan ba takht sar bardoshta, oromii mamlakatro khalaldor mekardand. Badtar imperiyai Temuriyonro turkhoi badiyanishin bo sarvarii Muhammadi SHayboni barham dodand. Muhammad SHaybonikhon soli 1500 Samarqandi bostoniro tasarruf namud. Tuli 5 sol, yane to soli 1505 u tamomi qalamravi Movarounnahrro tahti nazorati khud girift. Jangu nizohoi paydarpay, tokhtu tozhoi muntazam, mansabkhohivu johtalabiho qalamravi Hurosonu Movarounnahrro baso kharobu zaif namuda bud. Hojagii khalq past meraft, zero nizohoi qalamravi, kashmakashihoi dokhili nizomi inkishofi jamiyatro vayron menamud. Tabaqahoi mehnatii aholi beshtar va hamajoniba zarar medidand.

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Okhirin namoyandai Temuriho – Sulton Husayn Bayqaro soli 1506 vafot namud. Du pisari Sulton Husayn hangomi hamlai SHaybonikhon shahri Hirotro himoya karda natavonistand. Dar natija, SHaybonikhon soli 1507 Hurosonro niz zabt namud va hokimi Movarounnahru Huroson gardid.

Soli 1510 nooromii gushnoshunidi digar rukh dod. SHoh Ismoili Safavi Hirotro tasarruf namuda, to intihoi sadai L>U1 nizohoi siyosi va mazhabi nihoyat tezutund boqi menonand.

Soli 1513 Ismoili Safavi ba Movarounnahr hamla mekunad, vale chandon muvaffaq nameshavad. Tanho pas az vafoti SHaybonikhon to soli 1598 (nazdik ba 90-sol) jonishinhoi u davlatdori karda boshand ham, komilan komyob nashudand.

Honi boobru – hokimi Bukhoro – Ubaydullohkhoni SHayboni bahri ozodii Huroson az Safaviho shash dafa lashkar kashida boshad ham, benatija anjomid. Tanho dar zamoni Abdullohkhon (1557-1598) ba u muyassar kardid, ki yak andoza muttahidii khonhoi uzbekro tamin kunad. Zero ham Huroson va ham Horazm ba davlati khoni muttahid karda shudand. Vale pas az vafoti Abdullohkhon quvvahoi markazgurez az nav sar badoshtand va hukumati SHayboniho ba hamin vosita az arsai tarikh raft.

YAke az hodisahoi nihoyat dahshatbori asr nizohoi mazhabi ba shumor meravad. Dar qalamravi Movarounnahru Huroson barobari zada daromadani SHoh Ismoili Safavi muborizahoi tezutunde miyoni shiaho va sunniyon sar zad. Havodisi mazkur az on sabab ham bud, ki Ismoili Safavi khudro vorisi mazhabi shia elon namuda, bahri rivoji on dar bayni mardum tavassuti qatlu gorat niyathoi digari khudro niz amali menamud. Dar asl hadafi in siyosatmador vase namudani hududi davlat va sarzamini khud az hisobi mamoliki obodon va ba dast darovardani boigarivu sarvat bud. In nizohoi mazhabi amalan to okhirhoi asri L>U1 idoma karda, boisi kharobihoi gushnoshunidi khalqhoi Movarounnahru Huroson gardida bud. Hatto, du tan sukhanvaroni mashhuri in davra Mavlono Badriddin Hiloli va Kamoluddini Binoi qurboni ana hamin guna nizohoi mazhabi shudaand. Az tarafi digar, yake az sababhoi judoii Movarounnahru Eron ana hamin mojarohoi siyosiyu mazhubi gardida bud.

Tashkili Davlati Temuriyoni Hind

Temuriyoni Hind va yo in sulola dar sarchashmaho bo nomi Boburiyon niz yod meshavad, az ibtidoi asri L>U1 to ogozi asri L1L dar Hinduston hukmroni kardaand. Aniqtarash tuli solhoi 1526-1858 sulolai mazkur dar qalamravi Hind hukumat kardaast. Asosguzori hukumati Temuriyoni Hind namoyandai hamin sulola – Zahiruddin Bobur meboshad. Onhoro inchunin mugulhoi buzurg niz menomand. In sulola dar okhirhoi saltanati Avrangzeb parokanda gardida boshad ham, amalan to istiloi Angliya (s.1857) vujud dosht. Silsilai mazkur az Bobur (1526-30) ogoz gardida, Humoyun (1530-39; 1555-56), Akbar (1556-1605), Jahongir (1605- 27), SHohijahon (1627-58), Avrangzeb (1658-1707), Bahodurshoh (1707- 1712), Jahongirshoh (1712-13), Farrukh Siyar (1713-19), Muhammadshoh (1719-48), Ahmadshoh (1748-54), Olamgiri 11(1754-59), SHoholami II (1806- 37) idoma namudaast va okhirin namoyandai sulolai mazkur Bahodurshohi II solhoi 1839-1858 hukmroni kardaast.

b)  Avzoi farhangi va adabi

Havzaho yo markazhoi adabi. Odamon dar hama holat rui niyoz ba ilm, farhang va adab ovardaand. Dar asri XVI, sarfi nazar az nooromihoi siyosi, dar qalamravi Osiyoi Miyona, Eron, Hinduston markazhoi ilmi, farhangi va adabi faoliyat kardaand, ki dar rushdi jomeavu farhang naqshi muhim guzoshtaand. Dar Osiyoi Miyona – Samarqand, Bukhoro, Balkh, Badakhshon; dar sarzamini Eron – Isfahonu Mashhad, SHeroz, Tabrez; dar mulki Hind – Dehli, Multon, Lohur, Panjob, Kashmir, Sarhind. Har kadome az in doirahoi farhangiyu adabi dar peshrafti sohahoi mazkur naqshi sazovor guzoshtaand. Masalan, dar Osiyoi Miyona: Mushfiqi, Nisori, Mutribi, SHavkati Bukhoroi Samarqandkhojai Tirmizi, Mulhami Bukhoroi, Fitrati Zodruz, Sayido va digaron; dar Eron: Soibi Tabrezi, Kamini Koshoni, Saymirzoi Safavi, Mirzo Muhammadtohiri Nasrobodi va digaron; dar Hinduston: Fayzii Dekani, Bedili Dehlavi va gayra.

Boyad guft, ki avzoi farhangu adabiyot dar nimai avvali asri LU! nisbat ba nimai duyum khele farqkunanda ast. Hamlai SHoh Ismoili Safavi soli 1512 ba Huroson, boisi parokandagii quvvahoi ilmiyu adabi gardid. Beshtar quvvahoi adabi ru ba Movarounnahr ovardand. Vosifi dar «Badoe-ul-vaqoe» khabar medihad, ki: «Dar on vaqt (s.1512) qarib ponsad kas az viloyati Huroson azimati mulki Movarounnahr kardand».

Dar in sarzamin ilmhoi tarikh, falsafa, riyoziyot, handasa, zabonu adabiyot, mantiq, musiqi khele pesh raftaast. Masalan, Muhammadsolehi Karminagi dar ilmi mantiq, Mavlono Kavkabii Bukhoroi dar nujumu musiqi, Ismatullohi Samarqandi dar sarfu nahv, Hoja Kaloni Samarqandi dar hakmatu riyoziyot az jumlai saromadoni asri khud budand.

Ilmi musiqi yake az dastovardhoi khalqi tojik dar asri L VI buda, dar se shahr: Hirot, Samarqand va Bukhoro khele pesh raftaast. Dar in bora Hofizi Tanish («SHarafnomai shohi»), Darveshalii CHangi («Tuhfat-us- surur»), Said SHarifi Samarqandi («Tarikhi kasira») az simohoi mashhuri asr: Bobojoni Hofiz, Dustmuhammadi Udi, Muhammadalii Noi, Ahmadi Hofiz, Ibni CHangi va digaron yod kardaand.

Tarikhnavisi niz khele pesh raftavu asarhoi garonarzishe ba maydon omadaand. Az jumla «Ravzat-us-safo»-i Mirkhond, Habib-us-siyar»-i Hondamir, «SHayboninoma» va «Futuhoti khoni»-i Binoi» «Muntakhab- ut-tavorikh»-i Hofizi Ubahi, «SHarafnomai shohi» yo «Abdullohnoma»-i Hofizi Tanish va gayra mahsuli hamin asrand.

Tazkira va takziranavison.

Asri XV ba boloravii sher va ziyod gardidani quvvahoi ejodi kharakternok ast. Dar ibtidoi asri L V doirai adabii Hirot qarib ki muqoisanashavanda meboshad. Badtar Bukhoro hamchun markazi adabiyotu quvvahoi adabi nufuz paydo namud. Hatto hokimi vaqt Amir Ubaydullohkhon dar barobari siyosatmadori shoir ham bud. U bo takhallusi «Ubaydi», hatto ba zabonhoi tojiki va ubeki sher ham meguft.

YAke az komyobihoi buzurgi in asr talifi chand tazkira ba shumor meravad, ki dar onho ham malumoti sharhiholii adibon, nomgui osor, khususiyathoi ashor, tobishhoi hunariyu ejodi va maqomi on adibon dar zamoni khud va umuman dar tarikhi adabiyot bahsho surat megiriftaand.

Tazkira khud lafzi arabi buda, zikru yodovari kardan, ba khotir ovardan meboshad. Dar istiloh asarest, ki dar on sharhi hol, namunahoi osor, khususiyathoi ejodi, tobishhoi hunarii ejodkoron zikr karda meshavad. Az in ru, tazkira yak navi bayoni afkori adabi-estetiki niz hast. Az in khotir, tazkiraho umumi va khususi meshavand.

Tazkirahoi umumi oid ba ruzgoru osori shuaroi qabli va muosironi tazkiranavis malumot medihand.

Takzirahoi khususi zindaginoma va osori adiboni muosirro darbar megirand. Az rui prinsipi ejod niz tazkiraho gunogun meshavand: tazkirahoi alifboi, tarikhi, jugrofi, mazhabi va gayra.

Dar asri XV1, makhsusan tazkirahoi «Nuskhai zeboi Jahongir», «Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Saidmuhammad Mutribii Samarqandi, ki mahsuli hamin asrand, arzishi farovoni adabi-ilmi doshta baroi omuzishi adabiyoti tojik malumoti zaruri medihand. «Nuskhai zeboi Jahongir» ehdo ba hokimi Hinduston – SHoh Jahongir buda, soli 1625 talif shudaast. SHoir ba kishvarhoi Balkh, Fayzobod, Kunduz, Kobul va gayra safar namuda, mavodi zaruri girdovari kardaast. Tazkirai «Nuskhai zeboi Jahongir» sharhi holu namunahoi ashori 292 nafar shoironi okhiri asri XVI va ogozi asri XII-ro faro megirad, ki onho dar qalamravi Movarounnahru Huroson, Eron, Afgoniston va Hinduston zindagi va ejod kardaand.

Bo khohishi Jahongir ba tazkirai mazkur zindaginoma va namunahoi ashori 80 nafar adibon, ki Jahongir khud jamovari namuda bud, dokhil karda shudaast.

«Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Mutribi soli 1606 talif shuda, ba hokimi vaqt – Valimuhammadkhoni Ashtarkhoni bakhshida shudaast.

Mutribi dar ejodi in tazkirai khud az «Majolis-un-nafois»-i Navoi va «Muzakir-ul-ahbob»-i Nisori bahra bardoshtaast. Dar tazkirai mazkur oid ba 335 nafar adibon malumot doda meshavad, ki onho muosironi tazkiranigorand. Az on jumla, dar borai 17 nafar hokimon, ki onho ahli qalam niz budand, malumot doda meshavad.

«Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Mutribi baroi omukhtani hayoti adabi va ruzgori adiboni nimai duyumi asri XVI va asri XVII az behtarin sarchashmahoi adabi ast. Zero baze adibon tanho dar hamin tazkira zikr shudaand. Az jumla: Figori, Nozimi, Orifi, Afzali, Zardaki, Dusti va digaron. Az tarafi digar, tazkirai Mutribi baroi muayyan namudani qazovati ejodi bade, peshrafti afkori adabi – estetikii asrimiyonagi, daryofti asolati hunarii ejodkoron va gayra niz ahamiyati volo dorad.

Mutribi khud Samarqandi buda, solhoi tavalludu vafotash nomalum ast. Az takhallusi u paydost, ki dar jodai musiqi, saroyandagiyu navozandagi sohibi istedod budaast. U dar ibtido ogozi tahsilro dar Samarqand shuru namuda, badtar ba Bukhoro meravad. Dar in markazi farhangi az Hoja Hasani Nisori ilmi sheru shoiri meomuzad. Namunahoi ashori Mutribi dar «Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i u joy doda shudaast, ki az hunari balandu sanati voloi shoirii Mutribi guvohi medihand. Az in ru, merosi mahfuzmondai adibro «Tazkirat-ush- shuaro», «Nuskhai zeboi Jahongiri» va ashori mutafarriqai liriki tashkil namudaand.

Digar az tazkirahoi in asr «Muzakkir-ul-ahbob»-i Bahovaddin Hasan mutakhallis ba Nisori meboshad. Nisori tazkirai khudro soli 1566 talif namuda, onro ba hokimi vaqt – Iskandarkhoni SHayboni bakhshidaast. SHumorai shoiron dar nuskhahoi gunoguni tazkirai Nisori mukhtalif qayd gardida, az 220, 275 to 450 nafar zikr shudaand. Albatta, in khud az borho tahriru takmil shudani tazkirai Nisori shahodat medihad. Muallif tazkirai khudro davomi tazkirai Mir Alisheri Navoi medonad. «Muzakkir-ul-ahbob» az nigohi sokhtu tarkib niz jolib ast: yane on doroi muqaddima, chahor bob va khotima meboshad.

Dar tarikhi afkori adabi tazkirai Nisori yake az asarhoi baso arzishmand ba shumor meravad. Pesh az hama, in asar baroi omukhtani tarikhi adabiyoti asri XVI sarchashmai boetimod ba shumor meravad. Hatto tavassuti tazkirai mazkur bisyor adiboni gumnom oshkor megardand. Az tarafi digar, Muzakkir-ul-ahbob» ruzgoru osori bisyor shuaroi guzashtavu muosiri Nisoriro faro megirad. Inchunin, adibone, ki ba «Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Davlatshoh va «Majolis-un-nafois»-i Navoi dokhil nashudaand, Nisori onhoro dar asari khud joygir namudaast.

Digar az khususiyathoi tazkirai Nisori boz dar on ast, ki Hoja Hasan dar asari khud oid ba avzoi farhangii asr va tahavvuli adabiyoti davr ham malumoti arzishmandi ilmi medihad.

Digar az tazkirahoi muhim, ki talifi on ba adabiyoti ibtidoi asri XVII rost meoyad, «Tazkirai Nozimi Tabrezi» buda, soli 1627 talif shudaast. In tazkira az du bob (chahor fasl) iborat meboshad. Tazkirai Nozimi Tabrezi» oid ba ruzgoru osori adiboni guzashta va ham oid ba ahli qalami zamoni khudi muallif malumot medihad. Sarfi nazar az baze norasoiho, tazkirai mazkur arzishi adabi estetiki doshta, oid ba baze lahzahoi zindaginomai shuaro va khususiyati ashori onho bahs karda meshavad.

Tazkirai digar, ki soli 1601 talif shudaast, «Tazkirat-ut-tavorikh»- i Abdullohi Kobuli buda, dar on oid ba ruzgoru osori 197 adibi guzashtavu muosiri khudi tazkiranigor malumot doda shudaast. Az shumorai mazkuri shuaro 145 nafari onho adiboni asrhoi 1H-H^ buda, 52 tan adiboni okhiri asri XV va avvalhoi asri XVI niz dar in tazkira joy doda shudaand, ki inhoro metavon hamasroni muallifi tazkira nomid.

Tazkirai Abdullohi Kobuli az on jihat ham muhim ast, ki tavassuti on khonanda doir ba ruzgoru osori 35-nafar adibi asri L VI malumoti toza paydo karda metavonad, ki dar tazkirahoi digar zikr nashudaand.

Bo vujudi baze akhbori takror, tazkirai Abdullohi Kobuli doroi arzishi khele voloi adabi – estetiki va ilmi meboshad.

Kame barvaqttar az tazkirahoi dar bolo nombarishuda, chand tazkirai digar niz rui kor omadaast, ki baroi omukhtani ruzgoru osori ejodkoroni asrimiyonagi malumoti nasbatan arzishmandi ilmi medihand. Az onho yake asari Abunasr Somirzoi Safavi ast, ki bo nomi «Tuhfai Somi» soli 1560 ejod shudaast. In tazkira niz davomi «Majolis-un-nafois»-i Navoi buda, az muqaddima, haft bob va khotima iborat ast. «Tuhfai Somi» pesh az hama, az on jihat muhim ast, ki dar in asar sharhi holu namunahoi osori 713 tan quvvahoi adabi girdovari shudaast. In adibon dar okhirhoi asri L V va ibtidoi asri L VI zindagi va ejod kardaand. Onho muqimoni qalamravi Iroqi ajam, Hurosonu Movarounnahr meboshand.

Dar in tazkira bayonu ruzgoru ashori besh az 50 shoire, ki dar tazkirai Navoi niz omadaand, bo malumoti nodiru takmilu tasheh va tashreh ovarda shudaand.

Tazkirai «Tuhfai Somi» az nigohi ilmi niz khele arzishmand meboshad, zero dar on holati doirahoi adabi, ravobiti ejodii havzahoi adabi, sabqati ejodi va gayra khele khub bayon shudaast.

Sommirzoi Safavi talifkunandai tazkirai «Tuhfai Somi» soli 1517 dar Tabrez ba dunyo omadaast. Padari u shoh Ismoili Safavi ast, ki solhoi 1502-1524 hukmroni kardaast. Somirzo niz az in ru komilan ilmhoi zamonro az khud karda, chand muddat hokimi Hirot va Ozarboyjon ham budaast. Dar barobari siyosatmadori, u ejodkor niz budaastu az merosi adabiash dar hajmi 6 hazor bayt gazalu ruboi, mufradot va gayra ba yodgor ast. U sohibi tazkirai «Tuhfai Somi» meboshad, ki in asari Somirzo shuhrati uro asosan tamin namudaast.

Asari digare, ki dar nimai avvali asri XVI, daqiqan soli 1522 talif shudaast, «Tuhfat-ul-habib»-i Fakhrii Hiravi meboshad. In tazkira, pesh az hama, bo on khususiyati khud farq mekunad, ki dar on shoironi gazalsaro va asosan onhoe, ki gazalhoi javobiya ba ashori shoironi peshin guftaand, girdovari gardidaast. YAne muosironi Fakhri shoironi okhiri asri LU va avvali asri LU1, ki gazalhoi javobiya ejod kardaand, dar tazkirai mazkur faroham ovarda shudaand. «Tuhfat-ul-habib»-i Fakhrii Hiravi doroi chahor majlis buda, oid ba ruzgoru osori 254 tan shoiron malumoti zaruri medihad va az ashori onho namunaho meorad.

YAke az arzishmandtarin tazkirahoe, ki dar ogozi sadai L VII talif shudaast, «Muzakkir-ul-ashob»-i Muhammadbade Malehoi Samarqandi meboshad. In tazkira solhoi 1688-92 talif shuda, shomili du bakhsh: asosi va mulhaqot ast. Dar qismi asosii on oid ba 165 tan shoironi asri L^P, ki muosironi Malehoyand, malumot doda shudaast. Dar bakhshi mulhaqot boshad, Maleho oid ba 37 nafar shoironi javonu navqalam, ki ba qismati asosi dokhil nashudaand, malumot medihad.

Malumoti Maleho oid ba zindaginomai shoiron nisbatan mutamad ast, zero u bo har yak shoire, ki dar boraash ittilo medihad, vokhurdaast. Az tarafi digar, in tazkira tibqi alifbo tartib doda shudaast va az in ru, dar on shohu gado barobar ast. «Muzakkir-ul-ashob» az in jihat arzishi voloi adabi dorad va az jihati digar namunai nasri adabi – ilmii sadai mazkur ham ba shumor meravad.

Jihati farqkunandai digari tazkirai Maleho boz dar on ast, ki ba tariqi namuna ovardan az ashori shuaro u bo yak yo du bayt iktifo nakarda, to 60-70 bayt zikr menamoyad.

Umuman, tazkiraho az yak taraf, malumotnomai sharhiholii purarzish oid ba zindaginomai adibon bidihand, az tarafi digar, oid ba husnu qubhi sanati sukhan va hunari ejodi ejodkoron, maqomu martabai onho bahs ba miyon meorand, ki in janbahoi ilmi – adabii doshtani tazkirahoro tasdiq menamoyad.

Az in ru, tazkiraho yake az sarchashmahoi mutamadu arzishmand baroi omukhtani tarikhi adabiyot niz meboshand. 

Anvoi sher Dar adabiyoti asri XVI va asri XVII.

Anvoi sher dar adabiyoti asrhoi mazkur asosan az gazal, qasida, musammat, qita, ruboi, manzumavu doston iborat meboshad. YAke az navhoi adabii mamul va mashhuri davrai mazkur, janri nisbatan jovidonavu ustuvor – gazal ba shumor meravad.

Asri XVI avvalin asrest, ki tanazzuli feodalizm ogoz shud va albatta, sokhti feodalizm baroi nigohdorii khud sakhtjoniho mekard va in ravodidhoi sokht, pesh az hama, dar adabiyot janrhoi muvofiq mejust. Az in jost, ki ohanghoi suzu gudoz, izhori isyonhoi qalbi, sadohoi purshuri dilho, ahyonan kushishhoi etirozivu norizoiho az noadolativu berahmiho goliban muqtazhoi tabiati gazal ast. In bardoshtho mavzui sozgori gazal buda, baroi rushdi on zaminai muvofiq omoda mesozad. Az tarafi digar, qonunmandii inkishofi janri gazal, albatta, dar zaminai anana ruida, ba tahavvuli on dar asrhoi peshina berobita nest. Gazal dar tarikhi adabiyot janrest, ki asrhoi makhsusi inkishofi khudro (a.HSH-H1U) dorad. Hatto dar adabiyot iborai asrhoi gazalsaroi qobili qabul gardidaast, ki shoyad ifodagari talaboti zamon va tabiati janr boshad.

Boyad guft, ki dar inkishofi gazali nimai avvali asri XVI sahmi shoironi gazalsaroi ahdi mazkur – Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi, Hoja Hasani Nisori, Badri va digaronro metavon takid namud. Baze az in shoiron masalan, Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi hatto du devoni gazal dorad, ki to andozae qonuniyati tahavvuli janri mazkurro dar in davra faro megirad.

Bo nazardoshti mavzu, mazmun va mundarijayu muhtavo gazali asri XVI asosan ananavi boshad ham, dar juziyot tobishhoi farqkunanda dorad. SHoyad suzu firoq, dardu dog, nokomivu nobarori, ranju azob, shikanjavu jabr va gayra dar gazali asri XVI (khususan dar nimai avval) khele behtar mushohida karda shavad. In holat khususan dar simoi mahbuba ba nazar merasad, ki u bemehr, badqahr, berahm, nomehrubon, jafokor, zolim, magrur, yakrav, khudpisand ast. Mahbuba az kardahoi khud pushaymon nameshavad va bo vujudi in hama, oshiq pursabru toqat, bovafo, mehrubon, gamkhor, ustuvor, tobovar, jafokash meboshad.

Masalan, hasrati oshiq dar bayti zerin az gazali Hiloli:

Hoham, ki ba zeri qadamat zor bimiram, Harchand kuni zinda, digar bor bimiram. YO khud dar joi digar hamin shoir meguyad: Dardi man ishq astu darmonash ba gayr az sabr nest, CHun kunam, k-az dard mushkiltar buvad darmoni man.

Dar asosi gazaliyoti shuaroi marufi asri XVI metavon ba natijae rasid, ki dar unsurhoi shaklii gazali in asr tozakori mushohida nashavad ham, dar mazmunsozi va hunari shoiri tozajuiho dida meshavad. Ustod S.Ayni gazali Mushfiqiro, ki bo matlai:

Dar gamash dilro figoru khasta meguem mo, Ahli dardem, in sukhan donista meguem mo.

ogoz meshavad, misol ovarda menavisad: «Gazale, ki sar to ba poyash misli in gazal khub, latif, ravon aftad, kam ast».

Dar gazali in asr ishq bo masalahoi digari ijtimoi sakht omezish yoftaast. Holati oshiq baso noguvor va toqatfarso ast, vale mahbuba beparvoyu berahmiro pesha kardaast. CHunonchi:

Huni dil megiryamu ashki jigarkhun mekhuram,

Pesh az in may mekashidam, in zamon khun mekhuram.

Hamchu naqshi panjae savsan damad az khoki man, Baski silii jafo az dasti gardun mekhuram. Vah, ki dar ahdi javoni pir gashtam, Mushfiqi,

CHun nagardam pir az in gamho, ki aknun mekhuram.

Hunari shoironi gazalsaroi sadai mazkur dar jiloi sukhan, rangorangii ifoda, manoi baland, javloni andesha, korgiri az sanathoi sheri, mazmunsozi, khayolbofi va gayra ast, ki in hamaro dar majmu hunari ejod menomand.

Qasida. Digar az navhoi mamuli adabii asri L>U1 qasida ba shumor meravad, ki dar in navi sher mo hunari sukhanvarii shoironro beshtar pay mebarem. Mushfiqi khud dar yak qasidaash mefarmoyad, ki u bo nazardoshti mamduh hunari ejodiro ba kharj medihad:

SHeri man gar zinnate dorad zi yumni madhi tust, Hona oroyad, bale, har kas ba qadri mehmon.

Dar in asr az navhoi qasida beshtar qasidahoi madhi, hajvi, hasbiholi, shikvoi, bahoriya va gayra ba nazar merasad. Qasoidi falsafi, orifona dar in asr manzur namegardad. Ammo andeshahoi falsafi va orifona vujud dorand.

Hususiyati digari qasoidi in davra az on iborat ast, ki qasidahoi madhi komilan arzishi tarikhi dorand, zero amalu faoliyathoi siyosii mamduhon asos yo khud janbai sitoishi onhoro tashkil medihand. Honanda shakhsiyati mamduh va shugli payvastagii u, tavajjuhi madhshavanda nisbat ba ahli ilmu fazl, ahli zahmatu fuqaro va gayraro donista megirad.

CHunonchi, matlai yak qasidai madhii Mushfiqi daleli qazovati mazkur ast:

Bihamdullah, ki olam emin ast, az fitnai davron, Ba davri adli Abdullohkhon ibni Sikandarkhon.

Avzoi tarikhi dar chunin qasidaho khele khub bayn karda meshavad:

To kay nidoi hodisa davri zamon dihad,

Kas nest dar jahon, ki qarori jahon dihad.

va gayra.

Qita. YAke az navhoi kuhanbunyodu qadima dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik ast. In navi sherest, ki beshtar pandu ardarz, mavizatu nasihat, sanahoi tarikhi, havodisu voqeoti muhimi ruzgori shakhsiyatho, simohoi siyosi, ilmi, farhangi va adabiro faro megirad. Az tarafi digar, on hajvu nakuhish, mazammatu tanqid va munosibati adibro bo zamon va abnoi on muayyan menamoyad. Az in ru, in yake az janrhoi ba hayoti jomea khele nazdik niz hast.

Qitahoi tamsili, ki mohiyati andarzi dorand, dar in davra khede ziyod ba mushohida merasand.

CHunonchi, qitai «Surohi va sham»-i Mushfiqi behtarin namunai onhost:

SHabe bo surohi hameguft sham

Ki: Ey moyai mahfiloroi dust.

Turo bo chunin qadr peshi qadah

Sujude payopay bigu az chi rust?

Surohi ba u guft, nashnidai, Tavozu zi gardanfarozon nakust.

Musammat. Az navhoi khele mamuli adabist, ki hanuz dar asri H, dar ashori ustod Rudaki bandhoi monand ba musammati murabba duchor meshavad. Va dar asri LL komiltarin namunahoi onro Manuchehrii Domgoni ejod kardaast. Dar lirikai asri L VI sheri tasmit dar shakli musallas duchor meshavad, ki namunai barjastai onro Mushfiqi ejod kardaast. CHunonchi, bandero az on hamchun namuna zikr khohem namud:

Ruze, ki ba savdoi tu afsona shudam,

Bar shami tamannoi tu parvona shudam.

Aftod nigohe zi inoyat ba manat:

Az khesh ba gamhoi tu begona shudam,

CHashmi tu dilam rabudu devona shudam.

Az khandai pinhonivu munkir shudanat.

Musammati mazkuri Manuchehri doroi 14 band buda, mavzui markazii on ishq buda, jamoli mahbuba bo kulli juziyot tavassuti tashbehshavandavu tashbehshuda ba namoish guzoshta meshavad.

SHoir mahbubaro tarjeh medihad va az in ru, tashbehshudai muvofiq paydo karda nametavonad. SHakli sherii mazkur az nigohi mazmunu muhtavo khamri, ishqi, mavizati, vasfi va gayra meshavad.

Ruboi. Ruboi dar adabiyoti asri LU1 pas az gazalu qasida az mamultarin anvoi adabii ginoi ba shumor meravad.

Az akhbori sarchashmaho malum meshavad, ki baze shoironi asri L VI asosan, ruboisaro budaand. Masalan, hatto mahz baroi ru ovardan ba in janr SHaykhi Ruboi barin ejodkoron laqabi khudro az janri mazkur girifta budaand. Ba hamin tariq, shoironi dar in janr ustod misli Vazehii Akhsekati, Hakim Ruknoi Koshi, Azizi Samarqandi va digaron asosan ruboi saroidaand. Hatto dar nimai avvali asri L^1 talifi ruboiyoti shahroshub baso rivoj kard, ki sarchashmaho to 160 ruboii shahroshubro qayd kardaand. Albatta, inkishofi ruboi ba taqozoi mavzuii on vobastagi dorad, zero on metavonad mavzuhoi irfoni, dini, falsafi, ishqi, mavizati, shikvoi, siyosi, hajvi, khamri, madhi, vasfi va gayraro darbar girad. 

Manzuma va doston.

Manzuma lafzi arabi buda, ba manii nazmshuda, ba nazm darovardashuda guftan ast. Dar istilohi adabi shakli makhsus, ki doroi khususiyathoi judogonai janri boshad, nest. Goho dostonhoi lirikii hajman khele khurdro manzuma guftaand.

Doston boshad dar ejodi bade ba chand mani kor farmuda meshavad. Doston ba manii mashhur shudan, pahn gardidan, doston yake az laqabhoi Rustam niz hast. Doston ba manii makr, nayorangu fireb niz meoyad:

Bad-u guft: Mardi shabiston nayam, Majuyam, ki bo bandu daston nayam.

Dar istilohi adabi doston asari kalonhajmi badeii manzumu mansurro menomand, ki dar on havodisi muhimu barjasta tasvir gardida, sujeti muayyan dorad.

Bad az Inqilobi oktyabr dar adabiyoti tojik istilohoti adabii povest, roman, balada, poema vorid shuda, mafhumi dostonro khele mahdud namud. Doston hamchun ifodagari poemai yunoni boqi mond. Makhsusan, «SHohnoma»-i Firdavsi namunai komili dostoni asrimiyonagii fors-tojik ast. Havodisu voqeot, doirai faoliyati qahramonon, sujeti payvasta va muttasil inkishofyobanda tasvir va nigoshta meshavand, ki in hama boisi zuhuri obrazhoi mukammali badei meshavand.

Ba hamin tariq, doston sujeti mukammalu mufassal va tulonivu payvastaro talab menamoyad. Doston tuli asrhoi ziyod suftavu aniqu daqiq shudaast. In ast, ki dostonhoi ishqii romantiki, lirikii epiki, akhloqiyu falsafi, sufiyonavu orifona, mojarojuyona va gayra talif shudaand. Dar dostonhoi qahramoni naqlu rivoyat va dar dostonhoi ishqii romantiki mukolama (dialog) mavqei markazi dorad. Az jumla, «Varqa va Gulshoh»-i Ayyuqi, «Vis va Roman»-i Fakhruddini Gurgoni va gayra namunahoi chunin dostonhoyand.

Namunahoi barjastai dostonhoi akhloqi dar asri H ba vujud omada boshand ham, dar asrhoi L1-LSH mashhurtarin dostonhoi suyiyonavu orifona talif shudaand, ki chun namuna asari nakhustini irfoni «Hadiqat-ul-haqiqat»-i Sanoi (a.H1), «Mantiq-ut-tayr»-i Attor (a.H11), «Masnavi»-i Jaloluddini Balkhi va gayraro metavon zikr namud.

Raviyai digari dostonsaroiro, ki az «Vis va Romin»-i Fakhruddini Gurgoni ogoz meshavad, Nizomi takkoni jiddie dod va doir ba baze asarhoi on az on jumla «Layli va Majnun» to 147 javobiya ba vujud omad. YAke az sababhoi mashhur gardonidani janri mazkur dar adabiyoti fors-tojik on ast, ki doston dar in adabiyot tarikhi baso tuloni doshta, zaminahoi millii on ba yodgorihoi adabiyoti toislomi, adabiyoti pahlavi va az on peshtar ham rafta merasad. Namunai barjastai dostonhoi ahdi pahlavi dostoni «Darakhti assurik va buz» meboshad.

Dar surudani shaklhoi gunoguni doston, asosan dar tarikhi adabiyoti asrhoi miyona, khidmati Firdavsi, Rudaki, Sanoi, Nosiri Husrav, Attor, Jaloluddini Balkhi, Nizomi, Husrav, Hoju, Sadi, Jomi, Hiloli, Mushfiqi, SHohin va digaron shoistai tahsin ast.

Dar adabiyoti asri XVI, ki avvalin asri inqirozi sokhti feodali meboshad, dar adabiyot niz in gardishi tarikhi – siyosi betasir nest.

Agar mo tanho ba tahavvuli janri doston dar adabiyotti sadai mazkur nazar andozem, mebinem, ki dar in davra doston khele pesh raftaast.

Dar janri epikii adabiyoti asri XVI beshtar ananahoi dostonsaroii Nizomii Ganjavi (dostonhoi «Hamsa»), SHamsuddini Muhammad ibni Ahmadi Tabrezi, ki dar asri XVI doston «Mehr va Mushtari» yo khud «Ishqnoma» navishtaast, yo in ki Jomi (dostonhoi «Haft avrang») beshtar ba mushohida merasand. Dar asri XVI dostonhoi ishqii «Layli va Majnun» (Hiloli, Mavji Qosimkhoni Badakhshoni), «YUsuf va Zulaykho» (Mavji Qosimkhoni Badakhshoni, Amir Pulodkhoja ibni Devonkhojai Badri), «SHohu Darvesh» (Hiloli), «Gulzori iram» (Mushfiqi) rui kor omadaand, ki har kadom dar tarikhi adabiyoti davr maqomi makhsus dorand.

Inchunin, dar hamin davra chandin dostonhoi tarikhi talif shudaand. Az jumlai on dostonhoi tarikhi «Zafarnoma» (Amir Pulodkhojai Badri), «Jahonnnamo» (Mushfiqi) meboshand. Az tarafi digar, tahti tasiri osori irfoni, inchunin «Hamsa»-hoi Nizomiyu Husravi Dehlavi, makhsusan, shohasarhoi manzumu mansuri akhloqii adabiyoti tojik, kitobhoi «Buston»-u «Guliston» (Sadii SHerozi), asari adabi-akhloqi va falsafii «Sifot-ul-oshiqin» (Hiloli) ba arsai ejodi bade omadaast, ki khele arzishmand va muhim meboshad.

Dar barobari dostonhoi ishqi, akhloqi, falsafi, tasaffufi va gayra, inchunin, dostonhoi adabi – tarikhi niz dar in davra talif shudaand, ki oid ba avzoi siyosi – tarikhii zamon, faoliyati zimomdoroni vaqt, ruhiya va ahvoli khalq, tabaqahoi ijtimoii jamiyat mavodi farovon medihand. Az in nuqtai nazar, du dostoni tarikhi dar asri LU1 ru kor omadaast, ki javobgui qazovati dar bolo zikrgardida meboshand. In dostonho yake tahti unvoni «Zafarnoma» az Amir Pulodkhoja ibni Devonkhojai Badri va digare «Jahonnamo»-i Abdurrahmoni Mushfiqi meboshand. Boyad guft, ki har du asar ham ba lashkarkashihoi Abdullohkhoni SHayboni bakhshida shuda, havodisu voqeoti siyosi – tarikhii nimai duyumi asri LU1-ro darbar megirand. Har du asar ham dar shakli masnavi va dar bahri Mutaqoribi musammani mahzuf yo maqsur insho shudaand.

Az sui digar, to andozae in dostonho sunnati ejodi osori hamosiro niz tahkim bakhshidaand.

SAVOL VA SUPORISHHO

  1. Sababhoi barhamkhurii imperiyai Temuriyonro sharh dihed.
  2. Imperiyai Temuriyonro kadom sulola rasman az miyon burd?
  3. Sababi ba zudi shikast khurdani hukumati SHaybonikhon az chi iborat bud?
  4. Omilhoi tezutundshavii munosibathoi mazhabii zamoni safaviho dar chist?
  5. Markaz va havzahoi adabii asrhoi LU1 va LU11-ro nombar kuned.
  6. Kadom adiboni doirahoi adabii Movarounnahru Hurosonro medoned?
  7. Hususiyathoi hayoti adabi va farhangi dar qalamravi Eronu Hind az chi iborat ast?
  8. Tazkira chi guna asar ast?
  9. Kadom tazkiraho va tazkiranigoroni in asrhoro medoned?
  10. Doir ba «Tazkirat-ush-shuaro»-i Mutribi malumot dihed.
  11. Arzishi ilmi – adabii «Muzakkir-ul-ahbob»-i Nisoriro bayon kuned.
  12. Doir ba tazkiraho va tazkiranigoroni in davraho malumot dihed.
  13. Dar adabiyoti in asrho kadom navhoi sher mamul budand?
  14. Muhimtarin khususiyathoi gazali asri L U1-ro sharh dihed.
  15. Dar in asrho beshtar kadom navi qasida inkishof yoftaast?
  16. Muqattaoti shoironi in asrho beshtar kadom mavzuhoro darbar megirand?
  17. Dar borai musammat va khususiyathoi janrii on chi medoned?
  18. Mavqei ruboi dar adabiyoti asrhoi LU1 – LU11 chi guna ast?
  19. Doir ba dostonsaroyoni mashhuri asrhoi LU1 – LU11 malumot dihad.
  20. Tafovuti dostonu manzumaro gued.
  21. Kadom omilho sababi rivoj yoftani doston va dostonsaroi gardidaast?

 

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46

Adabiyot va ilm dar asri XVI

Vaziyati siyosie, ki az avvali asri XVI dar Movarounnahr va Huroson faroham omad, ba hayoti …