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BROM

bromBROM (Bromum; Br), elementi khimiyavii guruhi VII jadvali Mendeleev; raqami at. 35; massai at. 79, 904; mansubi galogenhost. S. 1826 khimiki fransavi A.J. Balar kashf kardaast. Nomi B. az kalimai yun. bromos – badbuy girifta shudaast. B.-i ozod moei surkhi jigari buda, bukhor meshavad, bui tezi nokhush dorad; t. gud. – 7,2°S, t. jush. – 58,78°S, zichiash 3100 kg/m3. B. dar ob bad va dar halkunandahoi organiki nagz hal meshavad. Bo metalho payvast shuda, bromidho va hangomi garm kardan bo gidrogen payvast shuda, bromidi gidrogen HBr hosil mekunad.
B. pust va luobpardahoro jarohatnok mesozad, bugi on chashmro mesuzonad, boisi blefarospazm va ashkrezi meshavad. Dar natijai istemoli miqdori ziyodi bromidho (ziyoda az 20 g) aql tira gashta, sar charkh mezanad, falaj va kollaps rukh menamoyad.
Hangomi zahroludi az B. yo bromidho ba jabrdida shiri omekhta bo tukhmi khom medihand va qay ba vujud meorand; ehtiyot boyad shud, ki mavodi qay ba rohi nafas naaftad. Bo maqsadi az organizm dur sokhtani zahr angishti faol niz dodan mumkin ast; u boyad dar davomi ruz 10 – 30 g namaki oshro dar 3 – 5 l ob hal karda bioshomad (B.-ro az organizm khorij menamoyad).
Bo maqsadi peshgirii zahroludi az B. boyad dar istehsolot ba qoidahoi bekhatarii mehnat qati rioya karda shavad, havoi joi kor toza va dahoni zarfhoe, ki B. va dig. moddahoi khimiyavii zahrnok dorand, basta boshad; korgaron bo protivogaz, muza, dastpushaki rezini, peshdoman kor kunand. Ashkhose, ki bo B. sarukor dorand, muntazam az nazorati tibbi guzaronda meshavand. Sarukor bo B. va payvasthoi on baroi odamoni hassosiyatashon baland ziyon dorad.

M. Samiev.

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