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TASIRI MUTAQOBILLI TABIAT VA JAMIYAT

Muhiti geografi. Majmui tabii rui Zaminro muhiti geografy menomand. Van qismi ziyodi tabaqai geografiro dar bar megirad. Dar hududi on organizmhoi zinda va jamiyati insoni hayot ba cap mebarand. Az in ru, muhiti geografy baroi insoniyat muhiti zist buda, hayot va faoliyagi khojagidorii vay ba on vobasta meboshad. Inson az muhiti geografi (yo tabii) tamomi vositahoi baroi hayotguzaroni zaruriro istehsol menamoyad: khurokvory, sarulibos, energiya, suzishvory, metall, masolehi sokhtmon va gayra. Barobari afzudani talaboti inson ba in sarvatho hududhoi nav ba nav ba kor andokhta meshavand. Az hisobi in doirai muhiti geografi vase megardad.

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Dar oyanda muhiti geografi tamomi tabaqai geografiro faro giriftanash mumkin ast. Inson az muhiti geografi bo maqsadhoi gunogun toraft beshtar unsurhoi gunoguni tabiiro azkhud menaoyad. Onhoro sarvathoi tabii (zamin, ob, nabotot, hayvonot, mineralho, jinshoi kuhi va gayra) menomand.

Sarvathoi tabiy az jihati khususiyat, paydoish va tarzi istifoda ba sarvathoi zamini, oby, minerali (madanho), biology va iqlimi judo meshavand. Istifodabarii onho meyori muayyanro talab menamoyad. Binobar in sarvathoi tabiiro ba sarvathoi tamomshavavda (kandanihoi fondanok) va tamomnashavanda (ob va jangal) taqsim mekunand. Inqilobi ilmi-tekhniky va toraft afzudani aholii jahon talab menamoyad, ki sarvathoi tabiiro oqilona, sarfakorona isgifoda barem. Sarvathoi barqarorshavandaro muntazam barqaror va hifz namoem. Agar chunin raftor nakunem, jamiyati insoni az kam shudani sarvathoi tabiy va iflos gardidani muhiti geografi (muhiti atrof) ba buhroni ekologi duchor meshavad, ki hayoti insoniyatro zeri khatar meguzorad.

Muvozinati qismhon tarkibni tabiat. Muvozanati tabiy in holati ibtidoii qismkhoi tarkibii tabiat, ba ham aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasonii onho meboshad, ki dar tuli millionho sol dar sayyorai mo ba vujud omadaast. Mahz dar natijai muvozanati tabii dar sathi Zamin muvozanati garmi, tarkibi atmosfera, gardishi ob (bukhorshavi – borishot va ba uqyonus bozgashtani ob), gardishi modda (paydoshavii jinshoi kuhi – bodkhurdashavi – tahshinshavy dar qari uqyonus – hosilshavii jinshoi kuhy), gardishi biology sabzish, nobudshavi, pusish, gizoshavy) muntazam va ba ham payvasta amal mekunand.

Dar holati tagyir yoftani muvozanati tabiii yake az ii unsurkhoi tabiati Zamin muvozanatik garmi tagyir meyobad. Misol, dar rui Zamin muvozanati garmy tagyir yobad (az had ziyod garm va yo az had ziyod sard shavad) muvozanati unsurhoi boqimondai tabiy ham tagyir meyobad. Dar natija khayoti organizmhoi zinda, az jumla khayoti inson imkonnopazir meshavad. In holat hangomi tagyir yoftani muvozanati gazhoi tarkibi atmosfera niz ba amal meoyad. Agar dar tarkibi atmosfera miqdori gazi karbonat az khad ziyod shavad, nafasgiri dushvor megardad. In boisi nobud gardidani organizmhoi zinda meshavad. Hamin tavr, doimi budani muvozanati tabiii unsurhoi tabiat sharti asosii inkishofi hayot dar rui Zamin va masalai muhimi aloqai mutaqobilai tabiat va jamiyat meboshad.

Tasiri faolnyati inson ba kompleksi tabii. Komplekshoi tabii manbai sarvathoi tabii meboshand. Hangomi ba istehsolot jalb kardani onho inson ba qismhoi tarkibii on (relef, havo, ob, khok, nabotot va hayvonot) tasir merasoiad. Az) in cho tarikhi jamiyati in tarikhi ba ham tasirrasonii tabiat va insoniyat meboshad. Dar ibtidoi on az sababi sodda budani vosita (olot)-hoi mehnat (omoch, tabar, zognul, bel, kaland va gayra) tasiri insonn ba komplekshoi tabiy on qadar ba nazar namoyon nabud. Barobari inkishofi ilmu tekhnika vositakhoi mekhnat takmil yoftand va moshinu mekhanizmhoi nihoyat puriqgidor ba vujud omadand. Ba vositai onho inson az dokhili kuh va qari Zamin madan, angisht, neft, gaz istehsol menamoyad,. zaminro kisht, roh, nahr va shahrhoro bino mekunad. Bar asari hamai in qismhoi tarkibii komplekshoi tabii, pesh az hama relef, ki asosi hama guna faoliyati istehsolii inson meboshad, tagyir yoftaast. Hususan, istehsoli sarvatkhoi tabiy (madanho, angisht, neft, gaz), kishovarzy ba digargunshavii relef tasiri kalon rasondand. Dar natijai istehsoli sarvatkhoi tabii dar bisyor mavzeho qabati Zamin furu raftaast.

Ba tavri kushodu istehsol kardani onho  boshad, boisi paydoishi havzahoi chuqur gardidaast. In amal ba on ovarda rasond, ki dar maydonhoi vase na faqat qabati khok, inchunin nabotot va hayvonot nest shudand nizomi obhoi zerizamini tagyir yoft. Obyori va kisht kardani zamiihoi teppanok va nishebii domanakuhho boisi shustashavii, khok va ba vujud omadani jariho gardid. Sokhtani shahrhoi kalon, inkishof yofgani sanoat va naqliyote, ki bo suzishvori kor mekunand, tasiri insonro ba iqlim, obu havoi mahal beshtar namud. CHangu gubor va masolehe, ki dar natijai kori korkhonaho» sanoati va naqliyot ba atmosfera dokhil meshavand, havoro iflos mekunand. Iflosii havo nurposhii Oftobro kam mekunad. Dar atmosfera ziyod shudani gazi karbonat boisi garm shudani iqlimi kurai Zamin megardad. Bazan unsurhoi zahrnoki ba atmosfera dokhilshuda hamchun boronhoi kislotagi ba sathi Zamin bargashta, ba nabotot va hayvonot zarar merasonand. Partovi korkhonahoy sanoati va moddahoi zahrnoke, ki dar kishovarzi istifoda meshavand, khok, obhoi ravon va zerizaminiro iflos menamoyand. Dar natija dar bisyor nohiyahoi kurai Zamin norasogii obi nushoki his karda meshavad.

Tasiri inson ba nabotot va hayvonot toraft beshtar megardad. Inson bavosita va bevosita sababgori nest shudani bisyor namudhoi hayvonot va nabotot gardidaast. Baze namudhoi nabotot va hayvonot dar holati nobudshavy meboshand. Nomi onho dar Kitobi Surkh sabt gardidaast. Hamin tavr, nodurust va gayrioqilona istifoda burdani sarvathoi tabiii komplekskhoi tabiy, ba okhir rasidan (sarvathoi zerizamini) va kamshavii (namudi nabotot va hayvonot) onho  masalai oqilona istifodabary, barqarorkuni va hifzi nabotot. hayvonot va zamin, tabiatu sarvathoi tabiiro ba misn guzosht.

Muhofizati muhiti zist. Muhiti zist yak qismi Miqyosan khurdi mukhiti geografi meboshad, ki dar hududi on miqdori muayyani aholy faoliyat va zindagi mekunad. Masohati on ba masohati nohiyai tabii va mahal muvofiqat menamoyad. Namudi zohirii tabiii on (landshaft) dar natijai faoliyati khojagidorii inson nihoyat tagyir yoftaast. Inson dar hududi on kanal, roh, obanbor, sarband, stansiyai elektrikii obi, dehayu nakhrho, kishtzor, bogu tokzorkho bunyod kardaast, ki on simoi tabiii (landshafti) muhity zistro tagyir dodaast. Onro olimon landshafti antropogeni (simoi nave, ki bo dakholati Zevositai inson ba vujud omadaast) menomand. Qati nazar az on tagyirothoe, ki inson ba landshaft dokhil namudaast, asosi tabii on (aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasonii qismhoi arkibni on releo, iqlim, ob, khok, nabotot va hayvonot) dar qonuniyathoi tabii amal mekunand.

Az sababi on ki muhiti nest manbai mavjudiyati inson meboshad, vay boyad hangomi istifodai sarvathoi tabiii on bar khilofi qonuniyatkhoi tabiat amal nakunad. Quvva va qonuniyathoi tabiatro baroi qone gardondani talaboti khud istifoda barad va muntazam ba on takya kunad. Ammo inson na hama vaqt chunin raftor mekunad. U baroi ba dast ovardani manfiati muvaqqati az tabiat barziyod mesitonad va onro lurra va sarfayu sarishgakorona istifoda namebarad. Korkhonahoe, ki on sarvathoro az nav kor mekunand, bo partovi khud havo, khok va obro iflos menamoyand. Az meyor ziyod ob dodani zamini kisht boisi baland shudani sathi obhoi zerizamini gardid. Dar natija yak qismi zaminho ba botloq va shurzamin tabdil yoftand. Buridani darakhton va suzondani buttaho (baroi zaminkushoi) masohat va miqdori alaf, buttaho va darakhtoni sabzro kam namud. Dar kishovarzi benazorat istifoda burdani moddahoi zahrnoki ziddi hasharot zamin, obhoi zerizaminiro iflos namud. Dar qatori hasharoti zararrason digar namudhoi hayvonot va nabotot nobud gardidand.

Hamai in faoliyathoi nomatlubi inson tabiatro kharob namuda, muhiti atrofro baroi zistu zindagoni dushvor gardond. In boisi tashvishu iztirobi aholii tamomi chakhon gardid. Masalai mukhofizati mukhiti zist ba yake az masalakhoi mukhi.mtarin va zarurtarini ruz tabdil sft. Holo dar jakhon baroi khifzi mukhiti atrof sadho tashkilothoi milli va baynalkhalqi amal mekunand. Dar jumhurii mo ham dar tamomi nohiyaho va viloyatho chunin tashkilotho baroi hifzi tabiat va toza nigoh doshtani muhiti zist kor mebarand. Zarurati in masalaro Sozmoni Milali Muttahid ba inobat girifta, 5 iyunro ruzi muhofizati muhiti atrof elon kardaast. Onro har sol dar tamomi jahon qayd mekunand.

Savol va sunorish

  1. Muhiti geografi chist?
  2. Inson muhiti geografiro chy tavr tagyir medihad?
  3. Muvozanati tabii chist va onro chy tavr mefahmed?
  4. Inson ba komplekshoi tabii chy guna tasir rasondaast?
  5. Muhiti zist chist va onro baroi chi muhofizat mekunand?
  6. Dar khona on chorabinihoero, ki baroi muhofizati muhiti zisti shumo guzaronda shudaand va ba jo ovarda meshavand, navishta ba muallim supored.
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