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BO HAM ALOQAMANDII ORGANIZMHO VA TABAQAHOI ZAMIN

Aloqai mutaqobilai biosfera bo atmosfera. Biosfera va atmosfera bo hamdigar aloqamand va vobasta meboshand. Dar natijai in aloqamandi dar bayni biosfera (bo ishtiroki garmi va nuri Oftob) va atmosfsra mubodilai muntazami unsurhoi gunogun ba amal meoyad. Dar nnkishof va ravishi in hodisa sahmi organizmhoi zinda – bakteriyaho, nabotot va hayvonot nihoyat kalon ast. Hususan mubodilai gazi karbonat va oksigen ba faoliyati onho vobasta meboshad. Nabotot hangomi fotosintez (dar rastaniho bo tasiri rushioi az gazi karbonat va ob paydo shudani moddahoi organiki) gazi karbonati atmosferaro furu burda, az khud ba atmosfera oksigen khorij mekunand. Oksigeni ozode, ki dar atmosfera mavjud ast, purra nabototi sabz hosil kardaand.

Hayvonot baraksi nabotot az havoi atmosfera oksigenro girifta, az khud gazi karbonatro ba atmosfera medihand. Baze namudi bakteriyaho boshand nitrogeni havoro furu burda, khokro az nitrogen boy megardonand. Dar navbati khud atmosfera az khunukiyu garmii az had ziyod va nurhoi kutohmavje, ki az koinot meoyand va baroi organizmhoi zinda margovarand, hifz menamoyad.

Aloqai mutaqobilai biosfsra va litosfera. Qabati az hama boloi litosferaro qishri Zamin meguyand. On baroi organizmhoi sathi khushki makoni hayot ba hisob meravad. Dar yak vaqt organizmhoi biosfera: bakteriyaho, nabotot va hayvonot dar jarayoni bodkhurdashavi ishtirok karda, sathi Zaminro tagyir medihand. Onro bodkhurdashavii organiki menomand.

In hodisa chunin jarayon megirad: reshai ushna. gulsang va digar namudi nabotot az khud kislota khorij menamoyayad, ba jinsi kuhy muntazam tasir rasonda, onro ohista-ohista vayron mekunand. Dar tarkishi kharsangho va kuhho, ki changu khok jam shudaast, tukhmi in va yo on buttayu darakhtho aftida (onhoro obi boron, bod. paranda, khoyandagon ovardanashon mumkin ast)u vz on butta yo darakht mesabzad. Reshai onho hamchun fona jinshoi kuhiro ba poraho tabdil medihand. Bo ishtiroki ob, bod, piryakh va gayra onho boz ham mayda shuda, jinshoi kovok (shagal) va tahshinro hosil mekunand, In zaminai peshakii khokhosilshavi meboshad. Az boqimondakhoi nabotot va hayvonot niz qabathoi jinshoi kuhi hosil shudaand: ohaksang va bur. Qabati slanesi suzanda, torf va angiiggsang boshad az boqimondai nabototi davrai nihoyat qadim hosil gardidaand.

Aloqai mutaqobilai biosfera va gidrosfera. Biosfera tamomn gidrosferaro faro giriftaast. Gidrosfera baroi organizmhoi obii biosfera (qisme az nabotot va hayvonot) muhiti hayot meboshad. Organizmho khamai moddakhoi gizoiro az ob megirand, Ba tarkibi mineralii ob tasir merasonand. Masalan, marjon va narmbadankho az obi uqyonus baroi sokhtani skelet va sadafaki khud beshtar kalsiy megirand. Badi inqiroz boqimondai onho dar zeri uqyonus tahshin meshavand va ba jinsi kuhi tabdil meyoband. Jazirahoi marjony az hamin guna takhshinho hosil shudaand. Hayvonho inchunin dar tozakunii biodogii ob faolona ishtirok mekunand.

YAkto midiy, ki dar masohati yak metri murabba hayot ba cap mebarad, dar yak shabomaruz 150- 280 metri mukaab zarrahoi mineraliro az khud meguzaronad. Zarrahoi mineralii obro tahshin menamoyad. Hususan tunukobai uqyonus az chunin jonvaroni obtozakunanda boy meboshad.

Organizmho dar doimi budani shurii obi uqyonus va gardishi ob dar tabiat niz roli kalon, mebozand. Aksariyati organizmho ba shurii obi uqyonus mutobiq shudaand va dar joyhoe, ki obi on shirin ast (rezishgokhi daryoho), niz hayot meguzaronand.

Organizmho baroi az ob gizo giriftan har sol miqdori ziyodi obro ba khud girifta va az khud khorij mekunand. Olimon hisob kardaand, ki obi dar tabiat vujuddoshta obi az nav korkardai organizmhoi biosfera meboshad. Oksigene, ki dar obi uqyonus mavjud ast, niz mahsuli organizmho meboshad. Onro obsabzho hangomi fotosintez az khud khorij mekunand.

Hok. Zarrahoi khurdi mineralho va jinshoi kuhiro khok (uftan nodurust ast. Onho dar hamon surat ba khok tabdil meyoband, ki agar bo boqimondai nabotot va hayvonote, ki bo yorii mikroorganizmho vayron shudaand, omekhta gardand. YAne khok moddai mushtarak meboshad. On dar natijai bo zarrahoi minerali va zarrahoi jinshoi kuhi omekhta shudani moddai pusida (boqimondai organizmho), ki onro gumus meguyand. hosil shudaast. Iqdim, jinshoi kuhi, nabototu hayvonot, relef, inchunin faoliyati khojagii inson omilhoi asosii khokhosilshavy meboshand.

Hosilkhezii tabiii khok gunogun buda. ba tarkibu khosiyati khok va omilhoi khokhosilkunanda vobasta ast. Hosilkhezii khok ba miqdori gumus vobasta meboshad. Dar khok gumus (moddai pusida) har kalar ziyod boshad. hosilkhezii on hamon qadar baland ast. Qabati gumus vobasta ba namudi khok az yakchand santimetr to 1 to 1.5 metr meshavad. Miqdori gumus dar qabati boloi gumusi az dahho khisai foiz to 15-18 foizro tashkil medihad; khoki az hama hosilkhez siyohkhok meboshad.

Dar tarkibi on az 6-10 to 20 foiz gumus mavjud ast. Hoki qalamravi Tojikistonro asosan namudhoi gunoguni khokhoi khokisgarrang tashkil medihand. Onho dar sharoiti iqlimi khushk hosil shudaand. Binobar in dar tarkibi onho  miqdori gumus az 0.8 to 4.5 foiz tagyir meyobad. Dar tarkibi khok gayr az moddakhoi organiky (gumus) va ob inchunin miqdori ziyodi bakteriyaho mavjudand. Dar yak santimetri mukaabi khok 2-3 milliard bakteriya mushohida meshavad. Gayr az bakteriyaho dar khok organizmhoi bisyori yakhujayra, reshai nabotot, kirmkho. khoyandagoni mayda va khazandagon vomekhurand. Hamai onho  dar tashakkuli khok kumak merasonand.

Hok yake az juzhoi tabiii muhiti zisti inson, vositai asosii inkishofi ziroat meboshad. Hosilkhezii khokro tavassuti korkardi durust nigoh doshtan va hatto afzun gardondan mumkin ast. Korkardi nodurust va sqilona istifoda naburdani khok boisi vayron shudan. shiddatyobii farsoish, shurzany va pastshavii hosilkhezii on megardad.

SAVOL VA SUPORISH

  1. Organizmho ba atmosfera chy tavr tasir merasonand?
  2. Gidrosfera zeri tasiri organizmho chi tavr tagyir meyobad?
  3. Dar qishri Zamin bo yorii organizmho chy guna tagyirot ba amal meoyad? CHi guna unsuri tabiiro khok meguyand?
  4. Dar mahali shumo beshtar kadom namudhon khok pahn gardidaand?
  5. Hosilkhezii khok ba chy vobasta ast? 7. Gumus chist?
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