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KOMPLEKSHOI TABII (MAJMUI TABIY)

Qabati geografi va biosfera. Mo aknun medonem, ki kurai Zamin az tabaqai daruni va beruny iborat ast. Tabaqahoi berunii Zaminro litosfera, gidrosfera tashkil menamoyand. Inho tabaqahoi nbtidoi buda, aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasonii onho baroi inkishof va hayotguzaronii organizmho sharoiti musoid faroham meovarad. Dar natija organizmho na faqat sathi Zamin, inchunin qabati boloi gidrosfera va qabati poyonii atmosferaro (mikroorganizmho) faro giriftaand. Onho dar yakjoyagy tabaqai nisbatan javoni Zamin – biosferaro tashkil menamoyand.

Majmui tabaqakhoi Zaminro tabaqai geografi menomand. On tabaqai payvasta va muttasili Zamin buda, qismi  poyonii atmosfera. qabati boloii litosfera, tamomi gidrosfera va biosferaro dar bar megirad. Hususiyati khosi tabaqakhoi Zamin az on iborat ast, ki dar bayni onho  mubodilai muntazami modda va energiya (quvva) vujud dorad.

Bo yorii on tabaqakhoi Zamin ba yakdigar tasir merasonand. Onro chunin tasavvur kardan mumkin ast: bo tasiri garmii nuri Oftob ob az sathi khushki va uqyonus bukhor gardida, bo hamrohii changu gubore, ki bod az sathi Zamin mebardorad, ba atmosfera dokhil meshavad. Bad ba shakli borishoti atmosferi ba Zamin barmegardad. YAk qismi borishot piryakhhoro hosil mekunand, qismi digarashon dar sathi Zamin jori shuda, kulho va daryokhoro ba vujud meovarand, ki dar tarkibi onho  doimo miqdori muayyani moddahoi atmosfera mavjud ast. Qismi seyumi on ba qabati jinshoi kovoki listofsera dokhil meshavad.

Obi sathi Zamin va gazi karbonati havoro rastaniho girifta, dar jarayoni fotosintez moddahoi organiki hosil mekunand. Moddahoi organikiro inson va hayvonot hamchun gizo istifoda mebarand. Gazi karbonati havo va moddahoi mineraliro, ki dar ibi uqyonus hal gardidaand, hayvonoti obi hazm mekunand va ba ustukhoni onho  meguzarad.

Pas az favtidani hanvonot skeleti onho  dar zeri uqyonus tahshin shuda, az onho  jinshoi kuhy hosil meshavand. Garmii qismi  poyonii atmosfera ba garmshavii sathi Zamin vobasta meboshad. Hamin tavr, ba ham aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasomii tabaqahoi Zamin sharti yagonagii tabaqai geografi meboshad, ki dar on hayot, az jumla jamiyati insoni inkishof yoftaast.

Komileksi tabii. Tabaqai geografi, ki tamomi Zaminro ihota kardaast, yakkhela nest. On ham dar hamvori va ham dar balandiho farq mekunad. In farqiyat bo tashakkul yoftani komnlekshoi gunoguni tabii (tabakai geografi, mintaqakhoyu nohiyahoi tabiy va gayra) dar sathi Zamin zohir meshavad.

Kalimai kompleks az zaboni lotini girifta shudaast, ki manoi “payvastagy”-ro ifoda mekunad. Ba in mazmun har yak kompleksi tabii (khokh kalon va khokh khurd) az unsurhoi asosii ba hamdigar aloqamand iborat meboshad. Onhoro qismi tarkibii komplskshoi tabiy ham meguyand, ki unsurhoi zerinro dar bar megirad: jinshoi kuhi, havo, ob, nabotot. hayvonot va khok. Har yaki onho, kati nazar az on ki bo qonuniyathoi khos inkishof meyoband, chuzi komplekskhoi tabii meboshand.

Zero mahz dar natijai bo ham aloqamandi va ba ham tasirrasonii onho dar hamvori va balandikhoi sathi Zamin komplekshoi gunogunmiqyos tashakkul yoftaand. Sababi nohamvorii sathi Zamin nobarobar taqsim shudani harorat va borishot meboshad. Binobar in har yak kompleksi tabiy bo khususiyati khosi relef, harorat, borishot, obu havo, obi sathi Zamin, daryo va kulho, obi zerizamini, nabotot va hayvonot va khoki khud farq mekunad. Majmui onhoro sharoiti tabii meguyand. Vobasta ba miqyosi komplekshoi tabiy sharoiti tabiii onho yakkhela va gunogun meshavad. Kalontarin komplekskhoi tabii – tabaqai geografi, mintakahoi tabiy, uqyonusho va materikho sharoiti tabiii gunogun dorand. Az hamin sabab hududi onhoro ba komplekskhoi kalon, khurd va miyona judo mekunand.

Komplekskhoi tabiii khurdi teppai alohida, qismhoi alohidai vodii daryo (machro, daryobod, sufai nazdi daryobod) va gayra nisbatan sharoiti yakkhelai tabiy dorand, Onho  ba komplekshoi tabiii khurdtarin judo nameshavand. Hamin tavr, kompleksi tabiy hamjoyagii komunii qismhoi tabiat ast, ki onho  bo hamdigar zich payvastand.

Hangomi tagyir yoftani yake az qismhoi tarkibi qismhoi boqimondai on ham tagyir meyoband. Komileksi tabiy holat yo namudi ibtidoii khudro tagyir medihad va az bayn meravad. Masalan, kompleksi tabiii teppai alohidaro megirem. Agap mo sathi onro girdogird juft nakarda, kundalang shudgor kunem, dar on holat borishot khokro zud shusta mebarad. Barobari shusta shudani khok digar qismhoi tarkibii tabiat niz tagyir meyoband.

Cavol va suporish

  1. Kadom tabaqahoro tabaqakhoi berunii Zamin meguyand?
  2. Tabaqai geografi chist?
  3. Hususiyati khosi tabaqai geografi az chi iborat ast?
  4. Kompleksi tabii chist va on az kadom unsurho iborat ast?
  5. Kompleksi tabiii mahali khudro tavsif namoed.
  6. Baroi chy dar rui Zamin komplekshoi tabii gunogunand?
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SHumo medoned, ki komplekshoi tabiy dar natijai robita va tasiri mutaqobilai jinshoi kuhy, havo, ob, …