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Zardushtiya (Dini Zoroastrizm)

ZARDUSHTIYA dinest dar Osiyoi Miyona paydo shuda, taqriban dar hazorai 0d1086 okhiri to melod dar sarzamini Eron pakhn gashtaast.

Zardushtiya nomi khudro az nomi paygambari asosguzori in din Zardusht /Zardushtra-Zarrosp/ giriftaast, U farzandi Gorshosp /Pourushasp/ buda, shoyad Zardusht nomi asosii u naboshad. Dar har surat dar sharhi nomi Zardusht aqidahoi gunogun vujud dorad, ki asosash az inho iborat ast: 1/ aqidae dar bayni olimon hast, ki in beshtar ba kasbu kori u dakhl dorad va ba manii galaboni shuturhoi zard meboshad; 2/ aqidae vujud dorad, ki Zardusht nomi mansab va unvon ast, ba ruhoniyoni az hama bonufuz doda meshud. Muvofiqi rivoyatho Zardusht dar sisolagi vahyi ilohiro megirad va mardumro ba oini zardushti davat mekunad. U bo khudoi buzurg Ahuramazdo muloqot menamoyad.

zardushtizm

Dar barobari parastishi Ahuramazdo dar zardushtiya etiqod ba digar khudoho, ki darajaashon nisbat ba Ahuramazdo pastarand, vujud dorad, az jumla Mitra-Napatu Sraosha, Asha va digaron, dar baze sarchashmaho onho muqarrabon zikr shudaand. Hudoi mukholifi Ahuramazdo Ahriman meboshad.

Az rui talimoti zardushtiya olam az du quvva, du mabda –mabdai nekiyu badi iborat ast. Ofaridgori mavjudoti nek va neki Ahuramazdo meboshad, u bo kholiqi mavjudoti zistu bad, mabdai badi-Ahriman dar muboriza ast. Zardushtiya mohiyati badiro dar olam kushoda, payravonashro ba muborizai ziddi on safarbar mesozad.

Asosi talimoti akhloqii zardushtiya pindori nek, guftori nek va raftori nek tashkil dodaast. Zardushtiya hamzistii nekiyu badiro rad karda, muborizai oshtinopazir bar ziddi badi, badakhloki, beadolati davat menamoyad va takid mekunad, ki inson bo amali neki khud galabai Ahuramazdoro bar Ahriman metezonad. Dar oini zardushti ilmomuzi, rostguiyu rostkori az behtarin unsurhoi guftoru raftori nek hisob meshavand. Dar talimoti zardushtiya hayoti eroniyoni qadim inikos shudaast. Az jumla zindagii kishovarzi va muqimi, ki Ahuramazdo onro dastgiri mekunad, muqaddas budani :zaminu ob, oftob va gayra ba jihathoi muhimi zindagii eroniyon aloqamandand. Boyad guft, ki dar marosimhoi zardushtiya odathoyu marosimhoi milli inikos yoftaand, az on jumla idho, nikohi mahorim va gayra.

Az rui aqidai zardushtiya Ahuramazdo khilqati odamro dar du marhala anjom dod: avval on hama chizro dar shakli ruhoni bunyod kard, gayrijismi gayrimardi, bad ba onho surati moddi kashid. Hastii moddi nisbat ba hastii gayrimoddi pasttar bud. Azbaski tasir ba olami moddi baroi quvvai badi imkonpazir bud, faoliyati kharobkoron on sar meshavad.

Muvofiqi rivoyatho Ahriman ba vositai doirai poyonii osmoni sangin voridi dunyo shud va kamoloti onro takhrib namud. Masalan, dar ob namak hosil karda, onro shur sokht va ba zamin qadam nihoda, aksari onro ba biyobon tabdil dod, hatto ba makhluqi haftum-otash ham tasir karda, onro bod ud khalaldor namud.

Hudoho muttahid shuda baroi har chi beshtar sabz shudani rustani boronro ba vujud ovardand. Honadoni inson tamiz gardid va miqdori insoniyat beshtar va gayra. Tarikhi olam ba se davra judo meshavad: avval – khilqat, davrai duyum-hujumi Ahriman va dar natija fosid gashtani olam. Dar in davra olam komilan az khayr iborat nest, balki khayru sharr bo ham makhlut gashtaast. Odamon boyad ba Ahuramazdo va shash mabudi digar ibodat kunand, ki dar onho badi kamtar boqi monad. In imkoniyat medihad, ki badihoi olam az bayn rafta, khudi olam dar shakli mukammali peshtaraash barqaror gardad. Davrai seyum-davrai judoshavii khayr az sharr ast. SHarr komilan shikast mekhurad va purra az bayn meravad, nekiyu saodat hukmron megardad va in davra beintiho davom mekunad. Baroi chunin anjomi nek inson boyad Ahuramazdo va shash Amesha-spenta /khudohoi yorirason Ahuramazdo/-ro sitoish va ibodat namoyad.

Lahzai piruzii neki bar badi-Framoneretm /yo khud Framegird/ nom dorad, ki shoyad ba manii muchiza boshad. Inson dar talimoti Zardusht hamkori khudost, to neki ba badi piruz shavad. Taqsimi tarikhi olam ba davraho inkishofro dar olam takid menamoyad va insonro faol mesozad. Marg buzurgtarin badbakhtii insoniyat meboshad va joni insonro majbur mesozad, ki olami moddiro tark guyad. Va har jon baroi amali anjomdodaash boyad javob guyad. Hama imkoni ba jannat vorid shudan dorand.

Dar nazdi puli sirot tarozu hast, savobu gunohi mardum barkashida meshavad. Ba in muhosiba Mitra, ki dar du taraf Sraosha va Rashpu tarozuro nigoh medorand, rohbari menamoyad. Agar amoli neki kase beshtar boshad, puli vase uro intizor ast, jon bo on pul sui osmon rahsipor meshavad, agar gunohho beshtar boshad, pul chun teg tezu borik meshavad, jonro doshta ba poyon ba duzakh mekashand. Dar davrai makhlutshavi – davrai duyum, jon ba tamomi fayzho bahramand namegardad, zero khushbakhtii komil tanho dar davrai Frashegird muyassar meshavad. Dar in davra qiyomat qoim shuda, khama az okhirin muhokima meguzarand. Hama boyad az daryo, ki az fuluzoti gudokhta iborat ast, guzarand. Baroi begunohon on shiri narmest.

Gunahgoron komilan nobud meshavand va ba margi abadi mahkum megardand. Begunohon hayoti abadiro daryoft mekunand va zindagii bosaodat nasibashon megardad. Zardushtiya marosimu oinhoi ziyode dorad.

YAke az onho namozi panjvaqta ast: sahar, nisfiruzi, badi nisfiruzi, namozi shom va namozi nisfi shab. Dar har kadom namozho khudoe beshtar sitoish meshud. Masalan dar namozi sahar khudoi Mitra, dar nisfiruzi Asha-Vakhishta /khudo otash/ va gayra.

Har yak etiqodmandi zardushtiya vazifador bud, ki haft idi buzurgro jashn girad: Makr-yoy Zaremaya – bayni bahor, Maidyoyshema bayni tobiston, Paitshayya – idi bargardonidani hayvonot az charogoh, Maydyamryairya – bayni zimiston, Hamaspatmaedaya – ruzi barobarshavii ruzu shab dar bahor, nihoyat idi soli nav na otash-idi Navruz.

Dar bayni idho Navruz shahomati khose dosht va dorad, Haft id inchunin marbut ba haft navi ofarinish niz meboshad, Dar dini zardushtiya parastishi Ahuramazdo, payravi az Zarudusht takid megardad va bo kalimai “Fravarane” – mann etirof mekunam” ogoz meshavad va onro har kase, ki ba zardushtiya etiqodmand meshud, On ba zabonburda takror mekard. Dar etirofi du mabda khususiyati dualistii zardushtiya baralo oshkor megardad. Baroi ibodat dar avval sukhanoni makhsuse nabud, har kas muvofiqi saliqai khudash niyoishhoro intikhob mekard. Badtar chunin matn ba nomi YAsna-Haptanhapti -ibodati haftbob ba vujud omad. Gayr az in dar marosimho Ash-em Vakhu va surudho – yashtho khonda meshavand. Dini zardushti otashro muqaddas va joi ibodati zardushtiyon otashkadaho budand. Otashro ramzi nur dar zamin, farzandi Ahuramazdo, mazhari nuri abadi meshumorad. Payravoni khudro az amale, ki otashro fosid gardonad, boz medorad, misli puf kardani otash,chizi nopaokro ba on partoftan va gayra. Zardushtiya takid mesozad, ki akhgare az otash dar dili odami nihon ast va on akhgar doimo uro ba pindori nek, guftori nek va raftori nek hidoyat mekunad.

Kitobi muqadassi Zardushtiya Avasto yo Avesto ast. Kushishi jiddii girdovarii Avesto dar davrai Sosoniyon ba vuqu payvast, makhsusan dar davrai Ardasheri Bobakoni Sosoni. Dar tarikhi okhirini davrai Sosoniyon, dar ahdi hukmronii Husravi Parvez asri VI solshumorii melodi Avesto az 21 kitob iborat ast. On chi ki az Avesto ba mo rasidaast, iborat az kitobhoi zerin: YAsno – ibodat, qurboni-matnho baroi marosimhoi dini; YAshtho yashtaabud – surudhoi dinii zardushtiya;

Videvdat qonunhoi ziddi devho-normahoi dini – huquqi, porchaho az ostonu rivoyatkho va gayra; Visparat – machmuai matnkhoi duokho, ibo-datkho: “YAsno” doroi 72 bob ast. Az in 17-toashro gotkho /surudkho/ tashkil dodaand. Dar gotkho asosan khudovand Ahuromazdo, mukarraboni u /amshaspandon/ sitoish karda meshavand.

“YAshtkho” – asosan machmui surudkhoi dini buda, dar onkho inchunin baze rivoyatkho nakl gardidaand. YAshtkho ba sitoishi Ahuromazdo, khudoyoni chudogona, ki martabaashon nisbat ba Akhuromazdo past ast, misli Mekhr /Mitra/ khudoi sulkhu amoni, mukhofizi tartibot, Ardvisura Anokhito – khudoi serkhosili, ofaridgori fayzu barakat dar kishovarzi va chorvodori, Tishtra – khudoii boronu daryokho, farishtakhoi dastyori Akhuro amshaspandon bakhshida shudaand. Dar yashtkho inchunin fravashkho – rukhi achdodon, ki metavonand ba takdiri inson tasir rasonand, parastida meshavand.

“Videvdat” – yagona kitobest az kitobkhoi “Avesto”, ki dar shakli purraash to zamoni mo omada rasidaast. On az machmui konuho oid ba marosimkhoi dini, masalakhoi fark kardani khalolu kharom, parvarishi khayvonot, mani korkhoi noshoista iborat ast. Ba gayr az in malumoti muayyane doir ba tasavvuroti zardushi oid ba kaykhonshinosi medikhad.

Avesto na tankho yodgoriyu sarchashmai dini, balki yodgorii buzurgi Eroni kadim ast.

In kitob dar borai tarzi zindagi, odatu marosimkho, akidayu tasavvurotho, khunaru adabiyoti eroniyoni kadim malumot medikhad. Etiqodmandoni oini zardushti, badi pakhnshavii islom, az rui nufus khele kam shuda boshand kham, kholo kham mavchudand va bo nomi porskho dar Hinduston mikdore az onkho zindagi mekunand. Zardushtiyon inchunin dar Eronu Pokiston ham hastand. suporish na savolkho.

  1. Kadom dostonkhoro dar borai Akhuramazdo va Akhriman medoned?
  2. Kadom unsurkhoi dini Zardushtiya dar ruzgori mo boki mondaand?

Dini Zardushtiya dar kadom davlatkho pakhn gashta bud ?

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