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USULHOI INKISHOF DODANI SIFATHOI JISMONI

Sinnu soli maktabi baroi inkishof dodani sifathoi harakati davrai khele musoid ast. Inson be harakat nametavonad hayoti pursamar guzaronad. Ba faoliyathoi harakatii asosi dokhil meshavand: rohravi, dav, jahishho, partoftho, chaspishho va gayra. Baroi khub davidan, jahidan, partob dodan va gayra, inchunin ijro namudani har nav korhoi jismoni dar istehsolot va dar khona zarur ast, ki sathi muayyani inkishofi khislathoi jismoni doshta boshed.

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Dar seksiyahoi varzishi maktab mashguliyat guzaronida imkoni azkhudkunii qoidahoi bozi dar futbol, voleybol, tubi dasti, shahrak, chavgonbozi, tennisi rui miz va gayraro meomuzed.

Hislati asosii varzishi quvva, chobuki, purtoqati, choloki meboshad. Baroi jisman omoda, yo tashakkul yoftani inson hamai sifathoi mazkurro inkishof dodan zarur ast.

Akademik A.I. Bir hanuz dar nimai asri guzashta hisob karda bud, ki az energie, ki dar zamin istehsol va istemol gardidaast, faqat 4 foiz ba zimmai mekhanizmho rost meoyad, ammo 96 foizash bo quvvai mushakhoi inson tamin megardid.

Qobiliyati tahammul karda tavonistani muqovimati beruna ba inson, yo amali mutaqobilai u az hisobi tavonoii mushakhoyash quvva nomida meshavad.

Afzoishi quvvai mushakho dar sinnu soli maktabi asosan ba komilan va nisbatan afzudani vazni mushakho aloqamand ast. Agar dar okhiri davrai tahsil dar maktabi ibtidoi hissai mushakhoi dar vazni badan 22 foizro tashkil dihad, pas dar sinni miyonai maktabi on to 33 foiz afzoish meyobad. Ammo az tarafi digar vazni umumii badan ham meafzoyad.

Ba mushakhoi purquvvat aknun vazni kalon joygir megardad. Az in ru afzoishi mutanosibi quvva dar tuli davrai tahsilot dar maktab na on qadar buzurg ast, makhsusan dar dukhtaron.

Qobiliyathoi nerui az rui tarangii mushakho muayyan meshavad, ki dar rejahoi kamshavii dinamiki va statistiki zohir meyoband. Baroi rejai dinamiki tagyiryobii darozii mushakho khos ast va baroi statistiki – doimi budani darozii mushakho hangomi jarayonho.

In rejahoro dar amaliyai tarbiyai jismoni quvvai dinamiki vaquvvai statistiki menomand. Masalan, zohirshavii quvvai dinamiki –jahish ba balandi va statistiki boshad – nigah doshtani shtangaho dar boloi dast.

Quvvai mushakiro be asbobho yo bo yorii asbobhoi makhsus muayyan kardan mumkin ast. Be asbob quvvaro az rui vazni beshtare, ki inson metavonad bardorad muayyan kardan mumkin ast. CHunin quvva dar asari zahmati guruhhoi ziyodi mushaki ba vujud meoyad. Ammo beshtar zarurat pesh meoyad, ki quvvai kadome yake az guruhhoi mushakiro muayyan sokht. Dar in holat dinamometrhoi mekhaniki yo elektriki istifoda megardand.

Hangomi arzyobii sathi imkoniyathoi quvva durust intikhob kardani harakat muhim ast. Dar amaliyai maktabi baroi muayyankunii imkoniyathoi quvvagii khonandagon test-mashqho istifoda burda meshavand: kashidan, ovezonshavi, qatkuni-khamkunii daston bo takya dar kursii gimnastiki, baromadan bo band, bardoshtani poyho to kunji 90° dar holi ovezoni dar devori gimnastiki va gayra.

Qobiliyati inson dar vaqti ijroi harakat dar haddi aqqali fosilai kutohi vaqt suratnoki nom dorad. Qobiliyati guzashtani muqovimati beruna yo harakati mutaqobila ba on az hisobi zahmati mushaki quvva nomida meshavad.

Zudi ba vasilai qobiliyathoi bosurat malum meshavad, ki shaklhoi chunin nombarshudai oddi va kompleksi ifoda meyobad.

Ba shaklhoi oddi dokhil meshavand: zudii reaksiyai harakat; surati harakati yakka, ki ba muqovimati beruna kashida nashudaast; surati harakat.

SHaklhoi kompleksi dar hamai harakathoi varzishi zohir meyoband. In tezii dav, harakati boksyor, gimnastika, shamsherbozi, voleybolist, futbolist va gayra.

Bayni shaklhoi gunoguni zohirshavii bosurat qarib yagon aloqamandi mavjud nest, yo on kamahamiyat ast. YAne lahzai reaksiya guyo vaqti khub baroi harakat nest, meyori khubi harakat kafolati muvaffaqiyati zudi surati maksimaliro namedihad.

Surati maksimalii afzoishisuratnoki vobasta ba sinnu sol az natijaho dar davidan dar doirai vase – az 11 to 17 sol. farq mekunad.

Hol on ki tadqiqotchiyon chunin mehisoband, ki inkishofi bomarom, zuddii harakat dar maktabbachagon dar 14-solagi khotima meyobad, bad az on ba poyon meravad.

Zohirshavii suratnoki dar dukhtaroni 11-12-sola, bolo, vale 13-14-sola poyon ast. Dar jarayoni mashguliyathoi talimi dar darshoi varzish zarur ast, ki boloi inkishofi hamai shaklhoi zohirshaviisuratnoki kor kardan zarur ast.

YAne, baroi takmili vaqti harakat az bozihoi serharakat («Zogho va gunjishkon», «Ruz va shab», «Davati raqam» va gayra) istifoda burdan mumkin ast.

Hangomi ogozi boziho az holathoi oddii gunogun boyad davomnokii fosilai bayni amrhoi peshaki va ijrokuniro ivaz namoyand.

Baroi nigoh doshtani surati balandi harakat zud sust karda tavonistani mushakho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Baroi inkishofi in qobiliyat ijroi takrorii harakat az rui meyorhoi kalon istifoda burda meshavad.

Baroi on ki in harakat az jihati tekhniki durust amali gardad, zarur ast, ki peshaki onro khub az khud namoed. Sipas boyad ba on noil gasht, ki mashqhoro bo meyori maksimali anjom dihed, naboyad fikr kuned, ki chi tavr durust onhoro ijro kardaed: Istirohat pas az ijroi in mashq 20-25 soniya.

In mashqro bonavbat chand marotiba anjom dodan lozim ast. Dar bayni har yak navbati mashq 2-3 daqiqa istirohat namudan lozim ast.

Baroi omukhtani harakati chaqqoni bo usuli mashqi kutohmuddat usulhoi zerinro istifoda menamoyand: harakati boksyorro taqlid kardan;

ba bolo jahidan; guzoshtani chubi gimnasti ba farsh; boloi sarro bo panjaho qapidan, chubro sar dodan, kushishi qapidani chub vaqti dar havo muallaq budanash; tubro ba bolo partofta, sipas 360° tob khurda, onro doshtan va gayra.

Baroi zud anjom dodani harakathoi yakdafaina, guruhi mushakhoero, ki in harakatro ba vujud meovarand, boyad na faqat zud va bo quvvai ziyod ijro gardand.

Az in ru baroi omodakunii, masalan, jahanda ba balandi mashqhoi makhsusi qavikunanda baroi inkishofi guruhi mushakho, ki vazifai teladihiro ijro mesozand, istifoda megardand.

Mashqhoe, ki dar onho zudi va quvva ba ham aloqamandand va onro bosuratu qavi menomand. Hislati suratu qavigi hangomi rejahoi gunogun kamkunii mushaki zohir meshavad va joyivazkunii zudi badan yo uzvhoi onro dar muhit tamin menamoyad.

Baroi inkishofi khislathoi suratu quvvagi va omodagii muayyan baroi jahishho ba darozi va balandi mashqhoi zerin tavsiya doda meshavand:

  1. – jahidani botanaffus ba poi rost va poi chap;
  2. – jahidan az nimnishast ba nimnishast;
  3. – jahidan ba chuquri (az balandii 30 sm) bo parishi zud minbada ba bolo;
  4. – paridan bo argunchakho.

Mashqhoi varzishiro ijro karda aksaran zarurati nishon dodani quvva dar fosilai kutohi vaqt pesh meoyad. Masalan, dar jahidan ba balandi yo darozi hangomi teladihi lozim ast quvvai maksimali istifoda gardad. CHunin quvva tarkanda nomida meshavad. Mashqhoi khub ba  roi inkishofi quvvai tarkanda inho meboshand: baromadan bo band dar 5-6soniya, nishastanu khestan bo du poy ba shumorai 10-15s., partoftani tub ba takhta, ba duri va gayra.

Qobiliyati inson baroi durudaroz va befosila ijro kardani yagon amal purtoqati nomida meshavad. Purbadoshti mumkin ast, ki umumi va makhsus boshad. Qobiliyati inson ba kori tuloni purtoqatii umumi ast.

Purbadoshtii umumi dar sinni maktabi nisbatan oson va zud inkishof meyobad. Masalan, hangomi davi tuloni, rohravii zud va tuloni, velosipedsavori, konkihoi rolikdor. Purbadoshti dar munosibat ba faoliyati muayyan purbardoshtii makhsus nomida meshavad.

Misol:

jahish, bozi, quvva va gayra. Istifodabarii mashqhoe, ki inkishofdihandai purtoqatiand, dar davrahoi gunoguni sinnusoli natijahoi khub medihand.

Mashguliyathoi payvasta bo mashqho baroi inkishofi purtoqati hangomi tavonoii miyona ba sistemai nafas tasir merasonad. Onho baroi afzoishi istemoli oksigen dar vohidi vaqt musoidat menamoyand,

zudshavii pahngardii to haddi aksari jarayonhoi nafaskashiro meafzoyand. In chunin mano dorad, ki az daqiqahoi faoliyat organizmi shumo ba istemol kardani miqdori ziyodtarini oksigen shuru menamoyad.

Baroi inkishofi dodani purtoqati mashqhoi zerinro mavridi istifoda qaror dodan mumkin ast:

  1. Davi tuloni to 25-30 daqiqa;
  2. Davidani porae az fosilai 150-300 m bo surati muayyan.

Mashqro murakkab kardan mumkin ast: fosilai istirohat bayni qitahoi davidashudaro kutoh namuda, istirohati faolro baroi afzoishi purtoqati istifoda mebarand.

  1. Harakatkuni dar samokat va konkihoi rolikdor to 1 soat.
  2. Velosipedsavori to 1,5-2 soat bo surati mutadil (15-20 km/soat).
  1. Davi orom, ki hangomi on shumorai zarbahoi dil iborat 150-170 zarb/daq. meboshad.
  1. Mashqhoi kharakteri nerugi doshta, ki az rui metodi mashguliyathoi davragi ijro meshavand.

Usulhoi mashguliyatho, ki baroi inkishofi purtoqati istifoda megardand, boyad pesh az hama doroi darajai balandi tasirnokii jismoni va ravoni boshand, inchunin afzoishi sistematikii sarboriro kafolat dihand.

Qaishii intensivi dar bachahoi sinni 6-11-sola meafzoyad, dar dukhtaron nishondodi qaishi nisbat ba pisaron bolotar ast.

Baroi inkishof dodani in khislat dar sinnu soli shumo ham tufayli mashguliyathoi sistematiki ba natijahoi khub noil shudan mumkin ast.

Qaishi faol va gayrifaol meshavad. In chiz qobiliyati rasidan ba amplitudai zarurii harakat az hisobi ravonasozii mushakhoi muvofiq ast. Qaishi gayrifaol qobiliyati rasidan ba amplitudai beshtari harakat bo tasiri quvvahoi beruna (masalan, bo yorii sharik) meboshad.

Zohirshavii qaishi az elastiki budani payvandhoi mushaki vobasta ast, inchunin az harorati muhiti atrof. Dar havoi sard lozim ast, ki baroi tamrin vaqti beshtar sarf gardad va tanho bad az garm shudani mushakho ba mashqhoi inkishofdihandai qaishi shuru mekunand.

Obu havo yo havo dar bino har qadare garmtar boshad, baroi tamrin hamon qadar kamtar vaqt kharj megardad. Qaishi az tasiri khastashavi kam megardad.

Qaishiro inkishof dodan mumkin ast, harakathoi alvonjii dastu poyhoro istifoda burda, harakathoi teladihandai dastho, nishasthoi prujinamonand va khamshavi ba pesh, aqib, ba tarafho, mashqho bo yorii sharik. Hamai in mashqhoro yakka va bo sharik ijro kardan mumkin ast.

Qobiliyati zud azkhudkunii harakat va bo muvaffaqiyat amal kardan dar holathoi noshinos yo vaziyati nogahon tagyiryoftai choloki nomida meshavad.

CHolokiro mumkin ast dar tuli tahsil dar maktab inkishof dod, ammo khubtar az hama dar sinni 7-11 va 14-17-solagi ast. SHaroiti asosii inkishofi choloki navovarii mashqhoi omukhtashuda meboshad.

Mashqho baroi inkishofi cholokiro az rui darajahoi hamohangii murakkabiyat, darajai daqiqi va az rui surat judo menamoyand.

CHustu choloki dar boziho on goh zohir meyobad, ki harakathoi az jihati taktiki muvofiq gardonidashuda mashqhoi dastavi boshand.

CHolokiro mashqhoi ba tagyiryobi yo ivazshavii surati harakat aloqamand, inchunin bo tagyiryobii fazoi marzho inkishof medihad.

Ba choloki, tavre ki mo allakay guftem, digar mashqho, ki ba tavonistani oromkunii mushakho aloqamand, bo qobiliyatnokii muvozinatro nigah doshtan, ehsos kardani fazo va vaqt dokhil meshavand.

Baroi inkishofi choloki mashqhoi zerin tavsiya doda meshavand:

  • – jahidan va partoftan ba masofahoi mukhtalif;
  • -davidan va jahidan bo surati muayyan;
  • -paiham kardani jahidan ba darozi az joy bo tamomi quvva bo jahidan bo nimi quvva, partoftani jismhoi gunogun ba hadaf, paiham kardani partoftho ba hadaf bo istifodabarii tubhoi shaklho va vaznhoi gunogun.

Ba gayr az in baroi inkishof dodani muvozinat, surat, muqovimat az mashqhoi gimnasti va akrobatiki istifoda burdan mumkin ast. Baroi zohirshavii choloki darajai quvvai kashish tasiri kalon meguzorad. Qaishii nokifoya yo sathi pasti inkishofi purtoqati cholokiro dar holathoi harakatii mushakhkhas kohish yo past menamoyad.

Az in khotir zuhuri choloki dar khonandagon ba darajae – az sathi inkishof va khislathoi harakatkunandai onho vobasta ast.

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