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TARIH VA INKISHOFI ILMI ZOOLOGIYA DAR Tojikiston

To galabai inqilobi Oktyabr dar tamomi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla Tojikistoni imruza baroi inkishofi hamatarafai ilmhoi tabiatshinosi, makhsusan fizika, kimiyo, geologiya, jugrofiya, astronomiya, biologiya (botanika nabototshinosi, zoologiya — mahlukshinosi, inson yo faoliyati uzvhoi on) va dakhlo shokhahoi judogonai in ilmho imkoniyat mahdud bud, az in ru, fanhoi nomburda bo tamomi khususiyat va pakhluhoyash talim doda nameshudand.

Oid ba ilmhoi tabiatshinosi va shokhahoi judogonai on az asarhoi ilmii Abuali ibni Sino, al-Beruni, Umari Hayyom, Sultonmuhammadi Balkhi, Zikriyo Muhammadi Qazvini, Hojamuhammadi Tabrezi, Saidkhusayni Nasr, Aburayhoni Beruny va digaron baze malumothoi ibtidoiro paydo karda metavonem.

zologiya-taj

Dar nimai duyumi asri XIX bo omadani sayyohoni rus, olimon va mutakhassisoni ilmhoi judogona ba Osiyoi Miyona omuzishi ilmhoi tabiatshinosi ogoz yoft. Masalan. dar omukhtani olami hayvonoti Tojikiston olimon A.P. Bogdanov, G.A. Kojevnikov, A.P. Semsnov-Tyanshanskiy, A.A. Tikhomirov, A.P. Fedchenko. V.F. Oshanin, G.E. Grum-Grjimaylo, Regel, Glazunov, G.G. YAkobson va digaron hissai arzanda guzoshtaand. Makhsusan, badi ba Rossiya hamroh shudani Osiyoi Miyona (1868), tashkilyobii Donishgohi davlatii osiyomiyonagi dar Toshkand (1920), inchunin tasisi shubai Akademiyai il.mhoi Rossiya dar Dushanbe (1932), ki sarvari on akademik E.N. Pavlovskiy tain shuda bud, ba omukhtani olami khayvonoti Tojikiston va tayyor kardani mutakhassisoni ilmi zoologiya zamina guzoshtand,

Evgenin Nikanorovich Pavlovskny (1884-1965) zoolog va parazitolog, azoi hakiqii Akademiyai ilmhoi sobik Ittihodi SHuravi, Laureati sekaratai Mukofoti davlati, Qahramoni Mehnati Sotsialisti, general-leytenant oid ba ilmi tibbi harbi dar shahrchai Biryuchei muzofoti Voronej tavallud shudaast. U az bachagi tabiatro bisyor dust medosht va kushish mekard, ki olami hayvonotro beshtar omuzad. Soli 1902 vay gimnaziyai Borisoglebskiyro bo medali tillo va soli 1908 Akademiyai tibbii kharbii Peterburgro bo diplomi alo khatm kard va dar on jo ba kor mond.

Az soli 1933 to soli 1944 Pavlovskiy E.N. dar instituti tajribai tibbii umumiittifoqi dar Leningrad kor karda, dar yak vaqt (1937-1951) ba shubai tojikistonii Akademiyai ilmho rohbary kardaast. Solhoi 1942-1962 — direktori instituti zoologiyai Akademiyai ilmhoi Ittihodi SHuravi va solhoi 1952- 1964 prezidenti Jamiyati geografhoi Ittihodi SHuravi bud. ‘Gadqiqothoi Pavlovskiy E.N. asosan ba sohai ilmi parazitologiya bakhshida shudaand. In bud. ki bo rohbarii u dar Osiyoi Miyona, Zakavkaze, Qrim. SHarqi Dur va digar nohiyahoi sobiq Ittihodi SHuravi ziyoda az 100 safarkhoi ilmi-tadqiqoti oid ba omuzishi hasharoti parazit: kanaho pashshaho va digar hayvonot, ki manbai kasalihoi siroyatkunanda meboshand, guzaronida shudaast.

Baroi muboriza bo kirmi khomushak, ki bavujudovarandai kasalii varaja — tablarza meboshad, dar zahburu botloqzorkho va havzho mutobiq kardani mohichai amerikoi — gambuziyaro tavsiya kard. Vay inchunin sababi kasalii rishtaro muayyan namuda bud.

Bo tashabbusi u az soli 4939 cap karda, dar havzhoi mohiparvarii Tojikiston bo parvarishi zagoramohi shuru kardand.

U bo hamkoroni khud dar borai virushoi kasaliovar — bakteriyaho tadqikot burda, ziyoda az 600 asari ilmi-ommavi navishtaast.

Bad az tashkilyobii Akademiyai ilmhoi Tojikiston, ki Sadriddin Ayni Prezidenti on intikhob shud, Evgeniy Nikanorovich Pavlovskiy direktori Pajuishgohi ilmi-tadqiqotii zoologiyai Akademiyai ilmhoi Tojikiston tain shud. U dar tayyor kardani mutakhassisoni milli sahmi kalon guzoshtaast, ki yake az onho akademik M.N. Narziqulov meboshad. Baroi khizmathoi shoyonash dar omuzishi olami hayvonoti Tojikiston va tayyor kardani mutakhassison Pajuhishgohi ilmi-tadkiqotii zoologiya va parazitologili Akademiyan ilmhoi Tojikiston va maktabi miyonai №8-i shakhri Dushanbe ba nomi Pavlovskiy E.N. guzoshta shudaast.

Dar asrhoi IX-XII, makhsusan dar davrai davlatdorii Somoniyon Bukhoro markazi tarakkiyoti ilmu farhang ba shumor meraft.

Taraqqiyoti ilm dar in asrho az on malum meshavad, ki dar Bukhoro rastahoi kitobfurushi vujud doshta. suhbathoi ilmi dar avj budaast. Dar Nishopur kitobkhonai madrasai Sobuniyon, Dar Marv kitobkhonai «Jome-ul-anbar» sokhta shudand. Makhsusan, Bukhoro bo kitobkhonai «Savon – al khikmat»-i khud shuhrat paydo karda bud. In kitobkhona az ruyi guftai Abuali ibni Sino shubakhoi bisyore doshtaast, ki dar har kadomi on kitobho oid ba yagon sohai fan. YAne dar yak shuba – kitobho oid ba tib, dar shubai digar – kitobho oid ba falsafa, dar shubai seyum – musavvadahoi shoiron va gayra dar sanduqho nigoh doshta meshudand.

Abuali ibni Sino soli 980 dar dekhai Afshanai Bukhoro tavallud shuda, soli 1037 vafot kardaast. U dar muddagi umri kutohi khud (57 sol) dar sohai ilmhoi gunogun beshtar az 150 asar navishtaast. Kitobhoi u «Almachmu», «Kitob-ush-shifo» (az 18 jild iborat ast), «Donshpnomai Uloy». «Risolai qimiyo». «Alkonun» (5 jild), «Donishnoma», «Risolai nabz», «Mantiqi forsi» va gayraho dar tamadduni jahoni hissai arzandae guzoshtaand.

Aburayhoni Beruni (973-1048) olimn nomdori sohai ilmhoi tabiatshinosi buda, risolahoi «Kitob-ut-tafhim», «Mineralogiya», «Dar olami ajoibot» ba qalami u taalluq dorand. Dar hamin davra az tarafi muallifi nomalum kitobi «Hududulolam» (jugrofiya) navishta shudaast. ki on bo zaboni forsi buda, kholo dar fondi tilloii kitobkhonai Sankt-Peterburg ba nomi Saptikov-SHedrin mahfuz ast. In kitobro M.S. Osimi va A. Tursunov daryoft karda soli 1984 dar Dushanbe bo khurufi kirili az chop barovarda. peshkashi khonandagon kardaand.

Az ruyi khujjathon tarikhi malum msshavad, ki dar asri X dar joyi hozirai nohiyai Qarovulbozori nazdiki Bukhoro bo farmoni shohi onvaqta ba daroziyu pahnii 40 hazor qadam mamnugoh (zapovednik) sokhta budaand, ki dar chor gushai on posbonhoi davlati nazorati doimi meburdand. Holo az on nishonae namondaast.

Baroi omuzishi ilmi hayvonoti Osiyoi Miyona bo darkhosti khokimi Bukhoro Abdullokhoni II (1557-1598) Sultonmuhammadi Balkhi dar asri XVI kitobi «Majmua-al-garoib»-ro navisht, ki az 15 bob iborat buda, 5 bobash ba olami hayvonot bakhshida shudaast.

Zikriyo Muhammadi Qazviny kitobi «Ajoib-ul-makhlukot»-ro navishtaast, ki soli 1895 dar Eronu Hinduston chop gardidaast Dastkhati onro soli 1909 dar Bukhoro paydo kardaand.

Hojamuhammadi Tabrizi kitobi «Havosat-ul-khayvon»-ro navishtaast, ki soli 1921 dar Tehron chop shudaast.

Boz yak dastkhate oid ba olami hayvonot dar kitobkhonai Mashkhadi Eron mahfuz hast, ki 900 sol pesh onro dar varaqhoi makhsus (dar pusti 200 gusola) navishtaand.

Dar Istambul oid ba olami hayvonoti vodii Fargona dar asri XIX navipggaero yoftand, ki muallifash nomalum ast. Gayr az in dastkhati kitobhoi «Hayot-ul-hayvon», «Makhluknoma» dar kitobkhonai dastkhathoi Samarqand mahfuzand.

Soli 1964 Saidhusayn Nasr dar Tehron kitobi «Nazari mutafakkironi islom dar borai tabiat»-ro az chop barovarda bud, ki dar borai monandi va farqiyati nabototu hayvonot bahs mekunad. Oid ba ilmi zoologiya dar Tojikistoni toshuravi kitobhoi ilmi-ommavi (gayridarsi) navishta shuda budand, ki ba zaboni forsi-tojiki dastkhat shudaand. Holo dar shubai dastkhathoi kitobkhonai millii ba nomi Abulqosim Firdavsi va khazinai Akademiyai ilmhoi jumkhuri baze nuskhahoe hastand, ki pesh az soli 1914 navishta shudaand. Onho az sad yak foiz boqi mondaast, zero sohiboni on az tarsu vahmi solhoi avvali badiinqiloby qarib hama kitobhoi dar khonaashon budaro har cho pinhon namuda budand ( kitobhoro ba daryo partoftand, baze ashkhos dar zamin gur kardand, bazeho az tars suzondand, dar manzilgohhoi kuhna pinhon kardand, bazeho ba davlat furukhtand va gayraho), ba sharofati olimi samarkandi Pulodi baze nuskhahoi in kitobho boqi mondaand.

Abdurahmoni Jomi soli 1492 «Bahoriston»-ro navishtaast. Sadii SHerozi oid ba tarbiyai odob kitobhoi <Guliston», va «Buston»-ro ejod kardaast. Dar in kitobho muhofizati hayvonot va samaranok istifodabarii onho az chonibi odamon yake az vositahoi asosii tarbiya ba hisob meravand.

Muhammad-al Bukhori soli 1852 kitobi «CHorbogi gulho»-ro (dar borai nabototu hayvonot) insho kardaast.

Sultonmuhammad soli 1573 kitobi «Bozyofthoi kamchin»-ro ejod kard, ki dar on dar borai odam, hayvonot, rastaniho, kuhu chuyborho, dashtu biyobonho, kanalu daryoho va bahru uqyonusho, sanghoi qimatbakho, hodisahoi ajoibi tabiat sukhan meravad.

Dar peshravii ilmi zoologiya dar Tojikiston E.N. Pavlovskiy, M.N. Narziqulov, I.A. Abdusalomov, A. Gafurov, SH. Umarov, I.K. Lopatin, T. Sattorov, N. Doniyorov, A. Turaev, M. Jalilov va digaron hissai baso kalon guzoshtaand.

Muhammadkul Narzikulov 10-umi iyuli soli 1914 dar shahri Samarqand tavallud yoftaast. Marhum olimi tabiatshinos — biolog, zoolog, entomolog, afidolog, shakarakshinosi mashhuri sobiq shuravi, akademiki AI Tojikiston, sarvari zoologkhoi jumkhuri (bad az akademik E.N. Pavlovskiy), direktori Pajukhishgohi ilmi-tadqiqotii zoologiya va parazitologiyai AI Tojikiston, Hodimi khizmatnishondodai ilmi jumhuri bud. U dar tayyor kardani mutakhassisoni ilmi zoologiya hissai kalon guzoshta, sarkotibi ilmhoi tabiatshinosii AI Tojikiston, sarmuharriri majallai «Zoologiya», avvalin raisi Jamiyati muhofizati tabiati jumkhuri bud.

M. Narziqulov ziyoda az 550 asaru maqolahoi ilmi-tadqiqoti navishtaast. U chun olimi khasharotshinos-entomolog ziyoda az 100 kheli shirai (shakarakhoi) darakhtu rastanihoi Osiyoi Miyona va zarari onhoro muayyan karda, avvalin sarvari laboratoriyai bo rohi biologi nobud kardani hasharoti zararrasoni rastaniho bud, ki holo az in usul khojagihoi kishovarzi vase istifoda mebarand. U 20 noyabri soli 1985 dar Dushanbe vafot kardaast.

Davomdihandai korhoi u ornitolog I.A. Abdusalomov uzvi vobastai AI Tojikiston va entomolog, direktori Pajukhlshgohi ilmi-tadqiqotii zoologiya va parazitologiyai AI Tojikiston A. Gafurov meboshand.

F. Akhrorov soli 1983 kitobchaero oid ba «Olami khayvonot va nabototi obkhavzhoi Tojikiston va muhofizati on» az chop barovard, ki dar borai hayvonhoi obi, yans kharchangshaklon, kirmho, hasharot va hayvonote, ki ba sharoiti obhavzhoi Tojikiston mutobiq shudaand, inchunin dar khususi muhofizati havzhoi obii Tojikiston va mohihoi on malumot medihad.

I.D. Ivanenko va I.K. Lopatin soli 1961 «Hayvonoti Tochikiston» nom kitobero baroi khonishi berun az sinfii zoologiya nashr kardand. In kitob baroi khonandagoni sinfkhoi 7-8 bob buda ba khonaidagon ond ba olami hayvonoti kishvar maltumot medihad. Kitob dar borai hayvonoti biyobonu nimbiyobon, obanborho va sohilhoi on, hayvonoti vodihoi kukhsoru dehoti aholinishin, hayvonoti muhradori shahru dehoti Tojikiston, hayvonoti dashtho va domanai kuhho, jangalu dashthoi kuhi, margzorhoi alpi za buttazorkhoi baland, khayvonoti Pomir, muhofizati onho dar Tojikiston bahs mekunad.

R. Selivanov soli 1950 kitobi «Tabiat va sarvathoi tabiii Tojikiston»-ro az chop barovard. Dar in kitob dar qatori digar boigarihoi tabiati Tojikiston oid ba olami hayvonot, zakhirahoi olami hayvonot, hayvonoti shikori, hayvonoti purqimat va muhofizati onho, muboriza bar ziddi hayvonoti zararnok, ba sharoiti makhal odat kunondan va parvarish kardani zotho malumoti mukhtasar doda shudaast.

Soli 1981 I.A. Abdusalomov bo hamrohii khodimoni ilmii IZIP V.G. Baeva va I.I. Lindt kitobi «Olami hayvonoti Tojikiston»-ro hamchun vasoiti talim baroi khonandagoni sinfhoi 6-7 az chop barovardaand, ki baroi khonishi berunazsinfi tain shudaast.

Mutaassifona, imruz in kitobhoi yorirasoni fanni zoologiya ba khonandagon qarib tamoman dastras nestand.

Savol va suporishho:

  1. Oid ba olami hayvonot kadom navishtajoti mutafakkironi forsmaabonro medidem?
  2. Avvalin mamungohi olami hayvonot kay, dar qucho va az tarafi tashkkhis karda shuda bud?
  3. Dar borai ba «vujud omadani ilmi zoologiya sahmi olimonm rusro gufta dihed.
  4. Dar borai faoliyatm akademik Pavlovskiy E.N. naql kunad.
  5. M.N. Narziqulov dar inkishofi ilmm zoologiya chi hissa guzoshtaast?

 

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