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TAJRIBAHOI LABORATORI

№1 SHINOHTANI UZVHOI RASTANIHOI GULDOR

  1. Rastanihoi ba shumo dodashudaro bodiqqat az nazar gu- zaroned. Uzvhoi onhoro aniq kuned. Sipas, uzvhoi onhoro bo yakdigar muqoisa kunsd. Monandi va farkdyati onhoro muayyan kuned.
  2. Rasmi yake az in rastanihoro dar daftaraton kashed. Dar shafati uzvho nomi onhoro qayd kuned.
  3. Guli turbkohak yo yagon rastanii dar mahallaton mamul- ro girifta, az nazar guzaroned. Dumchai gul, gulpush (kosachabargho, gulbargho), gardbarg va tukhmdoni onhoro yobed. Aniq kuned, ki gul chandto kosabarg, gulbarg, gardbarg va tukhmdon dorad. Natijai kori guzarondaatonro dar daftar qayd kuned.

injenerno-ekolog-izyskan-1

SHINOSOI BO MEVAHOI HUSHK VA SERSHIRA (TAR)

  1. Mevahoi gunoguni dodashudaro az nazar guzaroned. On- horo ba du guruh — mevahoi khushk va tar judo kuned.
  2. Mevahoi tarro dar navbati khud ba mevahoi yaktukhma va bisyortukhma judo kuned. Bo istifodai kitobi darsi nomi on- horo aniq kuned.
  3. Mevahoi khushkro ba guruhi mevahoi yaktukhma va bisyor- tukhma judo kuned. Nomi onhoro malum kuned. Doni (mevai) gandumro bo mevai oftobparast muqoisa kuned. Alomathoi monand va farqnoki onhoro nishon dihed. Jadvalro purra kuned.
Navi meva Navi meva Kadom rastaniho in guna meva dorand
sershira yo khushk yaktukhma yo bisyortukhma

SHINOSOI BO SOHTI PURBIN VA MIKROSKOP

  1. Purbini dastiro az nazar guzaroned. Vay az kadom qism- ho iborat ast? Vazifahoi har yak qismro muayyan kuned.
  2. Bo yorii muallim tarzi istifodai purbinro yod gired.
  3. Ba sokhti mikroskop az nazdik shinos shaved ®. Qism- hoi asosii onro bodiqqat az nazar guzaroned. Tubus (nay- chai binish), okulyar, obektivu shishai purbin (kalonnishon- dihanda), poyavu mizchai ashyoguzor, oyina va mekhi tobak (vint)-ro yobed. Vazifahoi har kadomi onhoro dar alohidagi aniq kuned. Muayyan kuned, ki mikroskop ashyoro chand maro- tiba kalon nishon medihad.
  4. Ba tarzi istifodai mikroskop tavassuti rasmi I shi- nos shaved.
  5. Tartibi paydarham ba kor omoda kardani mikroskopro hangomi omuzishi ashyoho nagz azkhud kuned.

SEV TAYYOR KARDANI MIKROPREPARATI PUSTI PIYOZ

  1. Ba tufayli rasmi 4 ba amali paydarham tayyor kardani mikropreparati pustpardai piyoz shinos shaved.
  1. Bo dokai toza shishai ashyoguzorro nagzakak toza kuned.
  2. Ba shishai ashyoguzori toza tavassuti qatrachakkonak yak- du qatra obi toza chakkoned.
  3. Bo yorii suzan az sathi daruni pulakchai piyoz pusti tu- nuku shaffofi onro judo kuned. Onro dar qatrai obi boloi shishachai ashyoguzor nagzakak hamvor kuned.
  4. Pustpardaro bo shishai ruypush pushoned (chunone, ki dar rasm nishon doda shudaast).
  5. Mikropreparati tayyorkardaatonro ba zeri mikroskop gu- zoshta bubined.

Juzho (yo kismhoi)-i hujayrai pusti piyozro mushohida ku- ned. Aksi didaatonro bo rasmi 15 muqoisa kuned.

  1. Ba preparati tayyorkardaaton yak qatra mahluli susti yod chakkonda onro rangnok kuned.
  2. Preparati rangnokkardaro dar zeri mikroskop bubi- ned. CHi tagyirot ba amal omad?
  3. Dar hujayrahoi bo tasiri yod zardrangshuda jildi hujayra, sitoplazma, yadro va vakuolaro yobed. YAdroi dar si- toplazma joygirbuda nagz ayon ast. Vakuolaro, ki az rui ran- gash az sitoplazma farq mekunad, aniq kuned.
  4. Dar asosi mushohidaaton rasmi yakchand hujayrahoi pusti piyozro dar daftaraton kashed. Nomi juz yo qismhoi hujayraro dar rasm qayd kuned.

DAR ZERI MIKROSKOP MUOINA KARDANI PLASTIDHO

  1. Az bargi rastanii obi – elodeya (chilbandi obi) mikro- preparat tayyor kuned. Baroi in yak bargi elodeyaro az poyacha- ash judo karda, onro ba dokhili qatrai obi shishachai ashyo- guzor guzored. Onro bo shishai ruypush pushoned.
  2. Mikropreparatro ba zeri mikroskop guzoshta, mushohi- da bared. Donachahoi (zarrachahoi) sabzi hujayra — khloroplasthoro yobed.
  3. Rasmi hujayrahoi elodeyaro dar daftaraton kashed. Qism- hoi hujayra — jild, sitoplazma, yadro va khloroplasthoro yofta, onhoro dar rasm qayd kuned.

OMUHTANI SOHTI TUHMI RASTANIHOI DUPALLA

  1. Tukhmi khushk va varamkardai (tarkardashudai) lubiyoro az nazar guzaroned. Tavassuti jadval darozi va bari in tukhm- horo chen kuned. Andoza va shakli onhoro muqoisa kuned.
  2. Dar tarafi furukhamidai tukhmi varamkarda choki donro yobed. Pusti tukhmro judo karda janinro omuzed. Baroi in janinro ba du hissa burida judo kuned. Tukhmpalla, reshacha, poyacha va mugjachai janinro yobed.
  3. Rasmi tukhmi lubiyoro dar daftaraton kashed va qismhoi onro navised.
  4. Aniq kuned, ki dar kadom qismi tukhmi lubiyo moddahoi gizoi zakhira shudaand va on dar sabzishi tukhm chi akhamiyat do- rad.
  5. Kitobi darsiro istifoda burda, aniq kuned, ki dar kadom qismhoi tukhmi digar rastanikhoi dupalla moddahoi gizoi zakhira shuda metavonand.

OMUHTANI SOHTI TUHMI RASTANIHOI YAKPALLA

  1. SHakl va rangi doni gandumro mushohida kuned.
  2. Bo yorii suzan kushish kuned, ki pust (parda)-i tukhmi va- ramida va khushki gandumro judo kuned. SHarh dihed, ki charo pusti doni khushkro judo kardan mushkil ast.
  3. Tukhmi varamidai barqad buridashudaro bo purbin bu- bined. Endosperm va janinro yobed. Az rasmi N -i kitobi darsi istifoda burda, bo rohi muqoisa ba sokhti janini tukhmi gandum shinos shaved.
  4. Rasmi sokhti doni (tukhmi) gandumro kashed va nomi qism- hoi onro navised.
  5. Sokhti tukhmi lubiyoro bo sokhti doni gandum muqoisa ku- ned. Monandi va farqiyati onhoro oshkor kuned.

AZ TUHM JUDO KARDANI OHAR, SAFEDA (KLEYKOVINA), RAVGAN

  1. Kamtar ordi gandumro girifta, kame ob ilova karda kha- mir tayyor kuned.
  2. Lundai khamirro dar doka pechonda, onro dar stakani ob- dor shustan lozim ast. Rangi obi stakan tira meshavad. CHaro?
  3. Ba stakani obash tiragun 1-2 qatra mahluli yod chakko- ned. Rangi obi tiraguni stakan chi tavr tagyir yoft? Boyad dar nazar dosht, ki ohar bo tasiri yod kabudrang meshavad.
  4. Dokaro kushoed. Dar on shumo jismi (moddai) galizi chas- pak – shiresh (safeda yo kleykovina)-ro mushohida mekuned.
  5. Donai oftobparast yo magzi chormagzro girifta, dar ko- gazi safed pechoned va onro bo dast sakht fushured. Dar kogaz izi ravgan boqi memonad.
  6. Dar asosi natijahoi badastomada jadvali zerinro pur kuned.

OMUHTANI SISTEMAI TIRRESHA VA PATAKRESHA

  1. Ba sokhti reshai rastaniho bodiqqat shinos shaved. Onho az yakdigar chi farq dorand?
  2. Rasmhoi 27 va 28 -i kitobi darsiro istifoda burda, bo sokhti tirresha va patakresha shinos shaved.
  3. Rastanihoero nombar kuned, ki tirresha yo patakresha do- rand.
  4. Sokhti reshagii rastanihoi mushohidashavandaro ba nazar girifta, muayyan kuned, ki kadomi onho ba rastanihoi dupal- la va yo yakpalla taalluq dorand.
  5. Jadvalro pur kuned.
Nomi rastani Heli shabakai resha Ba kadom sinfi rastaniho taalluq dorad

TAJRIBAHOI.LABORATORY, SINFI 5              

MUOINAI MUYAKCHAHOI RESHA VA GILOFAKI RESHA

  1. Reshai maysai gandum yo navniholi nakhudro az nazar gu- zaroned. Sipas, bo purbin resharo muoina karda, gilofaki nugi resharo yobed.
  2. Dar qismi mobaynii resha, bolotar az gilofaki resha va juzi sabzish shumo pushishi tibitmonandro mebined. Onho muyakreshaho meboshand. Dar khususi sokht va ahamiyati on bo istifodai kitobi darsi malumoti mufassal gired.
  3. Az qismi resha bo muyakreshahoyash mikropreparat tayyor kuned. Onro ba zeri mikroskop guzoshta, bo sokhti yak muyakresha shinos shaved. Aksi yoftaatonro bo rasmi 34: -i kitobi darsi muqoisa kuned. Sipas, rasmashro dar daftaraton kashed.
  4. Dar mikropreparati tayyorkardaaton nugi resharo yobed. Vay bo gilofaki resha pushida shudaast.
  5. Sokhti hujayrai muyakresha va hujayrai pusti piyoz chi umu- miyat dorad? Sababi farqiyati onhoro chi tavr metavon ma- nidod kard?

OMUHTANI BURISHI KUNDALANGII RESHA – MEVAI SABZI

  1. Reshamevai sabziro bodiqqatona az nazar guzaroned. Dar onho sarak, gardanak va khudi resharo yobed.
  2. Rasmi reshamevai sabziro dar daftaraton kashed va qism- hoi onro qayd kuned.
  3. Bo kordi tez reshamevai sabziro ba tavri kundalangi tu- nuk burida, mikropreparat tayyor kuned. Onro tavassuti mik- roskop mushohida namoed. Dar on qabathoi pustlokh, kambiy va chub dida meshavand. Rasmi aksi didaatonro dar daftaraton kashed va nomi qabathoi onro navised.

SOHTI MUGJA, MAVQEI ON DAR NAVDA

  1. Navdai rastanihoi gunoguni mahallatonro az nazar gu- zaroned. Joygirshavii mugjahoro dar oiho muayyan kuned. Rasmi bazei onhoro kashed.
  2. YAgon mugjaro az navda judo karda, ba sokhti on tavassuti purbin shinos shaved, Mugja chi khel khususiyathoi (alomathoi) muhofizati dorad?
  • Mugjai nashviro (mugjabargro) barqad burida, bo pur- bin bo sokhti on shinos shaved. Mushohidaatonro bo rasmi SH muqoisa kuned va rasmi onro kashed,
  1. Mugjai kalonu gird (mugjagul)-ro girifta, bo kordi tez barqad (ba daroziash) bured. Bo yorii purbin ba sokhti dokhilii on shinos shaved. Dar poyachai tukhmmugja gulgunchahoro yofta bo rasmi J-i kitob muqoisa karda, rasmashro kashed.

MUAYYAN KARDANI NAVI JOYGIRSHAVII BARGHO

  1. Rastanihoi bargashon gunogunshakl va gerbariyahoi (ras- tanihoi khushkondashudai dar kogazi makhsus dukhtashuda) ras- tanihoi gunogunro az nazar guzaroned. Ba joygirshavii bar- gi onho dar poya yo navda diqqat dihed.
  2. Bad az mushohida onhoro ba rastanihoi bargashon nav- bati, ru ba ru va halqagi judo kuned. Ba shakli pahnaki barg, ragroni va kanorhoi barg diqqat doda, rasmi baze barghoi gunogunshaklro dar daftaraton kashed.
  3. Dar asosi natijai koraton jadvali zerinro pur kuned;
Nomi rastani Joygirshavii barg SHakli pahnaki barg Holati kanori barg

MUOINAI PUSTI BARG VA BOFTAHOI ASOSII BARG

  1. Bargi yagon rastanii khonagi (anjibar, tradeskansiya)-ro girifta, saravval bo purbin qismi poyoni va boloii bargro az nazar guzaroned. Sokhti onhoro ba yakdigar muqoisa kuned. Sipas, onro shikasta az qismi poyoni barg ehtiyotkorona pusti shaffofashro judo kuned. Az on mikropreparat tayyor kuned (az rasmi 14 -i kitobi darsi istifoda bared). Onro ba zeri mikroskop guzoshta, mushohida namoed.
  1. Dar mikropreparat hujayrahoi berangi boftai pushish- ro yobed. Onho chi khel shakl dorand? Ahamiyati onho dar hayoti barg az chi iborat ast?
  2. Dar preparati tayyorkardaaton masomahoro yobed. Maso- maho az hujayrahoi shaffofi pust chi farq dorand? Rasmi onhoro kashed.
  3. Mikropreparati tayyori burishi kundalangi bargro (“Bargi kameliya — burishi kundalangi”) bo yorii mikroskop omuzed. Ba sokhti hujayrahoi pusti ruy, pushti barg va maso- maho diqqat dihed.
  4. Dar mikropreparat bandchahoi guzaronandaro yobed. Dar bandchahoi guzaronanda ragho, naychahoi elakshakl va nakhhoro aniq kuned.
  5. Hujayrahoi magzi bargro az nazar guzaroned. Dar boftai asosii barg (magzi barg) du namudi hujayrahoro yobed. Onho- ro bo rasmi 51 -i kitobi darsi muqoisa karda, rasmashon- ro dar daftaraton kashed. Nomi qismhoi onhoro navised.

MUOINAI SOHTI DARUNII SHOHAI DARAHT

  1. Namudi berunii yagon shokhchai nisbatan gafstari darakht- ro az nazar guzaroned. Bo yorii purbin dar pustlokhi on “naskdonaho” (barjastagihoi surokhdor)-ro paydo kuned. Onho chi ahamiyat dorand?
  2. Burishi kundalang va barqadi shokhcharo tayyor kuned. Dar burishi kundalang pustlokhro yobed. Dar zeri pustlokh qabati nisbatan ravshan – chubro yobed. Dar mobayni burish qabati nisbatan tirarang — dilaro mushohida kuned.
  3. Dar daftaraton bo istifodai kitobi darsi burishi kundalangii shokhcharo naqshbandi karda, qabathoi yoftaaton- ro ba qayd gired.
  4. Dar burishi barqadi shokhcha pustlokh, chub va dilaro aniq kuned. Pustlokhro az chub judo karda, onro qat kuned va oidi mustahkamiash khulosa barored.
  5. Ba chubi pustlokhash judokardashuda dast rasoned, vay lag- jonak ast. CHaro? Dar khususi in qabat va akhamiyati on az kitobi darsi malumot gired.
  1. CHubro qat kuned va mustahkamii onro sanjed. Bo nugi kord ba dila fishor ovarda, mustahkami yo holati onro mu- ayyan kuned.
  2. Dar okhir rasmi burishi barqadi shokhcharo kashed, qismhoi onro navised.

OMUHTANI SOHTI PIYOZAK, LUNDA VA RESHAPOYA

  1. Bo sokhti berunii piyozak shinos shaved. Vay az berun bo chi pushida shudaast? Qabati (pulakchahoi) khushk chy ahamiyat dorand?
  2. Piyozakro barqad bured. Sokhti onro az nazar guzaronda, pulakcha, uzak, mugja^va reshahoi ilovagii onro yobed. Az ki- tobi darsi istifoda burda, rasmi onro kashed.
  3. Isbot kuned, ki piyozak — navdai shakldigarkardai ze- rizaminist.
  4. Lundai kartoshkaro az nazar guzaroned. Dar sathi lunda chuqurchahoro bo chashmakchahoyashon (mugjahoyashon) mushohida kuned.
  5. Burishi kundalangi nihoyat tunuki lundai kartoshkaro tayyor kuned. Onro ba tarafi ravshani doshta nigoh kuned. Dar on qabathoi pustlokh, chub va dilaro yobed.
  6. Ba burishi lunda yak qatra mahluli susti yod chakkoned. CHiro mushohida karded? Kabudrang shudani burishi lunda ba mavjudiyati kadom moddai organiki shahodat medihad?
  7. Lundai kartoshka — navdai shakldigarkarda ast. CHaro?
  8. Rastanii gandumajiriq yo gumoyro bo reshapoyaash kofta gired. Reshapoyai onro bodiqqat az nazar guzaroned. Hususan, bo purbin mushohida kardan ayni muddaost.
  9. Rasmi reshapoyai onro kashida, qismhoi khosashro ba qayd girifta, isbot kuned, ki reshapoya — navdai shakldigarkarda ast.

OMUHTANI SOHTI GULHOI DUJINSA

  1. Guli zardolu yo oluboluro az nazar guzaroned. Dumcha, gulband, gulpush, gardbarg va tukhmdoni gulro yobed.
  2. Gulro ba juzhoi tarkibiash judo kuned. Mivdori ko- sabarg, gulbarg va gardbarghoro hisob kuned.
  3. Tavassuti purbin ba sokhti gardbarg shinos shaved. Poyachai garddon va khudi garddonro yobed. Dar on garddonhoi beshumorro mebined.
  4. Sokhti tukhmdonro az nazar guzaroned. Bo purbin juzhoi on — gardgirak, sutuncha va gurakro yobed.
  5. Rasmi juzhoi (uzvhoi) guli olubolu yo zardoluro kashed va isbot kuned, ki rastanihoi nomburda gulkhoi dujinsa do- rand.

OMUHTANI SOHTI GULHOI YAKJINSA

  1. Tudaguli zardrangi bedro az nazar guzaroned. Bo muychi- nak (pinset) yak guli alohidai onro judo karda, bo purbin mushohida kuned.
  2. Dar gul gardbargro yobed va mivdorashro aniq kuned. Mu- ayyan kuned, ki gul tukhmdon dorad yo ne. Gule, ki tukhmdon na- dorad, chy khel gul nomida meshavad?
  3. Aknun tudaguli sabzrangi bedro, ki az darakhti digar gi- rifta shudaast, az nazar guzaroned. YAk guli onro bo muychinak judo karda, bo purbin mushohida kuned.
  4. Dar gul tukhmdonro yofta, qismhoi onro az nazar guzaro- ned. In gul gardbarg dorad yo ne? In khel gulhoe, ki faqat tukhm- don dorand, chi khel gul nomida meshavand?
  5. Mushohidahoyatonro bo rasmi 86 -i kitobi darsi muqoi- sa karda, rasmi gulhoi narina va modinai guli bedro kashed. Isbot kuned, ki bed rastanii dukhonagi buda, gulhoi yakjinsa dorad.

SHINOSOI BO NAMUDHOI GUNOGUNI TUDAGULHO

  1. Az rui imkoniyataton tudagulhoi sebarga, qoqu, piyoz, sabzi, bargi zulf, juvorimakka, oftobparast, olubolu, gandum, turbkohak va gayrahoro az nazar guzaroned. Ba in maqsad me- tavoned az gerbariyai (namunai khushki rastaniho) rastanihoi gunogun istifoda bared.
  2. Tartibi joygirshavii gulhoro dar gulpoyai asosii ras- tanihoi baroi sanjish giriftaaton muayyan kuned. Rasmi 87 -i kitobi darsiro istifoda burda, nomgui tudagulhoro anik kuned va naqshai onhoro dar daftaraton tasvir kuned, Dar bari naqshahoi tudaguli kashidaaton nomi onhoro na- vised.
  3. Boz kadom rastanihoi tudaguldori makhalli zistatonro medoned? Onhoro nombar kuned.

SHINOSOI BO NAMUDHOI GUNOGUNI MEVAHO

  1. Mevahoi gunoguni khushki soddaro az nazar guzaroned. Onhoro ba guruhhoi mevahoi yaktukhma va bisyortukhma, kusho- dashavanda va kushodanashavanda judo kuned. Nomi onhoro aniq karda, dar dafuaraton qayd kuned.
  2. Bo sokhti bulak va bugummevaho (mevai dutukhmai sabzi, duqanotaki zarang va bugumakgilofaki turbkohak) shinos sha- ved. Rasmi onhoro dar daftaraton kashed.
  3. Bo sokhti mevahoi murakkab va tudamevaho shinos shaved. Muayyan kuned, ki mevahoi tamashk, marminjon, lablabu, shoh- tut ba kadom guruhi mevaho taalluq dorand. Rasm yo naqshai mevahoi murakkab va tudamevaro kashed.
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