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PAYDOISHI HAYOT BO TASAVVUROTI HOZIRAI ODAMON

Malum ast, ki nishonahoi asosi yo khosiyathoi hayot muayyan naboshand, masalai paydoishi hayotro hal kardan mumkin nest. Agar mo dar borai tarkib, sokht va ravandhoe, ki dar organizmi zinda meguzarand, malumoti kofi doshta boshem, pas bechunu charo oidi on davrae, ki hayot metavonist paydo shavad va omilhoe, ki ba paydoishi on ovarda merasondand, tasavvurot hosil karda metavonem.

hayot

Beshubha, in masalai mushkiltarini biologiyai zamoni hozira meboshad, makhsusan, agar ba nazar girem, ki paydoishi hayot az davrahoi muayyani tarikhi Zamin ibtido girifta, omuzishi on dushvor ast.

Dar ravandi inkishofi olami moddi metavon evolyutsiyai biologiro chunin tasavvur kard. Baroi fahmidani in moro zarur ast, ki rohhoi tabdilyobii moddaro az ibtidoi hosilshavii moddai gayriorganiki dar fazoi kayhon to tashkilyobii sistemai sayyoraho mushohida bisozem.

Evolyutsiyai elementhoi khimiyavi dar fazoi kayhon Fazoi bayni sitoraho gufta chiro meguyand? Kadom ravandho dar on meguzarand? Javob ba in va savolhoi digari ba inho monandro dar hambastagii du fan – khimiya va nujum (astronomiya) justujuy kardan lozim ast.

Spektroskopiya nuqtai muhimtarini aloqamandii nujum va khimiya meboshad. Tahlili rushnoii sitorahoi nurposhi kayhon dar borai tarkibi khimiyavii onho malumoti gani medihad. Az tahqiqi tayfho (spektrho) nafaqat elementhoi khimiyaviro muayyan kardan mumkin ast, balki malumothoi digar, masalan, dar borai haroratro niz ba dast ovardan imkon dorad. SHiddati khati elementro muqoisa karda, harorati manbaro chen kardan mumkin ast. Dar natijai chen kardani shiddatnokii nisbii khathoi asosii tayfi boshad, mavjudiyati har yak elementi khimiyaviro metavon muayyan namud.

Az okhiri asri XIX injonib olimon dar kayhon ziyoda az 2 mln. tayf (spektr)-i 15 hazor sitora va oftobro ba qayd giriftand. Onho dar asosi nurposhii sitoraho ba khulosae omadand, ki dar hama joi kayhon elementhoi khimiyavi barobar vujud doshta, qonunhoi yagonai fizikavi amal mekunand.

Gidrogen dar kayhon elementi az hama ziyod pahnshuda meboshad. Atomi on az yak proton va az yak elektron iborat ast.

Agar moddai nakhustini koinot faqat az gidrogen iborat mebud, pas imruz nafaqat mavjudiyat, balki pahnshavii elementhoi digari khimiyaviro niz muayyan kardan imkon medosht.

Dar kayhoni avvalin, ki az gidrogeni toza iborat bud, sitoraho hosil shudaand. Sitoraho az massai buzurgi doroi quvvai joziba va bo hamdigar aloqamand iborat buda, hangomiba vujud omadani onho harorat ba darajae baland megasht, ki reaksiyai hastai (yadroi) rukh medod. Reaksiyai hastai asosi yakjoyashavii yadroi atomhoi gidrogen meboshad.

Massai hastai atomi geliy, ki az du proton va du neytron iborat ast, 4,0026 vohidi massai atomro tashkil mekunad. Zeri fishor va harorati baland reaksiyai omekhtashavii atomhoi gidrogen ogoz yofta, chor atomi gidrogen ba yak atomi geliy omekhta meshavand. Ammo massai yak atomi gidrogen ba 1,0079 vazni massai atomi barobar ast. Pas, chor atomi on 4,0316 vazni massai atomi dorad. Farqi bayni massai chor atomi gidrogen va massai yak atomi geliy ba 0,029 vazni massai atomi barobar meboshad.

Mavjudiyati baze elementhoi khimiyavi dar kayhon In miqdori ziyod nest, ammo mahz on kayhonro ba harakat medarorad. Mutobiqi qonuni nigohdorii massa va energiya in farqiyati massa ba energiyai nurposhi tabdil meyobad.

Muvofiqi muodilai (barobarii) Eynshteyn, energiya ba hosili zarbi massa ba kvadrati surati rushnoi barobar ast. Tabdilyobii gidrogen ba geliy talafi nochizi massaro (0,7% ba har yak atomi geliy) hamrohi karda, miqdori khele ziyodi energiya khorij meshavad.

Tasiri hamdigarii minbadai elementho ba paydoishi elementhoi digar ovarda merasonad. Ehtimol, reaksiyai elementho bayni khud dar hosilshudani molekulahoi murakkabtar va majmui onho – zarrachahoi gardu chang ifoda meyobad.

Gazho va zarrachahoi gardu chang dar fazoi kayhon jam gashtani materiyai gazu changro tamin mekunand.

Misoli in guna jamoi gubor (abr)-i azim dar galasitorahoi (burji) Orion meboshad. In gubornokiro dar mavzei «shamsher»-i Orion tavassuti durbin didan mumkin ast.

Qutri (diametri) galasitorahoi Orion 15 soli rushnoi buda, hamon qadar gazu changro dar bar megirand, ki onho baroi hosil gashtani 100000 sitorahoi hajmashon barobari Oftob kifoyaand. YAke az chunin gubornokihoi ziyod dar galaktikai mo – Rohi Kahkashon buda, qutri on 100000 soli rushnoiro darbar megirad.

Reaksiyai sintezi hastairo dar misoli omekhtashavii atomhoi gidrogen didan mumkin ast, ki dar natija atomi geliy paydo meshavad.  Gubornokii Orion az Zamin dar masofai 1500 soli rushnoi joygir ast va gubornokii nazdiktarin ba sayyorai mo meboshad.

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