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RAVANDHOE, KI DAR LITOSFERA BA AMAL MEOYAND

Ravandhoi dar litosfera ba amal meomada – Zaminlarza va sababhoi paydoishi onho. Ba mo malum ast, ki litosfera qishri zamin va qabati boloii mantiyaro darbar megirad.

Qishri zamin hamesha dar holi harakat ast. In harakathoi bo ravandhoe, ki dar qari zamin ba amal meoyand, aloqamand ast. Harakati qishri zamin – zaminlarza, vulqonizm, faolshavii geyzerho. Harakat dar qishri zamin ba ufuqi va amudi chudo meshavad.

zaminlarzaHarkati ufuqi dar litosfera dahho va hazorho kilometr joro faro megirad. Masalan, chunone, ki malum ast, qalimho ba joyi shash materiki imruza materik Gondvan va Lavrosiyo vujud doshtand. Harakati amudi dar litosfera ba boloshavi va poyonshavii massivhoi ziyodi sathi zamin aloqamand ast. Dar natijai chunin harakathoi zaminlarzaho, ikhroji vulqonho, inchunin tabdilshavii chynshoi kuhi ba amal meoyad.

Harakat sathi zamin dar zeri tasiri quvvahoi tabii zamin larza nomida meshavad. Zaminlarza chor khel meshavad: tektoniki, vulqoni, yarch va masaui

Namudhoi zaminlarza az ruyi paydoish

  1. Tektoniky – Dar natijai –  harakathoi tektoniki dar litosfera yo dar mantiyai boloi ba amal meoyad. Bavayronihoi ziyod dar sathi Zamin ovarda merasonad.
  2. Dar natijai vulqonizm – Az sababi ba sathi Zamin ikhroj va aftidan jarayoni makma ba amal meoyad. Vayroni dar nohiyai vulqon ba amal meoyad.
  3. YArch – Az sababi joyivazkunii yonahoi kuh ba amal meoyad.
  4. Suny – CHunin zaminlarzaho az sababi faoliya- ti khojagidorii odamon ba amal meoyad.

Nohiyae, ki az hama ziyod quvvai vayronkunanda ba on tasir kardaast mintaqa yo markazi zilzila nomida meshavad.

Ba andozai durshavy az markazi zilzila (ras. 34) kuvvai zaminlarza kam meshavad. Zaminlarzahoi sakht masohati kalonro faro megirad, lagjishi qismi zamin dar quhho ba amal meoyad, sokhtmonho vayron meshavand, zarari ziyode ovarda meshavad. Masalan, 26-umi dekabri soli 2006 dar dehai Kochkori nohiyai Kochkori viloyati Narin zaminlarzai andozai 7 ball ba amal omada bud, hech talafoti joni ba qayd girifta nashudaast.

Zaminlarzai ba vulqonizm irtibot doshta hangomi ikhroji vulqonho, vaqte magma az qabati boloii mantiya ba sathi zamin mebaroyad, ba amal meoyad. Masalan: zaminlarza hangomi ikhroji Krakatau, Mon-Pele, Vezuviya, vulqonhoi dar jazirahoi Gavayi qismi shimolii Uqyonusi Orom ba amalomada.

Zaminlarzahoi yarji, inchunin, az sababi furuposhy va gejishhoi purquvvat ba amal meoyad. CHunin zamindarzaho yarchy nom dorad, onho khususiyati mahally dorand va quvvai kam dorand.

Zaminlarza metavonad suny ham boshad: masalan, tarqishi miqdori ziyodi mavodshi tarqanda yo hangomi tarqishi yadroy, sokhtmon yo hangomi guzashtani qator (poezd) dar naqbhoi kuhy ba amal omadanash mumkin ast.

Ba nohiyahoi faoliyati seysmikii barziyod bo zaminlarzahoi zud-zud nohiyahoi uqyonus Orom, khususan nohiyahoi sohilii on, galajazirai Malayya, mintaqahoi kuhii Osiyoi Miyona, Osiyoi Markazy va Osiyoi Hurd, Avrupoi Janubi, Islandiya, qatorkuhhoi Markazy- atlantiki.

Quvvai zaminlarza bo jadvali 12 balla chen karda meshavad (ras. 36).

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