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PAYDOISH VA INKISHOFI PARRANDAHO

Parrandahoi hozira va khazandaho alomatu khususiyatkhoi khosi monandi dorand, zero in parrandaho tarikhan az khazandaho paydo shudaand. Az jumla: I. Pusti khazandaho va parrandaho qarib, ki tamoman gadud nadorand. 2. Pusti khazandagonro pulakchakhoi shohin pushidaast, ki in alomatro dar soqi poyi parrandagon ham mebinem. 3 Pari parrandagon ham az moddai shohine iborat ast, ki az jihati paydoish ba pulakchahoi pusti khazandaho monand meboshad. 4. Sokhti darunii tukhm, ki az zardi boy ast, alomati har du sinf meboshad. 5. Tukhmi hamai onho jildi ohaki dorad. 6. Embrioni parrandayu khazanda zohiran monand buda, dar davrai avvali inkishofi dokhili tukhm nishonakhoi galsamagi dorand.

Parandakhoi zebo khushruy

Hususiyati monand budani parrandagonu khazandagon az ajdodi kadimai onho malum megardad. Onho bo du poyi aqib roh meraftand, ustukhonbandii havodor (pnevmatiki) dopggand, poyhoi peshashon sepanchagi buda parmonand budaand. Avvalin parrandaho dar davrai pesh ba bujud omadaand, kn onhoro ornetozukha («orneto» parranda, «zukha» — qadima) menomand. Parho dar davrai qadim dar parrandahon qadima ba vujud omadaand va badanashon bo paru pathoi kushod pushida shuda, dumi bodbezakshakl, poy, dasti boli ustukhonhoi andak sabuk, tumshuki nuldor, dar nugi panjahoi poy nokhun, pulakcha dopggand, vale dur parvoz karda nametavonistand.

Parrandai avvaline, ki az bozyofthoi paleontologi (qadima) yoft shudaast, hajman ba kabutar yo aloshaqshaka barobar buda, dandon, 20 muhra, 4 angusht dosht, parhoi dumash az har yak muhra yakjufti baromada bud.

Sokhti parrandai qadimai ba mo malum — arkheopteriks shohidi medihad, ki avvalin namoyandagonash dar shokhai darakhtoni besha zista, ohista-ohista parvozro yod giriftaand. Baze parrandagon dertar baroi dar bogotu dashtu biyobonu jariho, dar sohilihavzkhoyu botloqzorkho zindagi kardan mutobiq shudand.

Ba guruhho taqsim kardani parrandahoi zamoni hozira

Parrandahoi hozira ba 2 zersinf judo meshavand:

  1. Zersinfi parrandahoi kaltakalosdum yo in ki kadimai munqarizshuda.
  2. Zersinfi bodbezakdumoni hozirazamon. In zersinf ba 3 boloqator judo meshavad.

Boloqatori betegai sinagiho (hamvorsinagon)

Ba in qator shuturmurghoi afrikoi, amerikoi, avstraliyagi dokhil meshavand, ki poyi daroz doshta, tezdav meboshand va az in sabab dar onho bol nagz inkishof nayoftaast. SHuturmurgho dar joyhoi vase hayot meguzaronand. Poyashon 5 panja dorad, az on 3-toyash dar pesh va 2-toyash dar aqib ast. Darozii badani shugurmurgho to 3,54 m shuda, 75-90 kg vazn dorand, har yak qadamashon 2-3 m buda, khar yak jahishashon 11-12 m ast. Badani onho bo par pushida shuda, gadudi ravgani nadorand. Naslhoyashon juft-juft zindagi mekunand. Nasli modina 3-7 tukhm meguzorad. Tukhmro dar qabati qumi garm guzoshta. ruzona narinaash va shabona modinaash pakhsh mekunand. Har yak tukhmi shuturmurg 1 l gunjoish doshta, az tukhmi murg chandin marotiba kalon ast. Holo baze boqimovdai shuturmurgoni maydajussai kadimaro ornitologkho (parrandashinosho) az hududi Ukraina va Qazokiston yoftaand. Onhoro dar sharoiti hozirai Ukraina, Kavkaz, Qazoqiston, Osiyoi Miyona ba sharoitn nav mutobik karda, parvarish mekunand.

Nandu nom shuturmurgi amerikoi ba tavri poligami (yak khurusu yakchand mokiyon dar yak jo) zindagi mekunand va hamai onho tukhmashonro dar yak jo meguzorand. Pakhsh kardani tukhm to chuja baromadan vazifai khurus ast. SHuturmurgoni avstraliyagi (kazuarho) bebol, patashon muyshakli purqimat ast. YAk namudi on Emu nom doshta, dar Gvineyai Nav zindagi mekunad va sergusht ast. SHuturmurgi kivi tamoman bebol buda, hajman khurd meboshad, 4 panjai poy dorad, dar zeri buttahoi kuhi zindagi karda, hasharot mekhurad. Onho 1 -2 tukhm guzoshta, beshtar hayoti shabona meguzaronand.

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