Home / Biologiya / Oilai lubiyoiho

Oilai lubiyoiho

Oilai lubiyoiho yake az kalontarin oilahoi sinfi rastanihoi dupalla ba shumor meravad. In oila takriban 12 hazor namudi rastanihoi yaksola, bisyorsolai alafiyu buttagi va darakhtiro darbar megirad.

Dar bayni onho rastanihoi kishovarzi (az qabili mushung, lubiyo, lubiyoi chini (soya), boqilo, chormagzi zamini, mosh, nakhud va gayra), oroishi (aqoqiyoi zard, guli mulkak, aqoqiyoi safed, glisiniya, nakhudaki khushbuy), khuroki chorvo (yunuchka, lupin (tirmis), sebarga), dorui (asalrishqa (govrishqa), shirinbiya) va digar rastanihoi purkimat mavjudand. Aksari rastanihoi lubiyoi az rui namudi zohiriashon bo ham kamtar monandi doshta, az rui sokhti gul va meva ba hamdigar khele nazdikand.

Lubiyoiho gulpushi duchanda dorand. Kosachai gul az 5 kosabargi boham payvast, tojgul az 5 gulbarg, ki dutoash bo hamdigar payvast ast, iborat ast. Har kadom gulbarg nomi makhsus dorad. Gulbargi boloiro, ki az digar gulbargho kalontar ast bodbonak, pahluiro belcha va du gulbargi poyonii baham chaspidaro zavraqcha menomand. Hamin tavr, guli lubiyoiho zavraqchaero ba khotir meovarad, ki belcha va bodbon dorad. Tukhmdon dar dokhili zavraqcha joygir buda, onro 10 adad gardbarg ihota kardaast. Dar aksariyati rastanihoi lubiyoi dumchai 9-to gardbarg bo hamdigar chaspida, faqat yakto gardbarg judo ast. Dar guli baze digar namudhoi rastanihoi lubiyoi dumchai hamai gardbargho yo payvast yo az hamdigar judo-judo meboshand. Mevai rastanihoi oilai lubiyoiho kusak meboshad.

Formulai guli aksariyati lubiyoihoro in tavr tasvir kardan mumkin ast: K(5) T1+2+(2) G(9)+1 M,

Tavassuti hujayrahoi muyakresha ba reshai rastanihoi lubiyoi bakteriyahoi lundareshagi dokhil shuda, dar on jo lundahoro ba vujud meovarand. In bakteriyaho qobiliyat dorand, ki nitrogeni kholis yo ozodi havoro az khud karda, ba nitrogeni baroi rastaniho dastras tabdil dihand. CHunin hamzistii (reshai rastanii lubiyoi + bakteriyahoi lundareshagi) ba hamdigar foidanoki organizmkhoi zindaro “simbioz” menomand. Simbioz kalimai yunoni buda, ma- noyash “simbioz” — hayotguzaronii yakjoya yo hamzisti meboshad.

Tarkibi uzvhoi ruizaminii lubiyoiho (poya, barg, meva, tukhm) niz az moddahoi nitrogendor, khususan, safedaho khele boy meboshad. Hamin tavr, rastanihoi lubiyoi na tanho ba tufayli bakteriyahoi lundareshagiashon, inchunin bo uzvhoi ruizaminiashon, ki pas az faoliyati hayotiashon khushk gardida, ba khok meaftand, tarkibi khokro az moddahoi nitrogendor boy gardonda, boisi hosilkhez shu- dani khok megardand.

Sokht va shakli bargi rastanihoi lubiyoi gunogun ast. CHunonchi, bargi sebarga az se hissa (bargcha) iborat buda, az in ru onro sebarga meguyand. Bargi lubiyoi chini, lubiyo, mushung, aqoqiyoi zard va safed, moshak parmonand buda, bargi lupin (tirmis) panjashakl meboshad.

Baroi rastanihoi lubiyoi tudaguli shaklash khusha (lupin, asalrishqa) va sarak (dar sebarga) khos ast.

Mushungi kishtshavanda yake az rastanihoi mazrui qadimii lubiyoiho ba hisob meravad. Vatani aslii mushung kuhistoni Afgoniston va shimolu garbi Hinduston meboshad.

Mushung rastanii alafii yaksola buda, bargi murakkabi parmonandash bo tanobaki shokharonda ba itmom merasad. Tanobak ba yagon takyagokh chaspida poyai boriku kamquvvati mushungro ustuvor nigoh medorad.

Dar tarkibi mevai sabz va tukhmi mushung ba mikdori ziyod an- gishtob va safeda mavjud ast.

Lubiyo rastanii garmidust ast. Vay ziyoda az 200 namud dorad, ki az in miqdor 20 namudashro dar khojagihoi kishovarzi vase parvarish mekunand.

Namudhoi gunogunu ziyodi lubiyo dar mintaqahoi tropiki, Osiyo, Afriqo va Amerika vase pahn shudaand. Lubiyo poyai pechonu qaish dorad. Barghoi avvalini (dar qabati poyoni) lubiyo sodda, juft va barghoi boloii on murakkab, sechanda buda, dar dumchai daroz joygir shudaand. Hushagulash az 2—4 gul iborat buda, gulhoyash safed, gulobi va bunafsh mesha- vand.

Mushung

Lubiyo navkhoi ziyod dorad. Navhoi gunoguni onro ba sifati rastanii tekhniki, khuroki va oroishi istifoda mebarand. Dar tarkibi tukhmi on 28—30% safe- da, 3,6% ravgan, 42 — 60% ohar (krakhmal) va inchunin qand, vitaminkhoi A, V, S mavjud ast. Az bargash javhari limu va doruhoi gunogun hosil mekunand.

Nakhud rastanii yaksola va bisyorsola meboshad. Hamagi 30 namudi nakhud malum ast. Dar Tojikiston 17 namudi on vomekhurad. Lekin faqat yak namudi nakhudro kisht mekunand. Dar aksari nohiyahoi Tojikiston nakhudro parvarish mekunand.

Nakhud poyai rosti sershokh dorad. Bargash murakkabi toqa va par- monand ast. Mevaash kusaki bayzashaklu darozruya ast, dar dokhilash az 1 to 3-to tukhm dorad.

Tukhmi nakhud dar tar- kibash to 30% safeda, 7% ravgan va digar moddahoi baroi salomati zaruriro dorad. Az in ru, nakhudro chun ziroati sergizo baroi tayyor kardani konservaho, makaron, qahvai suni va mahsuloti gunoguni qannodi istifoda meba- rand.

YUnuchqa rastanii yaksola va bisyorsolai alafi buda, ziyoda az 100

namudro darbar megirad. Dar Tojikiston 10 namudi yunuchqa meruyad. YUnuchqa khuroki sergizoi chorvo ba hisob rafta, az on ordi alaf, tarbeda, silos va gayra tayyor mekunand. YUnuchqa chun digar rastanihoi lubiyoi khosiyati az moddahoi nitrogeni boy gardondani zaminro dorad. Binobar on, onro baroi hosilkhez gardondani zamin dar kishtgardon istifoda mebarand. Dar ayni zamon, dar jumhuriamon navhoi gunogunu serhosili yunuchqa ba vujud ovarda shudaand, ki dar nohiyahoi gunoguni vatanamon parvarish karda meshavand.

  1. Alomathoi makhsusi oilai lubiyoihoro nombar kuned.
  2. Dar khojagihoi kishovarzii jumhuriamon kadom namud
Rasmi 38. Nakhud
  • hoi rastanihoi oilai lubiyoihoro parvarish mekunand?
  1. Sokhti guli lubiyoiho chi guna ast?
  2. Ahamiyati rastanihoi lubiyoi dar ruzgor va khojagii khalq az chi iborat ast?
  3. Simbioz chist va onro manidod kuned?
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

nargis

Guli Nargis

In rastanii gulkunanda az piyozash meruyad va ranghoi gunoguni gulash hast az jumla Nargisi zard …