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OBU HAVO, TAGYIRYOBI VA SABABHOI ON

Mafhumi obu havo. Har ruz borho az radio va televizion dar borai obu havo khabar meshunaved. Az on boyad pay burda boshed, ki obu havo dar mahalhoi gunogun har khel ast (inro bo (isolho fahmida gired). Dar in vaqt obu havoi ruzi digarro ham meguyand. In akhbor va mushohidahoi shumo shahodati on ast, va obu havo bo mururi vaqt tagyir meyobad va on dar mahalhoi gunoguni sathi Zamin har khel ast.

Unsurhoi asosii obu havo harorat, fishori atmosferi, rutubati havo, samt va surati bod, abrnoki, borishot meboshand. Vobasta ba vazi solkho dar troposfera bod, abr paydo shuda, borish meshavad.

Holati hozirai majmui hodisahoi meteorologi, ki dar yagon fosilai vaqt va joi muayan ba vujud meoyad» obu havo nomida meshavad.

Mushohida kardaed, ki bazan dar yak shabonaruz obu havo yakchand marotiba tagyir meyobad. Makhsusan dar bahoron obu havoi marzi Tojikiston tagyryobanda ast.

Obu khavoi Tochikiston badi boron
Obu khavoi Tochikiston badi boron

Obu havo az rui unsurhoyash muayyan karda meshavad. Hamai unsurho va zuhuroti obu havo bayni hamdigar alokamandand: tagyir yoftani yake az onho boisi tagiiroti digar unsurho va umuman obu havo megardad. Masalan, dar davomi shabonaruz tagyir yoftani harorat boisi tagyiryobii fishor va rutubati havo, samti bod, abrnoki megardad. Sahari barvaqti ruzi tobiston pesh az baromadani Oftob havo odatan salqin, beabr ast. Oftob dar ufuq baland shuda, sathi Zamin ba garmshavi cap mekunad. Dar natija havo tafsida, fishori atmosferi past megardad. Havoi garm bolo baromada khunuk meshavad, dar kuhho abrhoi tudagi paydo meshavand va bodi vodigi mevazad. Badi soati 15—16 harorati havo toraft past mefaroyad. Begoh havo salqin meshavad va dar vodiho bodi kuhi mevazad.

Az mushohidai mahalaton barmeoyad, ki obu havo dar har SHabonaruz ahyon-ahyon be yagon tagyirot takror meyobad. Vale SHoyad pay burda boshed, ki bisyor khususiyatkhoi on baroi chandin SHabonaruz yak khel ast. YAne dar mahalho, dar fosilai yakchand shabonaruz, moh yo mavsim obu havoi muaiyan khos meboshad. Az in
ru, navhoi obu havo gunogunand, havoi sofi beabr, havoi tira, havoi rutubatnok, havoi abrnok, boroni va gayra.

Dar yak mahali Zamin obu havo bisyor tagyir meyobad, yane yak navi obu havo digarashro ivaz mekunad. Dar Tojikiston hatto vodihoi ba ham nazdik obu havoi az hamdigar farqkunanda dorand. Dar mahalhoi digari Zamin obu havo  tagyir meyobad. Masalan, dar nohiyahoi khati istivo obu havo khamesha garmu serboron, yane tamomi sol hamon yak navi havo khos meboshad.

Navi obu havo tavsifi umumii obu havo meboshad, harorati miyonai shabonaruzi, fishor, kholati abrnok borishot, mavjudiyati bodro dar bar megirad.

Tagiryobii obu havo. Sababhoi asosii tagyiryobii ob havo az nurhoi Oftob nobarobar garm shudani sathi Zamin doimo joy ivaz kardani havo meboshad. Sathi Zamin azdah biyobonho, kuhsor, masohathoi kaloni jangalzoru bejang iborat ast. Sathi uqyonus boshad, jarayonkhoi garmu khunuk dorad.

Qismathoi nazdizaminii troposfera vobasta chigunagii sathi Zamin doroi khususiyatkhoi gunogun meboshad Masalan, havoi boloi nisbatan garmi Uqyonusi Atlantika garmu nami tobiston havoi boloi biyobonho  tafson, khunuku suzon va serchang ast (chunin havoro dar kujo mushohid kardaed?). Havoi boloi barfu yakhhoi Arktika khunuk, va nisbatan shaffof meboshad (In qismi  Zaminro nishon dihed va bigued, ki in havoro dar kadom mavsimi sol dar mahala mushohida kardaed?).

Havoi troposfera ba qismatkho judo shudaast, ki onr anbuhi havo menomand. Anbuhi havo az yakdigar bo harorat fishori atmosferi, rutubat, shaffofi farq dorad. Onho masohati kalonro ishgol mekunand. Anbuhi havo dar samtho gunogun joy ivaz mekunad. CHunonchi, agar anbuhi havo Uqyonusi Atlantika ba samti sharq harakat kunad, tobiston on khushki obu havoi abrnoki nisbatan salqin meorad. In khav toraft garmu khushk, abrnoki kam, havo sof va bazan sercha meshavad.

Hangomi az samti shimol dokhil shudan anbuhi havo dar hama mavsimhoi sol khushki meorad (In anbuhi havo chi nom lorad?). Vale tobiston khavoi khunuk shaffofu khushk az Zamin tafsida, zud garm meshavad. Zimiston boshad, on havoro khunuktar mekunad (Kadom zimistoni khunuku khushkro dar khotir dored?).

Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki tagyiryobii fishor va samthoi bod alomathoi avvalini ivazshavii obu havo meboshand (az mushohidai mahalaton dar in bora dar daftari havosanji qaydho kuned).

Peshguii obu khavo. Peshguii obu havo ahamiyati kalon dorad. Peshaki donistani tagyiryobii obu havo baroi kasbu korhoi gunogun, makhsusan, sohai knshovarzi, naqliyot, lyotchikho, bahrnavardon va gayra nihoyat muhim ast (inro az mushohidakhoi khud bo misolho isbot kuned). Baroi tartib dodani malumotn aniqi obu havo dar borai holati atmosfera dar tamomi sathi Zamin malumot doshtan zarur ast.

Peshguii obu havo kori sahl nest. On mehnati yakjoyai meteorologhoi bisyor mamlakathoro talab menamoyad. Az stansiyakhoi meteorologi va az onho ba markazkhoi umumijahonii meteorologi, ki dar Moskva. Vashington (IMA) va Melburn (Avstraliya) joygirand, akhborot doda meshavad.

Dar Tojikiston markazi khadamoti meteorologi dar Dushanbeshahr voqe ast. Dar markazi obuhavoshinosin Jumhurii Tojikiston – shahri Dushanbs tamomi malumoti girdovarda bo hisobmoshinkhoi elektroni tadqiq karda meshavad. Stansiyahoi meteorologii shahru nohiyaho akhborro ba shahri Dushanbe medihand. Baroi khar yak muhlati mushohida kharitai obu havo” – kharitai sinoptiki (az yunony, manoyash ‘ hamaro yakjoya mushohida kardan”) tartib medihand. Dar on bo alomatkhoi sharti va raqamho malumoti asosiro dar borai obu havoi hamai mahalhoi mavridi mushohida qayd mekunand. Az rui kharitahoi muhlathoi gunogun mutakhassisoni obu havosanj surat va samti joyivazkunii anbuhi havoro muayyan karda, obu havoi ruzhoi oyandaro, peshgui mekunand.

Malumoti obu havoro ba vositai radio va televizion shunavonda, dar namudi chopi ba idorahon muhimi mamlakat,pesh az hama ba sohahoi kishovarzi, naqliyot va gayrya  mefiristand. Malumoti obu havoro dar ruznomaho ham chop menamoyandu dar somonahoi interneti meguzorand.

Obu khavoro dar asosi alomathoi mahall, ki ba mushohidahoi bisyorsola asos yoftaast, peshgui kardan mumkin ast. Masalan, vazidani bod az garb va ba vujud omadann borishot, paydoshavii halqahoi surkhi girdi Oftob hangomi gurub az khub shudani obu havoi ruzi digar shahodat medihand; Tuman toraft bolo baroyad, boron meborad. Agar gusfandon obro kam khurda, ruzona khoband, boron meborad. Obi daryo kam shavad, boron meborad, ziyod shavad havoi sofro boyad intizor shud. Abri siyoh past furomada, tez guzarad, boroni bardavom meborad. Agar pagohi tuman ba sathi Zamin nihoyat mazdik boshad. khavoi oftobi meshavad (Oyo shumo chunin alomathon mahallii obu havoro mushohida kardaed? Dar borai onho chy gufta metavoned?).

Savol va suporish

  1. Obu havo chist? CHy guna budani obu havoi mahalatonro naql kuned.
  2. Dar borai unsurhoi asosii obu havo va ahamiyati onho chi medoned?
  3.  Baroi chi obu havo dar davomi shabonaruz tagyir meyobad?
  4.  Obu havo dar mahali shumo hangomi tobiston va zimiston az garb. sharq va shimol vorid shudani anbuhi havo chy tavr tagyir meyobad? Bigued, ki borishotro ba mahali shumo kadom anbuhi havo meorad? Dar kadom mavsimi sol dar makhalaton borishot ziyod meborad?
  5. Dar borai navhoi beshtar hukmroni obu havo va sababhoi on khulosa barored. Har yak navi obu havo chand ruz bud?
  6. Dar kadom fasli sol dar mahalaton obu havo noustuvor ast? Mushohidai yakruzaatonro dar daftari havosanji qayd kuned.
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