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Marhilahoi mubodilai energetiki

Mubodilai energetikiro odatan ba se marhila judo mekunand. Marhilai yakum – marhilai tayyori meboshad. Dar in marhila molekulahoi di – va polisakharidho, charbho, safedaho ba molekulahoi khurd, glyukoza, glitserin va kislotahoi ravgani, aminokislotaho; malekulahoi kaloni kislotahoinukleinat ba nukleotidho tajziya meshavand. Dar marhilai mazkur energiyai kam khorij shuda, dar namudi garmi parokanda megardad.

Marhilai duyum-marhilai beoksigen yo nopurra ast. On inchunin nafaskashii anaerobi (glikoliz) yo turshshavi niz nomida meshavad. Istilohi «turshshavi»-ro odatan nisbat ba ravandhoe, ki dar hujayrai mikroorganizmho yo rastaniho meguzarand, istifoda mebarand. Moddahoi dar in marhila hosilshuda bo ishtiroki fermentho ba tajziyai minbada duchor megardand. Masalan, dar mushakho dar natijai nafaskashii anaerobi molekulai glyukoza ba du molekulai kislotai piroangur (S3N4O3) tajziya shuda, sipas, to ba kislotai shir (oksipropionat) (S3N6O3) barqaror meshavad.

Dar reaksiyahoi tajziyai glyukoza kislotai fosfat va ADF ishtirok menamoyand, ki onro dar namudi majmui chunin ifoda kardan mumkin ast:

C6H12O6 + 2H3PO4 + 2ADF 2S3H6O3 + 2ATF + 2H2 > O

Dar zanburughoi khamirturush molekulai glyukoza be ishtiroki oksigen ba spirti etil va oksidi karbon (IV) mubaddal meshavad (in ravandro turshshavi yo jushkhurii spirt menomand):

C6H12O6 + 2H3PO4 + 2ADF 2S2H5OH + 2CO2 + + 2ATF + 2H2O >

Dar mikroorganizmhoi digar glikoliz mumkin ast bo hosil gashtani atseton, kislotai atsetat va gayra anjom yobad. Dar har mavrid tajziyai yak molekulai glyukoza bo hosilshavii du molekulai ATF meguzarad. Hangomi be oksigen tajziya shudani glyukoza dar molekulai ATF ba namudi bandi khimiyavi 40% energiya nigoh doshta shuda, boqimondai on dar namudi garmi parokanda meshavad.

Marhilai seyumi mubodilai energetiki – marhilai nafaskashii aerobi yo tajziyai oksigeni meboshad. Reaksiyahoi in marhila niz bo fermentho tezonida meshavand. Hangomi ba hujayra dokhil shudani oksigen moddahoi qablan hosilshuda to mahsuloti okhirin – ob va oksidi karbon (IV) oksid meshavand. Nafaskashii oksigeni bo khorij shudani miqdori ziyodi energiya va dar molekulai ATF zakhira gashtani on meguzarad. Muodilai reaksiyai summavii nafaskashii aerobiro ba tariqi zayl ifoda kardan mumkin ast:

> 2S3N6O3 + 6O2 + 36N3RO4 + 36ADF 6SO2 +38N2 O + 36ATF

Hamin tavr, dar vaqti oksid shudani du molekulai kislotai shir 36 molekulai ATF hosil meshavad. Pas, malum meshavad, ki roli asosiro dar tamin namudani hujayraho bo energiya nafaskashii aerobi mebozidaast.

Vobasta ba qobiliyati qabul namudan yo khud giriftani energiya organizmho ba du guruh-avtotrofi va geterotrofi judo meshavand.

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