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MIKROELEMENTHO

mikroelementhoMIKROELEMENTHO, elementhoi khimiyavie, ki dar organizm ba miqdori kam ba andozai 10–2 – 10–12 vujud dorand. Istilohi «M.»-ro inchunin baroi ifodai baze elementhoi khimiyavie, ki dar khok, jinshoi kuhi, mineralho va ob hastand, istifoda mebarand. Dar organizmhoi zinda ziyoda az 60 M. ba tarkibi payvasthoi faoli biologi (fermentho, vitaminho, gormonho va pigmenthoi nafaskashi) dokhil meshavand. Tasiri M. dar in payvastho hangomi tagyiryobii faoliyati ravandhoi mubodilai modda, inkishof, afzoish, hosilshavii khun va g. zohir megardand. M.-ro az rui ahamiyati baroi faoliyati hayotii organizm doshtaashon ba M.-i zaruri (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, I, F, Br) va nachandon muhim (Al, Sr, Mo, Se, Ni) judo mekunand; roli Bi, Ag va baze M.-i digar, ki dar boftaho hastand, muayyan nashudaast. Norasoi yo ziyodii M. dar rastani va organizmi hayvonot ba miqdori dar khok budai onho vobasta ast.
M. dar organizm nobarobar pahn shudaand. Dar yagon uzv barziyod jam shudani onho ba maqomi fiziologii elementho va faoliyati khosi hamon uzv vobasta ast. Miqdori M. dar uzvu boftaho vobasta ba joi istiqomat, meyori doimii khurok va sababhoi digar tagyir meyobad.
M. dar tib nisbatan kam istifoda meshavand. Vale doruhoi Co, Fe, Cu baroi muolijai baze namudhoi anemiya, Br, I chun modai farmakologi, baze M. dar gigiena (mas., baroi peshgirii jogari endemi) va g. harjoniba istifoda meshavand. M. ba organizmi odam asosan tavassuti mahsuloti khuroki roh meyoband.
Olimoni Tojikiston muqarrar namudaand, ki ba bemorihoi gipertoni, ishemiyai dil va ateroskleroz nisbat ba sokinoni mahalhoi digar kamtar giriftor shudani sokinoni Pomir ba miqdori M.-i dar organizmi onho buda vobasta ast. Mas., konsentratsiyai Fe, Ca, Ti dar khuni sokinoni Dushanbe nisbat ba konsentratsiyai in M. dar khuni sokinoni Horug beshtar ast. Baraks konsentratsiyai Zn, V. Ag dar khuni sokinoni mahalhoi kuhi afzuntar meboshad. Ba darajai muayyan muvofiqat kardani miqdori M.-i dar khuni odam va unsurhoi khoki biosferai Tojikiston budaro malumotho tasdiq mekunand.
Tavsifi asosii fiziologi va gigienii mikroelementhoi muhimtarin
Mikroelementho Miqdori mikroelementhoi chashmaho, mg/l Manbahoi asosii ba organizm dokhilshavii mikroelementho Miqdori mikroelementho dar khuroki yakshaboruzi, mg Talaboti yakshaboruzi ba mikroelementho, mg Bofta va uzvhoe, ki dar onho mikroelementho jam meshavand Roli biologi va tasiri fiziologii mikroelementho
Al 0 – 0,1 non 20 – 100 2 – 50 jigar, magzi sar, ustukhon Ba inkishof va regeneratsiyai boftahoi epiteli, payvastkunanda va ustukhoni kumak merasonad; ba faoliyati gadudi hozima va fermentho tasir mekunad
Br 0 – 0,25 non, shir 0,4 – 1,0 0,5 – 2,0 magzi sar, gadudi siparshakl Faoliyati sistemai markazii asabro tanzim mekunad; ba faoliyati gadudhoi tanosul, siparshakl va faoliyati shirahoi hozima tasir merasonad
Fe 0,01 – 1,0 non, gusht, meva 15 – 40 10 – 30 eritrositho, jigar, sipurz Dar khunhosilkuni, nafaskashi, reaksiyahoi immunobiologi va oksidu barqarorshavi ishtirok mekunad; norasoii on boisi anemiya megardad
I 0 – 0,3 shir, sabzavot 0,04 – 0,2 1,1 – 1,3 gadudi siparshakl Baroi faoliyati gadudi siparshakl zarur ast; hangomi norasoi jogari endemi ba vujud meoyad; darajai kholesterin, β-lipoprotein va bastani khunro past mekunad; tasiri ziddi mikrobi dorad
Co 0,01 – 0,1 shir, non, sabzavot 0,01 – 0,01 0,02 – 0,2 khun, sipurz, ustukhon, tukhmdon, jigar, gipofiz Hunofariro metezonad, dar sintezi safedaho va tanzimi mubodilai angishtobho ishtirok mekunad; tasiri lipotropi dorad
Mn 0 – 0,5 non 4 – 36 2 – 10 ustukhon, jigar, gipofiz Hunofariro metezonad; ba mubodilai safeda, angishtob, charbu tasir merasonad; barziyod hosil shudani kholesterinro dar devorai ragho boz medorad, raghoi khunro vase, fishori arteriyaro past, khosiyati immunobiologi va muhofizii organizmro ziyod mekunad
Cu 0 – 0,1 non, kartoshka, meva 1 – 10 1 – 4 jigar, ustukhon Ba numu va inkishof kumak merasonad; dar khunhosilkuni, nafasgiri va reaksiyahoi immuniteti ishtirok mekunad; takshonshavii kholesterinro metezonad, raghoi khunro tang va fishori arteriyaro baland mekunad
Mo 0 – 0,1 non 0,1 – 0,6 0,1 – 0,5 jigar, gurda, pardai pigmenti, chashm Ba tarkibi fermentho dokhil meshavad; inkishofi parranda va hayvonotro metezonad; barziyodii on bemorii molibdenozi hayvonro ba vujud meorad
F 0 – 2,0 ob, sabzavot, shir 0,4 – 1,8 2 – 3 ustukhon, dandon Ustuvorii dandonhoro bar ziddi kariesi dandon ziyod mekunad; khunofari va immunitetro metezonad; dar inkishofi skelet ishtirok mekunad; barziyodii on flyuorozro ba vujud meorad
Zn 0 – 0,1 non, gusht, sabzavot 6 – 30 5 – 20 jigar, prostata, shabakiyai chashm Dar protsesshoi khunofari va faoliyati tarashshuhii gadudhoi dokhiliusoravi ishtirok mekunad, darajai kholesterini khunro past mekunad; inkishofi aterosklerozro boz medorad; hangomi norasoi inkishofi hayvonot sust va mahsuli on past meshavad

J. S. Langarieva.

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