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MAKTAB – Insho (hikoya)

Ki chun sar barori ba charkhi baland,
Zi maktab ba maydon jahoni samand.

Nizomii Ganjavi

Hondanro man dar khona az khoharu barodaroni kaloniyam, ki dar sinfhoi boloi mekhondand, yod girifta budam.

Man, ki tabiatan kunjkovam, az onho harfhoro mepursidam va hamai harfhoro shinokhta girifta budam. Vaqte ba sinfi yak raftam, az hamsinfonam kame pesh budam. Onho nav bo harfho shinos meshudand, vale man allakay khonda metavonistam. YOd doram, on zamon yak ruznomae bo nomi “Haqiqati Leninobod” chop meshud. Nomi in ruznoma bo harfi «l»-i buzurg navishta meshud va az pasi on dar du satr boqii nom meomad. Man onro «Lhaqiqati Leninobod» mekhondam, ki boisi zavqi hama meshud. Padaru modaram maro bo iftikhor ba mehmonon nishon medo- dand, ki bibined pisari mo hanuz ba maktab nameravadu khonda metavonad. Hama ahsant meguftandu man boz beshtar shavqmandi khondan meshudam.

Maktabi dekhot dar kukhiston

Man dar shashsolagiyam ba maktab raftam. Maktabi miyonai dehai Panjrudro khondaam, ki zamoni maktabkhonii man onro maktabi raqami 27 menomidand. Mo – bachaho, rashk mekardem, ki Ustod Rudaki hamdehai most, vale maktabi dehai Kuloli ba nomi ustod Rudakist. Ba qavle, zamone yak nafar zodai dehai Kuloli kormandi masul budaast va markazi jamoatu maktabi dahsolaro dar dehai khudash sokhta, nomi Ustodro ham u ba mak- tabi dehaash guzoshtaast. Badho, kuloliyon maktabashonro ba nomi yak hamdehai khudashon guzoshtand va panjrudiho fursat- ro ganimat donista, zud maktabi deharo ba nomi boboyashon guzoshtand va «haq ba haqdor rasid». In tarikh dar qissai «Rudaki. Zindagi va margi digar»-i navisanda Qodiri Rustam khele jolib ba qalam doda shudaast.

Dar zamoni SHuravi az sinni haftsolagi ba maktab megi- riftand. Man hanuz haftro pur nakarda budam, vale khele ba khondan va maktab raftan shavq doshtam, az in sabab volidon ijozat dodand, ki sinnam narasida boshad ham, ba maktab ra- vam. Padaru modaram shahodatnomai tavalludi maro ba maktab nadodand, shoyad fikr mekardand, ki agar ba haft narasidanam oshkor shavad, maro az maktab berun mekunandu man dilshikasta meshavam. Muallimamon doim az man talab mekardand, ki zod- nomaatro biyor, vale volidon boz ham zodnomaamro namedodand va nihoyat ruze padaram farmudand:

– Ba muallim guy, ki khudi padaram meorand.

Muallim digar napursidand va man soli avvalro khondam. SHahodatnomai tavalludamro soli digar, hangome ki ba sinfi duvum raftam ba maktab dodand. Vaqte muallimon didand, ki soli man nav ba sinni maktab rasidaast, maro burdandu az nav dar sinfi yakum hamrohi bachahoe, ki nav ba sinfi yak rafta budand, shinondand. Man, ki khondanu navishtanro yod girifta, hamai darshoi sinfi yakro guzashta budam, digar khondan dar in sinf baroyam jolib nabud, barkhostamu raftam va dar sinfi duvum hamrohi hamsinfonam nishastam. Maro meburdandu dar sinfi yakum memondand, ammo man boz meomadamu hamrohi hamsinfoni khudam menishastam. YOdam hast, bori okhir muallim az gusham kashola karda, maro ba sinfi yak burdand, vale pas az lahzae bo chashmoni ashkolud bargashta, ba joi khudam nishastam. CHun didand, ki man isror kardam va nisbat ba sharikdarson fa- oltaru peshsaftar niz budam, digar maro ba holam guzoshtand va man bo hamsinfoni avvalii khudam khondanro idoma dodam.

Badho, dar maktab maro, ki dar darsho kame faol va az hamsolon peshsaftar budam, muallimon ba digaron namuna nishon medodand va bazan bahoi balande, ki ba on sazovor nabudam, meguzoshtand. Dar natija, man ba donishi khudam az budash ziyod etimod doshtaam, ki in dar avvalin imtihoni dokhilshavi ba maktabi oli malum va ba man dars shud.

Soli duvumi tahsilam, dar maktabi deha sahnae az «Maktabi kuhna»-i ustod Sadriddin Ayniro ba namoish guzoshtand. CHun man bachai khurdjussa va logarandom va ba tasviri ustod muvofiq budam, naqshi Sadriddini khurdsolro ba man supurdand. Aso- san, naqshi man az on iborat bud, ki khudro ba kanor kashida, misli soya dar devor naqsh shavam, to chubdasti maktabdor, ki

bachchahoro mezad, ba man narasad va dar chehraam hissi tars paydo boshad. Namoishi kutohe bud, vale khele muassir va az sui tamoshobinon khele khub qabul shud.

Bo suporishi muallim hamai «hunarmandon»-e, ki dar na- moish bozi mekardand, boyad kitobi «Maktabi kuhna»-ro me- khondand. SHoyad in avvalin kitobi khondai man boshad. Vale in kitobi khurd maro maftun sokht va rohi bebozgashti kitobkho- niro baroyam boz kard. Sahnaho onchunon ustokorona navishta shuda bud, ki dar nazar jilva mekard, guyo in hamaro na in ki mekhondi, balki tamosho mekardi. Muqoisai maktabi kuhna bo maktabi deha taassurotro duchand mekard. In kitobak ba darajae maro sheftai kitobkhoni kard, ki ba iborai modaram, «kirmi kitob» shudam va bachchagiyam dar dunyoi pursehr va as- roromezi dostonu qissavu afsona guzasht. Kitob baroi man sanduqchai sehrnoke bud, ki dokhilash pur az dustonu dushmanon va hodisahoi hayajonangez bud. Dar tasavvuram gohe khudro Sa- maki Ayyor medidamu gohe Rustami Daston. Digar sarguzashti YAtimu Odina, Samaki Ayyoru Gulliver, qahramonhoi «SHohzoda va Gado»-vu dostonhoi «SHohnoma» va gayra olami kudakii maro rangin mekardand. Oh-oh, chi nemati buzurgest kitob!

CHandin bor muallimon ba man baroi khub khondan qalame yo daftare joiza dodaand, ki in maro khele ruhbaland mekard. Badho fahmidam, ki in «joiza»-horo padaram ba muallimon medodaand, to payt yofta, ba man doda, maro ba khondan tashviq kunand va hamin korro baroi digar khoharu barodaronam niz karda budaand.

Honishi dahsola dar SHuravi roygon va hatmi bud. Misli har chizi digari roygon, sifati in tahsil niz na on qadr ba- land bud. Ba nazari man, barnomahoi maktab beshtar ba azyodkuni ahammiyat doda, qobiliyati andesha rondan va tahlilu tadqiqro dar khonanda rivoj namedodand.

Sathi donishi muallimon niz na chandon baland bud. YOd do- ram, dar sinfi nuhum mo darsi algebra mekhondem. Mafhumhoi sinus, kosinus, tangens, kotangens va misli inho khele jolib sado dihand ham, man dar halli muodilahoi onho hech chiz na- mefahmidam. Aslan kitobi darsi pur az in formulho va kori mo onhoro ba daftaramon rubardor kardan bud. Man chizero, ki nafahmam, ba khotir girifta nametavonam, vale agar mavzu ba man fahmo boshad, digar hech goh az yodam faromush nameshavad. Baroi hamin bore az muallim, ki dar takhtai sinf menavisht, pursidam:

  • Muallim, agar SHumo ba mo fahmonda dihed, ki hamin mafhumho chistand va chiro ifoda mekunand, mo misolhoro oson hal mekunem.

Muallim dar yak dast kitob, dar dasti digar bur, ba sui man bargashtu guft:

  • Agar man medonistam, hamin jo omada muallimi mekar- dam?
  • In khel boshad, man hech goh in fanro yod namegiram, – guf- tam man.
  • Metavoni nakhoni, – guft muallim va ba navishtanash dar takhta idoma dod. U digar hech goh az man chize napursid. Hamin tavr, imkoni zuhuri nobigai matematiki dar nihodi man pin- hon mond.

Albatta, omuzgoroni khube ham doshtem. Ruze muallimi ada- biyot dar ogozi dars ba bayni sinfkhona omada, bo tabassumi roz- dor, daqiqae khomush ba mo nigoh karda istod. Bad az diqqati hamaro jalb kardan, bo sadoi foram sher khond:

Omad bari man,

Ki?

YOr.

Kay?

Vaqti sahar. Tarsanda zi ki? Zi khasm. Hasmash ki?

Padar.

Dodam-sh du busa. Bar kujo?

Bar labi tar.

Lab bud?

Na!

CHi bud?

Aqiq. CHun bud?

CHu shakar.

Mo hama motu mabhut shuda, az in kori gayrimamulii ustodamon lahzae khomush mondem. Muallim pursid:

– In sheri kist?

Kase javobi durust doda natavonist. Pas az hama javobhoro rad kardan, ustod bo angusht ba sui tireza nishon dod. Mo hama hayron ba ham nigoh mekardem. Tabassumi rozdor va angushti ishorai omuzgoramon guyo shakhshuda bud va lahzae pas mo yakchand nafar yakbora «Rudaki!» gufta dod zadem. Angushti muallim ba sui maqbara nigaronda shuda bud. U bo qanoat sar takon doda, tasdiq kard.

Muallim on ruz moro ba maqbarai Ustod Rudaki burda, baythoi dar dokhili on ba khati niyokon navishtaro khond va guft, ki har yak sokini in diyor boyad haddi aqal chand bayti Ustodro azyod donad. Ashore, ki man az Ustodi ustodon on zamon hifz kardam, digar hech goh faromush nashud.

CHizi nomatlubi digare, ki dar maktabi mo mushohida me- shud, in bud, ki natijai kori muallimon ba bahoi khonanda vobasta bud. Agar khonanda okhiri sol bahoi gayriqanoatbakhsh bigirad va dar sinfash monad, muallimon gap meshunidand yo hatto jazo medidand. Natija chunin meshud, ki onho khohu nokhoh ba khonanda bahoe guzoshta, uro ba sinfi boloi meguzarondand. Az hamsoloni man chandin nafar to okhir khondanu navishtanro yod nagirifta boshand ham, maktabro khatm kardand.

Inchunin, aksari padaru modaron umuman bo maktab hamkori namekardand va donishanduzii bachchaho dar khona faqat ba shavqi khudi onho vobasta bud.

Gayr az in, barnomai maktabhoi tojiki khele zaif bud. Inro dar qiyos meguyam. Masalan diktanavisiro mo az sinfi 4-5 sar mekardem, hol on ki dar maktabhoi rusi az sinfi 1-2 ogoz me- kardand. Aynan hamin tavr, inshonavisiro dar maktabhoi rusi az sinfi 4-5 ogoz kunand, mo faqat az sinfi 9 sar mekardem. Sababi in farq to hol ba man nofahmost. Umuman, maktabhoi miyonai tojikii shuravi dar rushdi shakhsii khonanda chandon muassir nabudand va savodi dodaashon hatto baroi khondani qaroru dasturhoi hizbi kommunist na hamesha ba kor meraft.

Boyad fikr bikunem, ki charo maktabi kuhnae, ki mo aslan tangu tor mehisobem, Aynivu Donish va sadho nobigai digarro dod, ki mislashon az maktabi nav kam baromad?

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