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Lizosomai hujayra

Lizosomaho hissachahoi nisbatan khurdi membranador buda, shakli lunda dorand; diametrashon taqriban 0,4 mkm buda, bo yak membranai seqabata pushida shudaast. Dar lizosomaho qarib 30 fermenti gunogun mavjud ast. Onho qobiliyat dorand safedaho kislotahoi nukleinat, polisakharidho, lipidho va digar moddahoro tajziya kunand.

Lizosoma

Bo yorii fermentho tajziya shudani moddahoro lizis menomand (az yunonii lysis – tajziya); binobar in, onho lizosoma nom giriftaand. Lizosomaho az hisobi sokhtorhoi majmai Golji, yo bevosita az turi endoplazmavi tashakkul meyoband.

Lizosomaho ba vakuolahoi pinositozi va fagositozi nazdik shuda, mahluli khudro ba onho merezand. Hamin tavr, yake az khususiyathoi khosi lizosomaho ishtirok dar hazmi moddahoi dokhilihujayravi ast. Fayr az in, lizosomaho metavonand sokhtori hujayrahoi favtandaro vayron kunand, masalan, dar rafti inkishofi janin, modome, ki ivazshavii boftahoi janini ba doimi meguzarand va yo dar digar mavridho.

Tabadduloti sokhtorie, ki khudi hujayra ba vujud meorad, dar mubodilai mutadili moddahoi hujayra ahamiyati kalon dorad. Vale to hol malum nest, ki lizosomaho mavodi dokhilihujayraviro, ki baroi mahv kardan judo shudaand, chi guna shinokhta megirand.

Hullas, lizosomaho juzi kuhnai hujayra va bazan organoidhoi alohidaro tajziya mekunand (ba monandi dumgozai kaflesaki qurboqqa). Dar lizosomaho sistemai khudmu hofizati mavjud ast.

Markazi hujayra

Markazi hujayra az du hissachai silindrshakl iborat buda, nisbati yakdigar bo kunji rost joygirand (rasmi 5.11). In hissachahoro sentriola menomand. Devori sentriolaho az 9 band iborat ast, ki har yake az onho se mikronaycha dorad. Sentriolaho dar taqsimshavii hujayra naqshi asosiro bozida, az hisobi onho torhoi akhromatini paydo meshavand. Olimon aqida dorand, ki fermenthoi markazi hujayra dar kashish khurdani khromosomai dukhtari ba qutbhoi muqobili ham (dar anafazai mitozi) ishtirok mekunand. Dar hamai hujayrahoe, ki markazi hujayravi dorand, sentriolaho yoft nashudaand, masalan, dar rastanihoi darajai olisentriola vujud nadorad.

Sitoskelet

YAke az khususiyathoi farqkunandai hujayrahoi organizmhoi eukarioti in tashakkuli takyagoh (skelet) dar sitoplazma buda, dar shakli mikronaychaho va bandchai torhoi safeda vomekhurad.

Binobar in, paydoishi takyagohi dokhilihujayravi yake az aromorfozhoi kalontarin ba shumor meravad. Hujayrahoi eukarioti dar erahoi arkhey va proterozoy paydo shudaand.

Unsurhoi sitoskelet bo qismi berunii sitoplazmavi va pardai yadro aloqamand buda, dar sitoplazma pechu tob mekhurad va murakkab megardad (rasmi 5.12). Unsurhoi takyagohi sitoplazma shakli hujayraro muayyan karda, ba harakati sokhtorhoi dokhilihujayravi va khudi hujayra musoidat menamoyand. Dar baze navho hujayra, ba monandi soddatarinho (navi infuzoriya, sinfi qamchinakdoron) unsurhoi sitoskelet dar tamomi davri hayotashon vomekhurand.

Onho joyhoi doimi doshta, dar zeri mikroskop yo zarrabin dida meshavand. Bazan sitoskelet shakl tagyir medihad.

Masalan, dar amyoba va hujayrai hayvonoti serhujayra (leykositho) shakli hujayraho tagyir yofta, poyhoi qalbakiro tashkil mekunad.

Qamchinakho va mijgonakho

Qamchinak va mijgonakho uzvi harakat buda, ham ba organizmhoi yakhujayra (kamchinakdoron va infuzoriya) va ham baze organizmhoi serhujayra, (hujayrai epiteli, nutfa) khosand.

Qamchinak va mijgonakho sokhtori umumi dorand (rasmi 5.13). Qismi ziyodi in uzvho ba berun ravona shuda, shakli darozruyaro dorad; devori on az 9 juft mikronaycha iborat ast. Dar markaz du mikronaychai digar joy giriftaast.

In qism purra yo beshtar bo membranai sitoplazmatiki pushida shudaast. Dar asosi uzv, dar qabati berunai sitoplazma hissachai bazali (asos) joygir meboshad; ba har jufti mikronaycha, ki qismi berunai qamchinak va mijgonakhoro tashkil mekunand, yak mikronaychai kutoh ilova meshavad.

Hamin tavr, hissachai bazali az 9 triodi (segona) mikronaychavi sokhta shuda, ba komponenthoi markazi hujayra, yane sentriolaho monandand. Harakati qamchinak va mijgonakho bo lappish yo lagjishi jufti mikronaychaho nisbati yakdigar vobasta buda, dar in vaqt energiyai ziyod dar shakli ATF sarf meshavad.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Baroi hujayrahoi eukariot kadom khususiyatho khosand?
  2. Kadom sokhtorhoi hujayraro ilovagi menomand? Misol ored.
  3. Asosi sokhtori hujayraro chi tashkil mekunad?
  4. Membrana chi guna sokhta shudaast?
  5. Membranai beruni sitoplazmavi kadom vazifahoro ijro mekunad?
  6. Mubodilai moddaho bayni hujayra va muhiti beruna bo kadom roh ba amal meoyad? Pinositoz chist? Fagositoz chist?
  7. Organoidhoi hujayraro muayyan kuned va vazifai onhoro nishon dihed.
  1. Farqi turi endoplazmavii hamvor va chindor dar chist?
  2. Kadom organoidhoi hujayra KDN dorand?

Istilohot:

  1. Sitoskelet – sistemai mikronaychaho va torhoi safe- dagi, ki shakli hujayrahoro nigoh doshta, harakati sokhtorhoro dar sitoplazma tashkil mekunad.
  2. Moddahoi ilovagi – elementho yo sokhtorhoi sitoplazma, ki mahsuli faoliyati hayotii hujayraand va beshtar roli zakhirashavii moddahoro ijro mekunand.
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