Home / Ilm / HARITAI TOPOGRAFI

HARITAI TOPOGRAFI

  1. Haritai topografi, tartibdihii on
  2. Ahamiyati kharitahoi topografi dar faoliyati hayotii insonho

Baroy sokhtani khonaho, rohho, fabrikaho, nerugohhoi barqi saravval naqshai mahal sokhta meshavad. Vale, baroi onro durust istifoda kardan, boyad doned, ki naqsha chist, onro chy tavr omoda mekunand va chy tavr mekhonand. YAne, donistani in, ki alomathoi sharty chy mano dorand muhim ast. Naqsha – in tasviri daqiqi ashyo az bolo meboshad.

Naqshai mahal aksi maydoni yak qismi khurdi sathi zaminro dar shakli khurd inikos mekunad.

Nakshai topografi

Bo sharofati naqsha mo metavonem tamomi khususiyathoi mahalli mazkur, in- chunin khususiyathoi joygirshavii ashyoho va obektho dar onro donista girem. Ba naqsha nigoh karda mefahmem, ki khonahoi yakoshyona va duoshyona dar on yakkhela joygir shudaand. In manoi onro dorad, ki shakli hamai ashyoho dar naqsha chi guna, ki az bolo dida meshavad hamon tavr dar naqsha joygir meshavad.

Haritahoi topografi mavqeiyatash miyoni naqshai mahal va kharitai jugrofy meboshad. Dar kharitai topografi maydonhoi na onqadar buzurgi mintaqa aks meyobad va kharita hangomi omuzishi mahal istifoda meshavad. Az ruyi on metavon samtyoby kard va marshruta harakatro qayd namud. Dar chunin kharitaho aksi mahalro joy medihand, ki malumot dar borai nohamvorii sathi zamin, khok, obekthoi khojagy va madany, rohho, sarhadho va digar obekthoi mahal joygir shudaast.

Baron on, ki obekthoi gunogun dar naqshai mahal va dar kharitai topografy oson farq karda shavad, donistani sistemahoi muayyani alomathoi sharty muhim ast. Rangho naqshi asosiro dar inikoskunii alomathoi sharty mebozand. Guruhi ashyohoi yakkhela ham dar naqshai mahal va ham dar kharitai topografy hamesha bo yak rang nishon doda meshavad. Masalan: jangal bo rangi sabz, kul bo rangi kabud, buttaho – sabzi rushan, kuhho – qahvarang. Rohhoi avtomobiliro aslan bo khate, ki sokhti rostkunja dorad, aks mekunand.

Dar naqshai topografii mahal samthoi ufuq az ruyi meridiana az shimol ba janub samtguzory shudaast, az in ru qismi boloii naqsha samti shimolro ni­shon medihad, qismi poyoniash janubro, samti chapash garbro, samti rostash boshad sharqro nishon medihad (ras. 9).

Balandii mahal boshad bo khathoi ufuqy aks meshavad.

Hathoi ufuqi – in khathoi sharty buda, du nuqtai sathi za­minro, ki dar balandii yakkhela joygir shudaand, payvast me­kunad.

Masalan: dar ras. 9 khathoi ufuqi dar har yak metr guzaronida shudaast, nuqtai «V» az daryoi Oq-su 9,6 metr bolotar guzashtaast, khonai jangalbon boshad 150,5 metr bolotar joygir shudaast.

Se tarzi sokhtani naqshai topografy vujud dorad: nazardid, kutby va marshruty.

Aksgirii nazardidi mahal (ras. 10).

Hangomi aksgirii nazardidy chunin asbobho lozim meshavand: planshet, kutbnamo, khatkashaki nimdoira, qalam va khatpokkunak.

xona

Baroy dar kogaz kashidani aksi nazardidii mahal chunin amalhoro pay dar pay ichro kardan lozim ast:

  1. Dar hamvori varaqi vatmani andozai 24 kh 36 sm-ro chasponed, kanorash kutbnamoro guzored.
  2. Miqyosro muayyan kardan lozim ast, masalan: 1 : 100.
  3. Qismi boloii planshey samti shimolro nishon medihad. Qismhoi barash bo yorii kutbnamo ba garb va sharq samtguzory karda meshavad.

Ba qalam ba sathi planshet rostqunjaho ba andozai 1 yo 2 sm kashida mesha­vand.

  1. Makoni joygirshavy dar planshet bo nuqta ishora karda meshavad.
  2. Dar qismi chapi planshet khati nishondihandai samti shimol-janub kashi- da meshavad.
  3. Badan bo kumaki khatkashaki davrashakl ba hamai obekthoi didashavanda (darakhtho, teppaho, khona va g.) az nuqtai joygirshavii planshet khat kashida mesha­vad, ki khatho paydo meshavand.
  4. Sipae hamai obekthoi didashavand bo nazardoshti masohat ehtiyotkorona ba planshet dokhil karda meshavand.
  5. Obekthoi ba planshet dokhilkardashuda (tepla, soy, choh, darakht, sangi ka- lon, botloq va g.) bo alomathoi sharty ishora karda meshavand.

Aksgirii nazardid in kashidani takhminii qismi naonqadar kaloni zamin dar planshet meboshad.

YAke az rohhoi digar sokhtani naqshai topografy aksgirii qutby meboshad

11Aksgirii qutbi az yak nuqtai ijro karda meshavad. In nuqta boyad dar miyona boshad. Az joyi aksgiry boyad maydoni zamin purra namoyon boshad.

Tarzi sevumi ejodi naqshai topografy aksgirii marshruta meboshad. (ras. 12).

Odami aksgirii marshruta mekarda, hangomi tahqiq marshruthoro tay karda dar planshet obekthoro vorid mekunad va dar har nuqta samthoi shimol-janubro mesanjad. Dar okhiri marshrut dar naqshai omodashuda islohot va ilovaho vorid mekunad.

Rasmi 12. Aksgirii marshruta

 

Ba gayr az namudho mazqur boz aerofotonavor ham biser mashhur ast. (ras. 13).

Sathi zamin bo vositahoi dastgohhoi aksgirii makhsus tavassuti tayyoraho, charkhbolho, va mohvoraho aksgiry tuda ba kharita vorid karda meshavand.

13

Aerofotonavor va naqshai topografy (ras. 14) az hamdigar farq mekunand (jadvali 2).

Jadvali 2

Farqi naqshai topografy va aerofotonavor

Hususiyathoi aksgiri Naqsha Aerofotonavor
Namud az bolo + +
Namud az boloi hamai obektho +
Aksgirii obekthoi asosi +
Aksgirii obektho be khatogi +
Mavchudiyati alomathoi sharti +
Peshnihodi obektho dar shakli harf va raqam +
Peshnihodi namushoi jangalho +
Muayyankunii masofa + +
Samtyoby ba shimol +

Savol va suporishho

  1. Haritai topografii dar rasmi 9 budaro istifoda karda, ba savoli 2 javob dihed.
  2. Dar miyoni nuqtahoi A vaB chy joygir shudaast?
Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

planet

ZAMIN – SAYYORAI SISTEMAM OFTOBI

Sababhoi tagyiryobii faslhoi sol. Az kursi tabiatshinosi mo medonem, ki Oftob in markazi sistemai oftobii mo …