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GOYAVU PEROYAI OSORI RUDAKI

Dar faslhoi bobi guzashta mo say namudem, ki anvo, muhtaviyot va mundarijavu vijagihoi ashoru abyoti boqimondai Ustod Abuabdullohi Rudakiro barrasi namoem. Dar in bob kushishe ba kharj doda meshavad, ki boz ham kame dar bobi mazmuni goyavi va sanathoi sheri, hamchunin ba zaboni ashori Ustod mulohizae chand bayon gardad.

Ba hamin tariq, chize ki pesh az hama ba nazar merasad, on ast, ki Ustod Abuabdulohi Rudaki dar ashoru abyoti boqimondai khud ba tavsifi Bukhoro, azamatu shukuhi on mepardozad va az on mebolad, ki Bukhoroi u dar buzurgivu obodi bo shahri markazi khilofat Bagdod dar musobiqa buda, chun manbai tarviji ulumu adabiyot bar on bartari dorad:

Imruz, ba har hole, Bagdod Bukhorost,

Kujo miri Huroson ast, piruzi on jost!

Qabl az hama, Rudaki mundarijai sherro bo mazmun va mavzuhoi ijtimoi, falsafa va hikmat, masoili zindagi, akhloq, ishqu muhabbat, ohanghoi hayotdusti va pandu nasihat gani gardond. Bashardusti va mehanparasti dar adabiyoti mo az behtarin ananahoi bunyodnihodai Ustod Rudakist, ki dar davomi besh az hazor soli badina khele rushdu kamol yoft. Ba tarzi digar guem, Rudaki ustode bud, ki dar ogozi nazmi forsii tojiki goyahoi khalqi va mazmunhoi insondustiro ustuvor namuda, adabiyotro ba insonshinosi tabdil dod. Maktabi ejodii Rudakiro hamai adiboni minbada paziruftand va on to imruz va to jovidon boqist. Ba ashori u sadho sukhansaroyoni asrhoi X—XX bevosita payravi kardaand. Afkori hakimonai Ustod Rudaki bo mazmuni buzurgi bashardustii khud aknun ba juzi tarkibii hayoti manavii khalqi mo tabdil gardidaast, zero u dar mavqei khalqi mehnati istoda, hatto dar qasidahoi madehaviyash bo samimiyat va etiqod masoili adolatparvari, mazlumnavozi, insondusti va muhabbat doshtan ba vatanro talqin menamoyad. SHoir Bukhororo bo jonu dil dust medorad. Onro az poytakhti khilofati Bagdod bolo meguzorad. Nasimi uro az mushki Hutan afzaltar meshumorad. Hangomi duri az Bukhoro Rudaki meguyad: «Ay Bukhoro, shod boshu der zi» va boz ibroz medorad:

Har bod, ki az suyi Bukhoro ba man oyad,

Bo buyi gulu mushku nasimi suman oyad.

Bar har zanu har mard kujo barvazad on bod?!

Guyi, magar on bod hame az Hutan oyad!

Ne, ne, zi Hutan bod chunin khush navazad hech,

K-on bod hame az bari mashuqi man oyad!

Vasfi Bukhoro va tasvirhoi lazzatbakhshi obu zamiii kishvar yak tarzi ifodai goyai balandi vatandustii Ustod Rudakist. Bale, u chun farzandi farzonai khalq hech goh zindagii badi khalk, benavoi va gamu kulfathoi bechoragonro az yod namebarorad. Baraks, dar yak ruboiyash etirof menamoyad, ki hama sitamho va nokhushihoi zindagi nasibi guruhe meshavad, ki khudi u niz az on guruh ast:

Dar manzili gam fikanda mafrash moem

V-az obi du chashm dil purotash moem.

Olam chu sitam kunad, sitamkash moem,

Dasti khushi ruzgori nokh(v)ash moem!

Zindagi dar nazari Rudaki yaknavokht nest. U qonuni dialektikai ogozu anjomi umrro dark namuda, az on doir ba mohiyati jahoni moddi va sirishti inson khulosahoi pandomez mebarorad.

Ustod Abuabdullohi Rudaki chun shoiri dilogoh moyai zindagi va shirinii umri odamro dar partavi kutoh budani qismat va hatmi budani marg ba qalam medihad. Az ruyi aqidai u, modom ki shakhs nametavonad jisman zindagii jovidoni yobad, uro zarur ast, ki bo amali pisandida va korhoi shoista nomi nek ba dast orad. Hamin nomi nek baroi inson umri abad ast. Azbaski shodivu khursandihoi jahon poydor nest, inson boyad az lahzahoi guvoro durust bahra girad, bo tinati pok, akhloqi nek, korhoi khub, khizmat ba khalq va khush guzaronidani umr zindagii khudashro purmazmun gardonad. Tamomi fikrhoi pandomezu akhloqii Rudaki az hamin aqidai u sarchashma megirand.

Dar pandu hikmathoi Rudaki, ki yake az zuhuroti khalqiyati ejodiyoti ustand, mazmunhoi umumiinsoni, az qabili targibi ilmu donish, rafoqatu dusti va kushishu kor joyi asosiro megirad. SHoir ba in roh dar tarbiyai insoni komil va parvardani akhloqi khub to imruz hissa meguzorad. Vay aqida dorad, ki baroi darki haqiqati zindagi kas boyad aqlu donishro kor farmoyad. Ba voqeayu hodisaho bo chashmi khirad nigarista, kushish namoyad, ki mohiyati onro fahmad, ba didani zohir mahdud nashavad, az mushohidai voqeaho ba khulosahoi soda firefta nagardad. SHoiri buzurg aqlu donishro ba tarzi shoirona «chashmi dil» menomad va pand medihad:

Ba chashmi dilat did boyad jahon,

Ki chashmi sari tu nabinad  nihon!

Bad-on oshkorat    bibin  oshkor,

Nihonitro bar nihoni gumor!

Tandurusti, khubkirdori, nakunomi va khiradro Rudaki sharthoi muhimtarini zindagii khush va ruzgori dur az gam meshumorad:

CHahor chiz mar ozodaro zi gam bikharad:

Tani durustu khuyi neku nomi neku khirad!

 Har on, ki Ezidash in har chahor ruzi kard,

Sazad, ki shod ziyad jovidonu gam nakhurad!

Azbaski Rudaki tajribai zindagiro nakhustmuallim va rohbari asosii inson baroi peshraft va halli mushkiliho meshumorad, davat menamoyad, ki har fard boyad az on bahra bardorad:

Birav, zi tajribai ruzgor bahra bigir,

Ki bahri dafi havodis turo ba kor oyad!

Tajribai ruzgorro faqat az rohi ilmu donish dark namudan mumkin ast. Binobar in, inson, baroi on ki khiradmand shavad, dastavval boyad, ki donish omuzad:

Hech ganje nest az farhang bih,

To tavoni, rav tuyu in ganj nih!

SHoiri insondust chun muallimi akhloq tarafdori on ast, ki farzandon bo odobi pisandida, akhloqi nek, hunar va darajai ilmu donish nombardori padaru modar, ajdod, millat va khalqu vatani khud boshand. Naboyad ba aslu nasabi khud magrur shavand, zero az donishu khirad va obruyi padaron ba farzandon nafe nest. Baraks, etibori balandi padaron farzandonro vomedorad, ki bo donishu odob va raftoru kirdori shoistai khud sazovori nomi padaron boshand. In yake az guftori khele hakimona va pursuzi Ustod Rudakist, ki asrhoi asr virdi zabonhost:

Oy darego, ki khiradmandro

Boshad farzandu khiradmand ne!

V-archi  adab doradu  donish padar,

Hosili  meros ba farzand ne!

Baraks, Ustod Rudaki ba shakhsoni hamadon, ki misli daryo hamaro az ilmi khud shodob megardonand, bo ehtiromi favquloda nigarista, az donishi onho shod megardad:

Tanat yaku jon yakevu chandin donish,

Ay ajabo, mardumi tu yo daryoyi?!

Ammo sarchashmai muvaffaqiyathoi shakhsii odam ba kushishi maqsadnoki hameshagi, sabru toqat va solorivu burdborii u vobasta meboshad. Dar «Kalilavu Dimna» Ustod Rudaki yagonagii donishi insoniyat, shirkati khalqhoi gunoguni dunyo  dar kori ba vujud ovardani khazinai madaniyat, hamesha dar takomul budani ilm va chun nuri marifat dilhoro munavvar gardonidani onro takid menamoyad. Va dar ayni zamon donishro az hamai badiho javshani tani odami meshumorad:

To jahon bud az sari odam faroz,

Kas kabud az rozi donish beniyoz.

Mardumoni bikhrad andar har zamon,

Rozi donishro ba har guna zabon,

Gird kardandu giromi doshtand,

To ba sang – andar hamebingoshtand.

Donish andar dil charogi ravshan ast

Vaz hama bad bar tani tu javshan ast!

Dostoni «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Rudaki dar  bahri ramali musaddasi maqsur navishta shuda, bo bayti purhikmati zerin shuru meshavad:

Har ki n-omukht az guzashti ruzgor,

Hech n-omuzad zi  hej omuzgor!

In bayt oshkoru ravshan az mazmuni akhloqii dostoni «Kalilavu Dimna»-i    Rudaki guvohi medihad.

Pandu nasihatu andarzu hikmat dar tamomi ashori Rudaki, chi qasidavu gazal, chi masnaviyu ruboi va chi anvoi digari sher, khele farovon ba nazar merasad.

Sukhanvari buzurg sulhu nakukori, dustivu rafoqatro baroi hayoti odam ehtiyoji tabii meshumorad. Vay dusti haqiqi va begarazro mepisandad. Odami nek hamesha khohoni nekiyu sulh ast, ba jangu fitnayu gavgo bo nafrat menigarad (Hama niyushai khoja ba nekiyu sulh ast, — Hama niyushai nodon ba jangu fitnavu gavgost). Insoni haqiqi na tanho bo dushmanonash murosoyu madoro mekunad, balki bo raftori ibratbakhsh, muomilai sulhkhohona va sukhanoni narm uro ba khud dust megardonad. Dar haqiqat, bo dushman dusti justan mardonagii shoyoni tahsin ast. YAk dushman doshtan ham, meguyad Rudaki, baroi odam ziyodatist, chunon ki hazor dust kami mekunad. Dust yoru madadgori inson va az barodari u ham behtar ast. Az in jihat, didori dust dar olam buzurgtarin shodmoni va judoi az on gami jonkohest. Adibi buzurg mefarmoyad:

Hech shodi nest andar in jahon

Bartar az didori ruyi duston!

Hech talkhi nest bar dil talkhtar

Az firoqi dustoni purhunar!

Hikmati favq metavonad dar tamomi mavridhoi mahramonayu dustona va rasmiyu nogahoni az halqumi har farde sado dihad. Vale dar zindagi inson, khalq, millat, davlat va hukumat be dushman ham nameshavad. Justujuyi dusti va musolimat bo dushman niz az goyahoi jovidonii umumiinsonii Rudakist. Vay talim medihad: 

On kiro donam, ki uyam dushman ast,

V-az ravoni pok badkhohi man ast.

Ham ba har gah dusti juyam-sh man,

Ham sukhan b-ohistagi guyam-sh man.

Pandu andarzu nasihathoi Rudaki durdonahoi tobnoki ganjinai hikmati khalqi moro tashkil mekunand. Onho az imtihoni tarikh guzashta, chun hikmati ruzgoron boqi monda, baroi pokii akhloq va ravshan gardondani dilho khizmat mekunand. Az in jihat, shoista ast, ki imruz ham az halqumi millionho odamoni poknihod chun amri dil sado dihand va ba gushi jahoniyon birasand:

Nekbakht on kase, ki dodu bikhurd,

SHurbakht on ki u na khurdu na dod!

*  *   *

Zamona aspu tu roiz, baroi kheshat toz,

Zamona guyu tu chavgon, baroi kheshat boz!

 * *  *

Andar baloi sakht padid orand

Fazlu buzurgmardiyu solori!

* *  *

Angusht makun ranja ba darkuftani kas,

To kas nakunad ranja ba darkuftanat musht!

* *  *

Har kiro rohbar zagan boshad

Guzari  u ba margazan boshad!

Ashori Rudaki hanuz dar zamoni barhayotii shoir  bo badeiyati baland, zeboiyu    khushohangi   va farahbakhshu shodmoniovar budanashon pisandi khosu om gardida budaand. Hanuz muosiri shoir SHahidi Balkhi sukhani Ustod Rudakiro  ba kitobi muqaddasi musulmonho barobar karda, onro «tilvi nubo» gufta bud, ki    tilv monand va nubo — Quron guftan ast.

Dar davomi besh az hazor soli badi niz buzurgoni ilmu adab hamesha ba ustodi kul, tavonotarin shoir va nekusukhanu matinguftor budani Rudaki qoil budaand. Dar haqikat, Ustod Rudaki manihoi buzurgro dar shaklhoi osonu soda joy medihad. Ba qavli shoir, «lafz hama khubu ham ba mani oson». In uslubi ejodiest, ki badho sahli mumtane nom girift. Az in jihat, u dar sheri tojiki bunyodguzori in uslubi ejodi meboshad. Bo tabiri shoir, u az sangi khora bayti parniyon, yane sheri nafis mesozad:

Gar shoiron navand, manam navguvora,

YAk bayti parniyon kunam az sangi khora!

Ustod Rudaki aksaran az kalimahoi oddi misrau baythoi purmazmun mesozad, ki dar holati muqobili ham (zarra-oftob, arzan-kuh, zamin-osmon, khanda-girya) kor farmuda shudan ba manohoi majozi (giristani abr, khandidani zaminu lola, chashmai khurshed) va murakkab shudan (qatrasahob, qatraboron, purkhanda, purnola) manoi nav kasb namudavu ba unsuri badei tabdil yofta, ashyoi tasvirshavanda, khususan holati ruhonii inson va manzarahoi dilangezi tabiatro, khele barjasta va ayoni tajassum menamoyand. Akhboroti oddii boloi bargi lola aftidani shabnam, bo dosi nav daravida shudani yunuchqai sabzi tarak — kurpo va amsoli onho niz dar toru pudi sher ba obraz tabdil meyoband:

Peshi tegi tu ruzi saf dushman

Hast chun peshi dosi nav kurpo!

YO:

Ba navbahoron bisitoy abri giryonro,

Ki az giristani ust in zamin khandon!

Gohe Ustod Rudaki matlabro bo sukhanhoi oddi ifoda namuda (Saped barf baromad ba kuhsori siyoh), dar hamin mavridho niz guftori khudro bo tabirhoi khalqi («Hesh begona gardad az payi sud»), maqolho («YAke oludae boshad, ki shahrero biyoloyad, — CHu az govon yake boshad, ki govonro kunad rikhin») va masalho («Kor chun basta shavad, bikshoyadi, — V-az pasi har gam tarab afzoyadi») zeb doda, bazan bo tagyir dodani yak harf maniro tamoman digar megardonad:

Bo sad hazor mardum tanhoyi,

Be sad hazor mardum tanho ne!

Rudaki, ki barobari zabonhoi  arabi, sugdi, pahlavi va bisyor sohahoi ilmhoi daqiq, tarikhi Eroni Boston, YUnonu Arab, yahudiyu turki va naqlu rivoyathoi khalqi khudro alo medonist, dar holathoi gunogun az tafsirotu talmehoti purmazmuni Zardusht, «Avasto», «Moni», «Arjang» («Jang»), Rustam, Isfandiyor, Kisro, Aflotun, Suqrot, Muso, Imron, Luqmon, Sulaymon, Jarir, Hasson, Sare, Sahbon, Layli, Majnun, SHofei, Kuhi Siyom va gayraho farovon istifoda mebarad va dar hamin surat niz tabii budani bayonro nigoh medorad:

On sahni chaman, ki az dami day,

Gufti, dami gurg yo palang ast.

Aknun zi bahori monavitab

Purnaqshu nigor hamchu «Jang» ast.

Bar kishtii umr takya kam kun,

K-in Nil nishemani nahang ast!

Umuman, Ustod Rudaki ba vositahoi badeii murakkab kordor nameshavad. Az lafzbozi, durug va muboligahoi mahz barhazar ast. Az ruyi sidq sukhan meguyad. Hamai silsilai obrazhoi u az olami voqei girifta shudaand. Ba qavli ustod S. Ayni, «zotan, fazilati sheri Rudaki dar on ast, ki az muboligahoi gayritabii, az tashbehhoi botakalluf, az kinoyavu istiorahoi kasnofahm va, agar kutoh karda guem, az hama sokhtagihovu sokhtakoriho   dur ast». Vay   tashbehhoi nazarrasro ba kor mebarad:

Bikhandad lola bar sahro ba soni chehrai Laylo,

Bagiryad abr bar gardun ba soni didai Majnun.

Zi obi juy har soat hame buyi gulob oyad,

Dar u shustast, pindori, nigori man rukhi gulgun!

Voqean, Rudaki dar gazalu chakoma va taronahoi khesh beshtar ba obrazhoi didashavanda tavajjuh dorad. Vay rangorangii olami hasti va ehsosoti insoniro ba vositai talavvuni rangho va daryofti shabohati onho bo jilvahoi tabiati zinda ba tasvir ovarda, dar in gunogunii padidaho yagonagii jahoni zeboi va qonuniyathoi inkishofi onro kashf menamoyad.

Rudaki va muosironi u hangomi tasviri husni inson  va tarovati  afsungari  tabiat dar  bayni oyinho irtiboti   oshkoru   nihoni   hayratangezero   dark   namuda, baroi ifodai fikri khud az on mohirona istifoda burdaand. Tashbehho,  tazodho, vasfho va  istiorahoi tabii hama az in du manbai jahoni moddi girifta shudaand. Dar nazmi in davra tashbehhoi khayoli, tavsifhoi vahmi, tasvirhoi az fahm dur va muboligahoi mubham dida nameshavad. Tanho baze kalimahoi onho imruz kuhna shudaand. Az jumla, ba in bayt tavajjuh farmoed:

Sarv ast on yo bolo?! Moh ast on yo ruy?!

Zulf ast on yo chavgon?! Hol ast on yo guy?!

YO, baraks,

Abr hamegiryad chun oshiqon,

Bog  hamekhandad  mashuqvor.

Rad hamenolad monandi man,

CHunki binolam ba sahargoh zor!

YAke az behtarin nigorahoi Rudaki, ki ba tavsifi manzarai purshukuhi tabiat va yagonagii insonu muhiti atrofi on bakhshida shudaast, tashbibi zerin ast, ki dar on hama tasvirho ehsosi va ayoni buda, dar bayti avval faro rasidani bahor ba vositai tavsifhoi zebo (bahori khurram, rangu buyi tibii on, sad hazor nuzhat, orrishi ajib) khabar doda shuda, baroi inson natijagiri az on dar bayti duvum ba vasilai tazodu muqobila (mardi pir-javon, shubob, yane javoni mashib, yane piri) va takidi on ki dar chunin ayyom qonuniyati zindagi niz baraks surat megirad, yane ba joyi az javoni ba piri rasidan, az piri ba javoni barmegardad, surat mepazirad. Baythoi seyumu chahorum khosiyati fasli bahorro bo monand kardani onho bo afrodi lashkaru sipoh jilva medihad: charkhi buzurgvor – sipohoro, lashkarash – abri tira, naqibash, yane farmondehi lashkarash – sabo, naffotash, yane mashalafruz va paronandai gululai naftash barqi ravshan, tablazanash-tundar, yane rad. Az in jihat, chunin lashkar nihoyat khavfovar ast. SHoir dar nigorishi in manzarai osmonii bahor az tashbeh, istiora, tavsif va gayra baso mohirona istifoda burdaast, ki dar yakjoyagi tashbehi murakkabro tashkil mekunand. Aknun ba    in chahor bayt mulohiza farmoed:

Omad bahori khurram bo rangu buyi tib,

Bo sad hazor nuzhatu oroishi ajib.

SHoyad, ki mardi pir bad-in gah shavad javon,

Geti badil yoft shabob az payi mashib.

CHarkhi buzurgvor yake lashkare bikard,

Lashkar-sh abri tiravu bodi sabo naqib!

Naffot barqi ravshanu tundar-sh tablzan,

Didam hazor khaylu nadidam chunin mahib!

Badi in Ustod Rudaki dar baythoi panjumu shashum ba olami digar ru meorad. Hodisahoi tabiatro digar na ba ashkhosu ajzoi harbi, balki ba holati insonhoi oddi tashbeh medihad. In jo hama ba darajae ravshan ast, ki hojat ba tahlil nest. Fakat chand kalimaro sharh dodan lozim ast: sugvor-gamgin, kaib-anduhgin, hisori-jononai chodarpush, raqib-posbon:

On abr, bin, ki giryad chun mardi sugvor

V-on rad, bin, ki nolad chun oshiqi kaib!

Hurshedro zi abr damad ruy goh-goh,

CHunon hisorie, ki guzar dorad az raqib!

Sipas shoir, dar baythoi haftum-sezdahum, faqat ba nigorishi sirfi ayyomi bahor pardokhta, az majoz (dardmand budani jahon, tabib shudani bod, boroni mushkbuy, khandai lola), tashkhis, tashbehhoi oddi va murakkab ustodona istifoda burda, aknun manzarai zaminii bahorro ba tarzi shigiftangeze chun padidai zebotarini olami mashhud ba qalam meorad:

YAkchand ruzgor jahon dardmand bud,

Bih shud, ki yoft buyi suman bodro tabib.

Boroni mushkbuy biborid nav ba nav

V-az barg barkashid yake hullai qasib.

Kunje, ki barf pesh hamedosht, gul girift,

Har juyake, ki khushk hamebud, shud ratib.

Tund az miyoni dasht hame bod bardamad,

Barq az miyoni abr hame barkashad qazib.

Lola    miyoni kisht bikhandad hame zi dur,

CHun panjai arusi ba hanno shuda khazib.

Bulbul hame bikhonad dar shokhsori bed,

Sor az darakhti sarv mar uro shuda mujib.

Sulsul ba sarvbun-bar bo nagmae kuhan,

Bulbul ba shokhi gul-bar bo lahnake garib!

Hamai in lavhanigori va manzarapardozii shoir baroi on ast, ki mehri insonro ba zindagi barangezonad, to az on beshtar bahra bigirad. Ba aqidai Ustod, az tamomi zeboihoi tabiat va fayzi on didori dust avlotar ast:

Aknun khured bodavu aknun zied shod,

K-aknun barad nasib habib az payi habib!

Soqi guzinu bodavu may khur ba bongi zer,

K-az kisht sor noladu az bog andalib!

Harchand navbahori jahon ast ba chashm khub,

Didori khoja khubtar-on mihtari hasib!

Ashori oshiqonai Ustod Rudaki dar nazmi asri X maqomi rafe dorad. YAqin ast, ki u sherguyiro dar bachagi az surudani ashori oshiqonai khalqi, baythoi shukhiomez, ki az vaqoei zindagii kuhistoniyon khabar medihand, abyotu sahifahoi havodisi tabiat va amsoli inho sar karda bud, zero mahz dar chunin ashor, ki dar qolabi gazalu ruboi va chakomavu taronaho rekhta meshavand, lahzahoi khursandivu khushi, orzuvu murodi sodda, gamu anduhu nokomiho, hasratu talkhihoi hayoti dehotiyonro ifoda mekard. In raviyai guftori ustod badho dar gazalu ruboi va tashbibu tagazzuloti u takomul yoft. Hususan, gazal chun navi latifi sheri ganoyi (liriki) dar adabiyoti kasbii khattii asri X base inkishof yofta bud. In navi sher bo musiqi aloqai zich doshta, dar mavoridi gunogun bo ohang suruda meshud. Sarvari gazalsaroyoni zamon Rudaki bud. Gazali Rudakivorro bo tanini mazmunhoi dilkash, sanati oli, sukhanhoi chira, nafosat va ohangi gushnavoz hama mepisandidand. SHahidi Balkhi, Daqiqi, Robia, Husravoni, Ammora, Munjik va digaron dar payravii ustodi panjrudii khud mazmunhoi latifi oshiqona, tavsifi bahor, lahzahoi khushivu mahjuri, gubori firoqu hasrati benavoiro dar qolabi gazal rekhta, dar ifodai onho sukhanhoi narm, tabirhoi namakin va sanathoi lafziyu manavii nozukro ba kor meandokhtand.

Bad az mavzui vatanparasti va andarzu hikmat mavzui ishqu muhabbat dar ashori Rudaki maqomi vija dorad, ki dar in risola dar in bora ziyod sukhan raft. Mavzui aglabi gazalho, masnaviho va ruboihoi Ustod Rudaki az ishqi muqarrari anboshta shudaand, vale jushu khurush, samimiyatu dilangezii onho beshtar dar ruboiyotash huvaydo megardad:

Dar ishq chu Rudaki shudam ser az jon,

Az giryai khunin mijaam shud marjon.

Alqissa, ki az bimi azobi hijron

Dar otashi rashkam digar az duzakhiyon!

Dar in bobat hamai ruboihoi Ustod Rudakiro metavon namuna ovard. Alhaq, Ustod Rudaki qabl az Abusaidi Abulkhayr va Hakim Umari Hayyom navi ruboiro ba poyahoi khele baland bardoshta bud va ustodoni digar to imruz, pesh az hama, sunnati ustuvorkardai uro davom medihand. Mulohiza farmoed, Rudaki chi guna ruboi meofarad:

Nomat shunavam, dil zi farah zinda shavad,

Holi man az iqboli tu farkhunda shavad!

V-az gaybi tu har jo sukhan oyad ba miyon,

Hotir ba hazor gam parokanda shavad!

Tanho shevai shevoi bayoni hamin guna gazalu ruboiho metavonand az fasohatu latofat, malohatu rasoi, khalqiyatu samimiyati mahramonai guftori oshiqonai ustod bashorat bidihand. Vale in choshnii zavqro basanda nest. Az in sabab nametavon bo in iktifo varzid.

Rudaki az muhabbat tavre suhbat meoroyad, ki ishqi moddi chun sarvati ruhoni, ehsosi latifi inson   ba munosibati asili dilbokhtagon bo tamomi maddu jazrash zamiri hassosi shoirro ba hayajon ovarda, bo suzu shur dar chakidahoi tabi khalloqi u tarovish meguzinad. In son ehsosi najib chun moyai pokivu khubi va mazhari umedu neknomi az olami musaffoi ishq dar sheri Rudaki bo  nihoyati zeboi mavj zada, bo tajallii khose botini juyandagoni vasli rushanivu nihodi pisandidagoni jamoli safobakhshidai habibro ba kamoloti ruhoni merasonad. CHun amvoji tugyoni daryoi ishq ba bozuvoni oshiq zur, ba chashmoni mahbubparasti u nur va ba didi mehrangezash shodmonivu surur ato menamoyad. Parvardai  chunin muhabbat va  mustagriqi  in guna daryoi ishq bo imoni komilu ikhlosi vijdoni farmudai ustodro ba zabon meorad:

Nest fikre ba gayri yor maro,

Ishq shud dar jahon fayor maro!

Mubtaloi ishq dar tasviri Rudaki Majnun nest. SHeftai farzonavu shakhsi ba visoli jonona mushtoqest, ki bo kushishu fidokorihoi khesh az bogistoni maqsud bo mayli khotir guli murod chida, az davlati ishq metavonad  bo yori khujastavu mashuqai gulchehrai khud binozad. Zanjiri hama guna moneahoi najodivu mazhabi va ishkelhoi tabaqotiro gusasta, sarfi nazar az keshu oyini dilbar, uro mustahiqqi ibodat va sazovori parastish meshumorad. Ba in mani, az u nidoe ba gush merasad:

Az kaba kalisiyonishinam kardi,

Okhir  dar  kufr  beqarinam  kardi!

Bad az du hazor sajda bar dargahi dust,

Ay ishq, chi begona zi dinam kardi!

Hulosai Rudaki on ast, ki kase az shavqi jonon ogahi yoft, fardi batole ast. Va hayf boshad, ki boz dar gami khud ne, ba rizoi atokunandai saodatmandii khesh ruzgor basar barad:

Kase, ki ogahi az zavqi ishqi jonon yoft,

Zi khesh, hayf buvad, gar dame buvad ogah!

Ustod Rudaki ba ishqi gayrivoqei kordor nest. Dili muhabbatparvari khudro bo mehri mohruyoni Bukhoroyivu turk, dushizagoni norpiston garav manda, na tanho az lahzahoi guvoroi vaslu komsitoni va rozu niyoz lazzat megirad, az karashmavu khiromi gultalatoni khiromonraftor halovat mebarad, balki az firoqi turki kamarbasta (Ay turki kamarbasta, chunonam zi firoqat — Guyand: qaboi tu maro perahan omad!), sarvi qadbaland (Sarsari hajri tu, ay sarvi baland, — Reshai umri man az bekh bikand!) va qahri mashuqa (Sipar pesh kashidam khadangi turo — CHu tir bar jigar oyad, sipar chi sud kunad?!) dar iztirob mefitad, izhor medorad, ki mashuqaash az u mehr mekhohadu khudash bemehr ast (Mehr khohi zi manu bemehri  — Huda  khohi zi manu behudayi!). Bo vujudi in, shoiru qakhramoni gazali u az nomardumihoi jonona tagoful   varzida   (Agarchi   nomardum   ast  mehru  vafosh  —  Nashavad hech az  dilam berun!), az hama    tazodu mehrubonivu nozu itobi dilbar natijai musbat megirad (CHu gulshakar dihiyam, dardi dil shavad taskin — CHu turshruy shavi, vorahoni az safro!). Az in ru, ishqe, ki Rudaki sitoish menamoyad, ishqi mujizaviest, ki oshiq hatto az sharbati hajru dardi firoqash huzur mekunad. SHoir paygom medihad:

Bo on ki dilam az gami hajrat khun ast,

SHodi zi gami tuam zi gam afzun ast!

Andesha kunam har shabu guyam: «YO rab,

Hijron-sh chunin ast, visolash chun ast?!»

Umuman, qobili zikr ast, ki Rudaki dar ashori oshiqonai khud faqat az sidqu vafo, kayfiyati didoru visol, dilbarivu dilnavozi barin lahzahoi sururangezi ishq shohbayt nameguyad. Goho jafokorihoi khuboni badmehr zangi gamu oshuftagiro dar khotiri u mutavalli gardonida, talkhii sabr chun imtihoni dushvor paykari uro megudozad va bazan zamoni vasl baroi u zudguzar namuda, pindori judoii navbati noguzir bunyodashro ba tashvish meguzorad. Dar chunin mavorid guftori ustod mahzun ba gush merasad:

Hanuz bo manivu az nihebi raftani tu

Ba ruz vaqt shuoram, ba shab sitora shumoram!

Har qadar gavhari ishq dar nihonkhonai dil pinhon doshta shavad, har qadar hadisi ishqi mehrvarzoni pokboz ba dahoni begonavu oshno va yoru agyor naaftad, chun ganji arzandatarini dilbaru dilboz arjmandtar megardad. Ammo oshiq on ast, ki nametavonad on sarvatro pinhon dorad. Qahramoni gazali Rudaki az in doira berun nest. Zaboni u ba zamzamai chunin tarona biduni ikhtiyor guyo meshavad:

Kusham, ki bipusham, sanamo, nomi tu az khalq,

To nomi tu kam dar dahani anjuman oyad!

Bo har ki sukhan guyam,  agar khohamu gar ne,

Avvalsukhanam nomi tu andar dahan oyad!

Mayli Ustod  Rudaki  dar  sokhtmoni  ashori pukhta va ustuvori oshiqonai khud beshtar ba tanosubi sukhan, tashbehhoi tazodomez (Kori busa chu ob khurdan shur — Bikhuri besh, tashnatar gardi), istiora va talmeh (Biburda nargisi tu obi joduyi Bobul — Kushoda gunchai tu bobi mujizi Muso) beshtar ast. Vale dar in guna ashorash az sukhanbozii latif, tarifi hajvmonand (Ba zulf kaj, valekin ba qaddu bolo rost — Ba tan durust, valekin ba chashmakon bemor), khitob (SHod zi, bo siyahchashmon shod, — Ki chahon nest juz fasonavu bod!) va amsoli inho farovon istifoda mebarad. Dar hama mavrid tobishi hikmatomezi fikrro javlondihanda, ohangi rindonai khulosakunanda va az farah labrezi sukhani ustod barqaror memonad:

Ruy ba mihrob nihodan chi sud?!

Dil ba Bukhorovu butoni Taroz!

 Ezidi mo vasvasai oshiqi

Az tu pazirad, napazirad namoz!

Zaboni ashori oshiqonai Ustod Rudaki namunai behtarini zaboni umumikhalqii tojikist, ki dar davomi hazoru sad sol bo durakhshi mujizaosoyi khud khonandavu shunavandaro maftun medorad.

Ba mujibi hamesha dar harakatu inkishof va tagyiru takomul budan dar zaboni ashori Rudaki kalimahoi judogonae duchor meoyand, ki bazan az istifoda baromadaand yo kamistemol shudaand. Kalimahoi fayor-shugl, kor; sihoyi noma-rishtai nomabandi; niheb-bimu khavf; ech-hech va amsoli inho ba hamin guruh vorid meshavand. Az hamin sabab asrori baze baythoi khele olii ustod imruzho baroi na hamai khonandagonash zud ifsho megardand. Faqat dar holati donistani manihoi laylatulqadr-shabi qadr, jalbib-rupush, farasnofa-shabi Navruz, pada-darakhti besamar, jay-havzu kul az baythoi zayl metavon halovat burd:

SHabi   oshiqat    laylaturqadr   ast,

CHun tu berun kuni rukh az jalbib!

*   *   *

SHabi qadri vaslat zi farkhundagi

Farahbakhshtar az farasnofa ast!

*   *  *

Ay on, ki man az ishqi tu andar jigari khesh  

Otashkada doram sadu bar har mijae jay!

YAke az khususiyathoi mumtozi surudahoi oshiqonai Ustod Rudaki on ast, ki dar barobari balandii mazmunu sanati  benazir, bo ohangi nishotbakhshu tarabafzoyi khud dar fazoi qalbi mukhlisonu havodoron taninandoz gardida, chun taronai dil tobishhoi rangorangu asrorangezi zindagiro dar nazari oshiqi vorasta va shakhsi solimzavq tavre tajalli medihand, ki on mazmun misli zikri botinii u dar zamirash mavo girifta, angezahoi nihoni uro ba tugyon ovarda, bo galayoni ehsosot ba tapishi nabzi vay surat medihad. Bar zammi in, tabii va samimi budani kalomi shoir boqi memonad. Ba in qita tavajjuh farmoed:

CHamani aqlro khazoni agar,

Gulshani ishqro bahor tuyi!

Ishqro gar payambari, lekin

Husnro  ofaridgor  tuyi!

Qitai digari oshiqonai Ustodro meorem, ki dar on  u dar holati khud shabohathoi aslero paydo kardaast, ki dar maqomi mansubiyat ba sohibashon dar holathoi gunogun qaror girifta, guvohi digari kamoloti khunari shoirii u buda metavonand:

Ba rukhash zulf oshiq ast chu man,

Lojaram hamchu man-sh nest qaror!

Manu zulfayni u nagunsorem,

U charo bar gul astu man bar khor?!

Hamchu chashmi tavongar ast labash,

On ba lal, in ba lului shahvor!

Tashbehu tazodi qitai bolo simohoi ba chashm namoyonro jilva menamoyand, ki digarbora kuri modarzod budani ustodi rushanbinro tayidan rad mekunad. CHun sukhan az sarshor budani sheri Rudaki az sanathoi sheri ba miyon omad, ba khotir ovardan lozim ast, ki guftori Ustod Rudaki, barobari namunai olii sahli mumtane va sarshori pandu andarzu hikmat budan, az sanathoi badei gani buda, baze abyoti u doroi se, chahor va ziyoda az in sanati lafzivu manavi meboshad. Az hamin jihat, donoyoni sukhanshinosi adabiyoti forsu tojik, chi dar guzashta va chi imruz, ashori Ustod Rudakiro baroi mavjudiyati in yo on oroishi lafzi yo manavi shohid ovardaand. Qasidai dar madhi vazir Abutayyib Tohiri Musabi ofaridai u niz aslan sanoi judu atoro faro megirad.

Rudaki dar madoehi khud besh az hama va pesh az hama tashbehro ba kor mebarad. Alhaq, Said Nafisi durust mefarmoyad: «Har shoir, ki dar tashbeh zabardasttar, jahongirtar ast». Ustod Rudaki dar in sheva mahorati benazir dorad. U aglab chandin tashbehu tazodhoro dar yakjoyagi istifoda karda (CHu homun dushmanonat past bodand, —CHu gardun duston volo hama sol), gohe ba onho kalimahoero dar qolabi hamvazn va qofiyai gunogun ba kor mebarad, ki saji mutavozinro tashkil mekunad (Az jud qabo dori, pushida mushahhar, —V-az majd bino dori, barburda mushayyad). Dar abyoti mutafarriqai madehavii Ustod Rudaki madhi muvajjahi dukhura, ki zohiran sarzanish karda, dar asl madh ast (Tuyi, ki javru bakhili ba tu girift nisheb, —CHunon ki dodu sakhovat ba tu girift faroz) va, baraks, porahoe duchor meoyand, ki bo istifodai ihomu tazod, tanosubi majoz zohiran musbat namoyand ham, botinan ziddi on maniro dorand:

CHokaronat ba gahi razm chu khayyotonand,

Garchi khayyot nayand, ay maliki kishvargir!

Ba gazi nayza qadi khasmi tu mepaymoyand,

To biburrand ba shamsheru biduzand ba tir!

«Tanosub dar in jo: khayyot-darzduz va tarzi oromonai libosduzii ust. Ihom va tazzod — dar tahti harakati oromona tasviri jangu jidoli qahramonona va khashmginonaro dodan ast» (Rasul Hodizoda). Bayti zerin niz doroi chunin sanat meboshad:

Onon ki giriftor shudand az sipari tu,

Az band ba shamsheri tu yoband rahoyi!

Ehtishom, tantana va buruzi sanathoi balandi sheri az vijagihoi qasidahoi madehavii Ustod Rudaki buda, bo tashbib, nasib va tagazzul vasfi bahor, buzurgii idhoi millii oriyonajodon — Navruz, Mehrgon va Sada, inikosi jilvahoi maftunkunandai tabiat, tarannumi ishq maqomi balandro molik meboshand. Dar porchai poyon, ki yaqinan nasibi qasidai madehavist, jashni Mehrgon bo hashamatu shukuh va shodmonivu tarab dar on ruz tasvir gardida, az on buyi sharobi arguvoni, ki dar fasli tiramoh kayfiyati digare dorad, ba mashom merasad:

Maliko, jashni Mehrgon omad,

Jashni shohonu khusravon omad!

Haz ba joyi malhamu khirgoh

Badali bogu buston omad.

Murd ba joyi savsan omad boz,

May ba joyi arguvon omad!

Tu javonmardu davlati tu javon,

May ba bakhti tu navjavon omad!

Gul digar rah ba gulsiton omad,

Vorai  bogu  buston omad!

Vori   ozar   guzashtu   shulai   on,

SHulai lolaro zamon omad!

                      .

Jashni Mehrgon buzurgtarin jashne, bud, ki dar ruzi avvali tiramoh, hangome, ki shabu ruz barobar meshavad va khurshed dar burji mizon qaror megirad, barpo meshud. Dastarkhoni mehrgoni az haft mevai in fasl oro meyoft, ki khud shukuhu azamati khos megirift.

Porai qasidai digar:

On ki namonad ba hech khalq, Hudost,

Tu na Hudoyi, ba hech khalq namoni!

Ruz shudanro nishon dihand ba Hurshed,

Boz mar uro ba tu dihand nishoni.

Har chi ba alfozi khalq madhat raftast,

YO biravad to ba ruzi hashr, tu oni!

Ustod Rudaki zimni sitoish dar mavridhoi ziyod ba mamduh pand medihad: uro dar jang alayhi adoyash daler megardonad, dar noomadi korho dilbardori mekunad:

Dil tang mador, ay malik, az kori khudoyi,

Orom vajhi tarabro madeh az tab judoyi.

Sad bor fitodast chunin har malikero,

Okhir pursidand ba har komravoyi.

In kor samoyi bud, na quvvati inson,

Kasro nabuvad quvvat bo kori samoyi.

On kas, ki turo didu turo binad dar jang,

Donad, ki tu bo sher ba shamsher daroyi!

Onon ki giriftor shudand az sipahi tu,

Az band ba shamsheri tu yoband rahoyi!

Azbaski sheri Rudaki, aglab, barobari on ki ruhi tarabu shodi, shuru farahro ifoda mekunad, bo zaboni khele sodavu ravon va dur az takalluf suruda shudaast. Az hamin jihat, dar kitobhoi nazmshinosii quruni vusto va sukhansanjoni muosiri forsu tojik az dunyoi rangorangi guftori Ustod Rudaki baroi nishon dodani manihoi latif va mazmunhoi toza chun dalelu namumahoi alo ovarda meshavand. Haq ba jonibi pajuhishgari eroni janobi oqoi duktur Abdulhusayni Zarrinkub ast, ki dar kitobi marufi khud «Bo korvoni hulla» menavisad: «CHun Rudaki dar shoiri qudratu mahorate kammonand dosht, khosa dar tavsifi ahvolu tajsimi manozir bas chiradast bud. Tashbehotu tavsifoti u dar nihoyati lutfu diqqat bud. Hech kas ba  khubii u sharobro ba aqiqi gudokhta va dandonro ba sitorai sahari va qatrai boron monand nakarda bud. Va az in guna tashbehoti latifi durakhshon dar sheri u bisyor metavon yoft. Gayr az qasidasaroyi ba nazmi masnavihoe chand niz pardokht: masnavii «Kalilavu Dimna» va manzumai «Sinbodnoma» az in jumla bud, ki az onho juz abyoti parokanda boznamondaast».180

 Faqat dar kitobi Muhammad binni Umari Roduyoni «Tarjumon-ul-baloga», ki soli tasnifash 1114 melodi meboshad, roje ba shonzdah sanati badei 20 bayti Rudaki ba sifati misol ovarda meshavad,181 ki on jo az sanathoi tarse, muqtazab (Agarat badra rasonad hame ba badri munir, —Mubodirat kunu khomush mashin chandino), muzoria (Nili damanda tuyi ba gohi atiyat, —Pili damanda ba gohi kinaguzori), mutobiqa (Agarchi changnavozon latifdast buvand, —Fidoi dasti qalam bod dasti changnavoz), tazod, tashbehi mashrut, murootunnazir, madhi muvajjah (Tuyi, ki javru bakhili az tu girift nisheb, —CHunon ki dodu sakhovat ba tu girift faroz), tajohuli orif (Tanat yakevu jon yakevu chandin donish, —Ay ajabo, mardumi tu yo daryoyi), iltifot, takidi madhi ba zam monand, irsoli masalayn dar bayt, istidrokot (Asari mir nakhoham, ki bimonad ba jahon, — Mir khoham, ki bimonad ba jahon-dar asaro), manii oyoti quroni, saji mutavozin (Az jud qabo dori, pushida mushahhar, —V-az majd bino dori, barburda mushayyad) va ibdo iboratand. Misol baroi ibdo:

On ki namonad ba hej khalq, Hudost,

Tu na Hudoyi, ba hej khalq namoni!

Ruz shudanro nishon dihand ba Hurshed,

Boz mar uro ba tu dihand nishoni.

Har chi ba alfozi khalq madhat raftast,

YO biravad to ba ruzi hashr, tu oni!

Pason Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi dar asari khud «CHahor maqola», ki onro soli 550 hijri (1157 melodi) talif kardaast, hikoyati safari chahorsolai Nasr ibni Ahmadi Somoniro dar Hirot ovarda, qasidai «Buyi Juyi Muliyon oyad hame»-ro dar on mavrid guftani Rudakiro zikr mekunad va az on haft baytro iqtibos ovarda, bad az bayti haftumro darj namudan (bad az bayti «Ofarinu madh sud oyad hame, —Gar ba ganj andar ziyon oyad hame) menavisad: «Va andar in bayt az mahosin haft sanat ast: avval mutobiq, duvum mutazzod, savum muraddaf, chahorum bayoni musovat, panjum uzubbat, shashum fasohat, haftum jazolat va har ustode, ki uro dar ilmi sher tajorub ast, chun andake tafakkur kunad, donad, ki man dar in musayyibam, vassalom».182

Aksar dar abyoti Ustod Rudaki sanathoi badei bo ham omekhta va dar yakjoyagi kor farmuda meshavand. Dar adabiyotshinosii muosiri tojik nakhustin maqolaro roje ba muhassanoti sheri Rudaki tahti unvoni «Dar borai sanati nazmi Rudaki» soli 1958 ustod Rasul Hodizoda navishta, dar kitobi «Rudaki va zamoni u» chop karda, dar on hamai qaydhoi «Tarjumon-ul-baloga», «Al-Mujam», «Hadoiq-us-sehr», «Majma-us-sanoe», hamchunin guftori SHiblii Numoni, Said Nafisi va Sadriddin Ayniro ovarda, onhora az nigohi tanqidi jambast namuda, bo nazari nav ba in masalai muhim nigaristaand.183

Hangomi tahlil malum meshavad, ki Ustod Rudaki baroi ifodai mazmunhoi amiqi shoirona, daryofti maonii latif, darki amvoji zavqi salim va lazzatbakhshi sher, hamchunin lahni gushnavozi kalom az tamomi vositahoi dar ikhtiyorash mavjudbuda istifoda burda, misli ajubanigor jahoni rangorangi olami sheri khudro mohirona barpo menamoyad, ki az lakhtu porahoi nochizi boqimondai on ham buzurgi, jalolat, ehtishom, kushishi favquloddaero huvaydo megardonad. Baroi ba maqsad rasidan Ustod Rudaki az tashbeh, istiora, majoz, tazod, muqobala, tajnis, tarse, iltizom, talmeh, muboliga, igroq va gayra, ki barkhe az onho anvoi gunogun dorand, mohirona istifoda mebarad. Namunae baroi tashbehi mutlaq in bayt ast:

Biyor on may, ki, pindori, ravon yoquti nobasti,

Va yo chun barkashida teg peshi oftobasti…

Misol baroi tashbehi sharti:

Ba sarv monad, gar sarv lolador buvad,

Ba murd monad, gar murd ruyad az nasrin!

Tashbeqi pushida:

Dili man arzane, ishqi tu kuhe,

CHi soyi zeri kuhe arzanero?!

Abyoti Ustod Rudaki az anvoi gunoguni istiora, ki guftori uro baso guvoro gardondaast, niz khele sarshorand. Modari may – istiora baroi tok, bachai u baroi angur, chashmai khurshed baroi may, Nil istiorai dunyo, nahang-marg, sarvi bustonoroy, nigor, butoni Taroz hama baroi ifodai dilbar, sarsari hajr, reshai umr, chamani aql, gulshani ishq istiorahoi margub meboshand:

CHamani aqlro khazoni agar,

Gulshani   ishqro   bahor   tuyi!

Ishqro gar payambari, lekin

Husnro ofaridgor tuyi!

YAke az sanathoe, ki shoir onro khele dust medorad, sanati tajnis ast, ki navhoi gunoguni on dar sheri Ustod Rudaki ziyod ba mushohida merasad, misli:

Az on may maro dih, ki az aksi u

CHu yoqut gardad ba farsang sang!

Sanati tashbeh va tafsir niz dar sheri Ustod Rudaki baroi rushantar ifoda namudani matlabi u kor burda meshavad, ki daleli vozehi on qitai zerin ast, ki dar on ba vasilai se perohani YUsuf ahvoli ruhonii shoir bayon megardad:

Nigorino, shunidastam, ki gohi mihnatu rohat

Se perohan salab budast YUsufro ba umr-andar:

YAke az kayd shud purkhun, duvum shud chok az tuhmat,

Savum YAqubro bar bush ravshan gasht chashmi tar!

Rukham monad bad-on avval, dilam monad bad-on soni,

Nasibi man shavad dar vasl on perohani digar!

Maqolai digare, ki muhassanoti sheri Rudakiro faro megirad, «Roje ba mahorati nigorandagii Rudaki» nom doshta, ba qalami olimi zabardasti shuravi I. S. Braginskiy mutaalliq ast. Dar borai in maqola haminro guftan basanda ast, ki khubihoi onro ba nazar girifta, ba muallifi on mahz baroi hamin maqola Joizai davlatii Tojikiston doda shudaast.184

Oroishi digari sheri, ki ba vositai kor farmudani on jihati akhloqi, tarbiyavi va hikmatnokii kalomi guyanda afzun megardad, korbasti maqolu zarbulmasal va andarzu hikmathoi roij ast, ki sukhanvar onhoro dar guftori khud istifoda mebarad. Abyoti ashori boqimondai Ustod Rudaki az in jins pandu nasihathoi mardumi, ki dar tuli asrho dar otashi kurai ruzgoron obutob yofta, az imtihoni qarnho guzashtaand, mamluv meboshand. Binobar hamin, donishmandoni sukhanshinos sadho sol dar in khusus bahsho kardaand, ki dar bayni on hama maqolai olimi shinokhtai maskavi Muhammadnuri Usmonov, ki bo nomi «Zarbulmasalu maqolaho dar merosi manzumi Rudaki» soli 1958 ba zaboni rusi navishta shudaast, arzishi khosero sohib meboshad.

Dar in maqola M. Usmonov, avvalan, qayd mekunad, ki barkhe az pajuhishgaron dar maqolavu risolahoi khud chande az guftori hikmatomezi Rudakiro iqtibos meorand, ki bo vujudi hikmatomez budani khud ba zarbulmasalu maqolho dokhil nameshavand, misli

Andar baloi sakht padid oyad

Fazlu buzurgmardiyu solori.

YO:

Nekbakht on, ki bidodu bikhurd,

SHurbakht on, ki na khurdu na dod!

         Va yo:

Har ki n-omukht az guzashti ruzgor,

Hech n-omuzad zi hech omuzgor!

Vale bad az in sivu yak zarbulmasalu duvozdah maqolro az ashori Ustod Rudaki ovarda, onhoro bo zarbulmasalu maqolhoe, ki dar chand majmuai zarbulmasalu maqolhoi forsi va tojiki gird ovarda shudaand, muqoisa mekunad, ki chun namuna baze az onhoro metavon in jo zikr namud: «Makun bad, agar bad nakhohi ba khesh», «CHu pusti rubah bini ba khoni votgaron, —Bidon, ki tuhmati u dunbai ba shudyor ast», «Kas nabardoshtast ba daste du kharbuza», «Majnun donad, ki holi Majnun chun ast», «Buz ba bichbich-bar hargiz nashavad farbeh», «Kay raftaro ba zori bozori», «Ob har chi beshtar neru kunad, bandu vargi sustbuda bifkanad», «Hesh begona gardad az payi desh», «Mayalfanj dushman, ki dushman yake fuzun astu dust az hazor andake» va gayraho. Va az maqolho chuninhoro nom mebarad: «Sitem az reshi kase ohanjidan», «CHun khar dar miyoni shilk furu mondan», «Hadisi gob guftan», «Joma ba dandon giriftan», «Rutab az konoz barovardan» va monandi onho. Ammo in jo mo na shakli dar ashori Rudaki ovardashudai maqolho, balki shakli masdarii onhoro ovardem, ki chun iborahoi ustuvor shinokhta meshavand.

SHevai kori Ustod Rudaki dar istifodai zarbulmasalho va maqolhoi mardumi on ast, ki chunin hikmathoro dar matn dar maqomi khele tabii bo tazodho yo tafsiri onho ba kor mebarad, ki ham shevoi va ham mazmuni sherro baland mebardorand va ham hikmatnokii onro meafzoyand, ham arzishi guftori shoirro khubtar ba jilva medihand. Barkhe porchahoi boqimondai ashori Ustod Rudaki purra bo in tarz nigoshta shudaand. Hatto qarib hamai abyoti parokandai boqimondai dostoni «Kalilavu Dimna»-i Ustod Rudaki bo in uslub talif gardidaast. Ba porai sheri zerin tavajjuh farmoed:

CHun teg ba dast ori, mardum natavon kusht,

Nazdiki Hudovand badi nest faromusht!

In teg na az bahri sitamgoron kardand,

Angur na az bahri nabiz ast ba charkhusht!

Iso ba rahe did yake kushta fitoda,

Hayron shudu bigrift ba dandon sari angusht.

Gufto, ki kiro kushti, to kushta shudi boz,

To boz ki uro bikushad, on ki turo kusht?!

Angusht makun ranja ba dar kuftani kas,

To kas nakunad ranja ba dar kuftanat musht!

In jo chun zarbulmasalho az zaboni hazarati Iso ovarda meshavand, qudrati tarbiyavii onho baroi mardum rushantar pazirufta megardad.

Dar qitai sheri poyon baroi vozehtar ifoda gardidani matlab zarbulmasal base bamavqe ovarda shudaast:

Ay khoja, in hama, ki tu khud medihi shumor

Bodomi tarru sikivu bahmonu bostor!

Mor ast in jahonu jahonjuy morgir,

Az morgir mor barorad hame dimor!

Ba gumonam, digar baroi nishon dodani maqomi zarbulmasal va maqolhoi khalqi dar guftori shakarbori Ustod Rudaki hamin namunaho basanda ast.

Dar tamomi dunyovu kulli zabonhoi olam sher biduni vaznu ohang vujud nadorad. Az in ru, pajuhishi ashori Ustod Rudaki be tahlilu tadqiqi avzoni sherhoi u nopurra ba nazar merasad. Hushbakhtona, in korro hanuz soli 1958 olimi mumtozi vaznshinosi tojik Bahrom Sirus bo kamoli havsala dar maqolai khud «Vazni osori boqimondai Rudaki» anjom doda, moro az tahlili gustardai duborai on beniyoz gardonidaast.186

Faqat haminro gushzad metavon kard, ki shodravon Bahrom Sirus dar maqolai khud 264 porai sheri Ustod Rudakiro mavridi sanjish qaror doda, ba natijae meoyad, ki in sherhoro dar 108 navi 10 bahri vazni aruz talif kardaast, ki manzarai istemoli onho chunin ast:

  1. Navhoi gunoguni bahri hazaj .        .         .          .    35
  2. Navhoi gunoguni bahri ramal           .        .         .          .    18
  3. Navhoi gunoguni bahri munsareh  .        .         .          .    12
  4. Navhoi gunoguni bahri mujtas      .        .         .          .    10
  5. Navhoi gunoguni bahri muzore  .        .         .          .    10
  6. Navhoi gunoguni bahri khafif     .        .         .          .      9
  7. Navhoi gunoguni bahri sare . .         .          .      6
  8. Navhoi gunoguni bahri qarib . .         .          .      5
  9. Navhoi gunoguni bahri mutaqorib .        .         .          .      4

 

  1. Bahrom Sirus. Vazni osori boqimondai Rudaki / Rudaki va zamoni u, Stalinobod, 1958, sah. 128-141.
  2. Navhoi gunoguni bahri  rajaz         .        .         .          .      3

Jaman                                                                                               108

Bahrom Sirus tanho vazni duvozdah porchai sherii Ustod Rudakiro ba sababi tahrif gardidanashon muayyan karda natavonista,    baythoi avvali onhoro zikr menamoyad. Az hamin jihat, mo ba ravoni poki in piramardi purkor baroi khidmati  shoistaash    az tahti dil izhori    sipos menamoem  va az dargohi Hudovandi    olam omurzishi gunohonashro mekhohem.

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