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Amorati Bukhoro dar nimai avvali asri KhIKh

Pas az favti Shohmurod pisarash — amir haydar (1800– 1826) ba takhti amorat nishast. Vay aksariyati vaqtro ba mutoliai asarhoi fiqh va munoqashahoi bemanii sharhu hoshiyaho sarf mekard. Shoyad az hamin sabab boshad,  ki khudro «yake az ulamoi zamon» pindoshta, dar madrasai ark, ki bo amri u sokhta budand, ba darsgui mashgul shud. Chi nave ki dar okhiri asri KhIKh pirmardoni bukhoroi ba A.A.Semyonov hikoyat kardaand, mullobachahoro ba darsi «amiri donishmand» ba zarbi chub jam menamudaand, zero kase bo ikhtiyori khud dar peshi u dars khondan namekhostaast.[1] In amiri taqvodor himoyat va tarafdorii ruhoniyonro mejust (va paydo ham kard). Amir haydar Quronro saropo az bar karda boshad ham, hej goh zohidi riyozatkash nabud –az sad kanizi haramsaroi khud yakero intikhob namuda, har moh hamsarashro ivaz mekard, hamchunin az bayni pirazanoni kordida kasoni makhsus ba har gushavu kanori mamlakat firistoda meshudand, to ki dukhtarhoi sohibjamolro paydo karda, ba khidmati amir ovarand.

Dar avvalhoi hukmronii amir haydar ba qushuni Bukhoro muyassar gardid, ki ba Kheva zarbai khele shadid rasonad va az in jonib khavfi hujumi dushmanro ba Bukhoro bartaraf namoyad. Lekin badtar, ba sababi zaif gardidani amorati Bukhoro, khonhoi Kheva boz muttasil hujum namuda, to devori poytakht rasidand. Muboriza bo Shahrisabz va davlati khonii Khuqand khele tuloni va toqatfarso bud. Amir haydar dar jangi Uroteppa galaba karda, Jizzakh va sargahi Zarafshonro ba qalamravi khud dokhil namud.

Amir haydarro lozim omad, ki ba tarafi hisor ham lashkar kashad. U dar in jo baze muvaffaqiyatho ba dast ovard. hokimi hisor, ki aknun khusuri amir haydar gardida bud, unvoni atoliqro sohib shud va goho ba amir peshkash va quvvahoi harbi mefiristod. Vay amalan dar aksari korhoi mulkdori bo ikhtiyori khud amal mekard. G.Meyendorf az hikoyathoi amaldoroni Bukhoro dar soli 1820 chunin taassurote hosil namud, ki hisor mulki baso sarvatmand ast.

Shahri hisor – nishemangohi hokim qarib se hazor imorat dosht va dar vodii shukufoni doroi zaminhoi hosilkhez (khususan mazraahoi farovoni sholi) va charogohhoi sabzu khurram joy girifta bud. Gayr az in, Dehnav, Qaratog va Regar niz az kalontarin mahalhoi aholinishini in mulk ba shumor meraftand. hokimi Obigarm bazan bo hokimi hisor jang mekard.[2]

Mirizatullo dar soli 1813 vaziyati siyosii hamon qismati Osiyoi Miyonaro, ki bo on shinosoi dosht, ba tariqi zayl bayon menamoyad: Movarounnahr «miyoni hokimoni judogona, ki puriqtidortarini onho podshohi Bukhoro Mir haydar meboshad, taqsim gardidaast». Joi duvumro az jihati maqom amiri Fargona -Umarkhon megirad. Sevumi volii Uroteppa Mahmudkhon ast. Pas az onho Shahrisabz Niyozali meistad. U isman tabaai Bukhoro mahsub yofta, ammo nameguzosht, ki ba nomi Mir haydar khutba khonda va sikka zarb karda shavad. Sipas, Mirizatullo hokimoni hisor, Qubodiyon va Qurgontepparo zikr menamoyad. Dar sohili chapi daryoi Amu mulki Khorazm voqe ast, ki hokimi on Muhammad Rahimkhon meboshad. Dar Badakhshon Mirmuhammadshoh hukmroni mekunad, Shugnon ham hokimi khudro dorad. Va khotirnishon menamoyad: «hamai in hokimon bo ham namesozand va doimo dar jangu jidoland».[3]

Aksari umaro va ashrof nisbat ba amir haydar hissi norizoyati meparvaridand va bar ziddi u oshub mebardoshtand.[4] Amir haydar siyosati padari khudro dar bobati markaziyat dodani davlat pesh burda natavonist. Muqovimati feodaloni mahalli dubora quvvat girift. Dar natijai lashkarkashihoi sershumore, ki ba muqobili feodaloni isyonkor va hamsoyagoni khusumatparvar ba amal ovarda meshud, inchunin pardokhti maoshi besh az hazor amaldor va mullohoi beshumor va inomhoi pulii harsolai ayonu ashrof ehtiyoji moddii davlat niz khele ziyod megardid. Muhammadyaqub, barodari amir haydar, navishtaast, ki «dar in vaqt kharji amir du barobar az dakhli u ziyodtar bud». har sol ahvol toraft khatarnoktar meshud.[5] In bud, ki moliyot va khirojhoi bisyor, monandi qushpuli, tanobpuli, alafpuli, yaksari, chubpuli, mirobona, kavsan va g. dubora jori gardida, bori guruhhoi istehsolkunandai mamlakatro vaznintar namudand. Ba zammi in, goratgarihoe, ki hangomi amaliyoti harbi ba vuqu meomad, ba sari mardumi mehnatkash mahrumiyat va musibathoi ziyode ovarda, uro boz ham qashshoqu benavotar megardond. Dar ibtidoi solhoi bistum tanazzuli iqtisodi va kharobii sarosari kishvar rukh dod. Afzudani jabru zulm va istibdod boisi sar zadani oshubhoi navi khalqi gardid. Shurishi khitoy-qipchoqho, ki dar vodii Miyonkol sar zada, az soli 1821 to soli 1825 davom namud, yake az tazohuroti hamin nav oshubhoi khalqi bud (roje ba in shurish poyontar, dar qismati «Muborizai sinfi» batafsil sukhan ronda khohad shud).

Pas az vafoti amir haydar pisarash — Nasrullo (1826–1860) ba takhti amorat sohib gardid. Tavsifi vozehu voqeii in hukmron ba qalami A.A.Semyonov taalluq dorad. U menavisad, ki amir Nasrullo az boloi jasadi du barodari khud – vorisoni qonunii saltanat husayn va Umar guzashta, ba takht nishast va dar davomi yak mohi pas az julusi khud ruze 50–100 kasro ba qatl merasonid.

«…U bo gaddori va khunkhorii favqulodda farq mekard va baroi in vayro bukhoriyon «amiri qassob» nomida budand. Davrai hukmronii duru darozash bo badkirdori, qatlu kushtor, khiyonat, besharafi va hirsu ozi gushnoshunida nom barovard»[6].

Amir Nasrullo bo Shahrisabz, Uroteppa, Quqand va Kheva muttasil jang mekard. Kushishhoi u dar bobati ba hayati amorati Bukhoro bargardonidani viloyathoi on sui daryoi Amu, ki aknun ba tasarrufi amironi afgon daromada budand, natijae nabakhshid.

Amir Nasrullo bo maqsadi inon zadan ba feodaloni dokhilii mamlakat yak qator chorahoi nihoyat berahmona peshbini namud. hakim qushbegiro, ki dar ahdi saltanati padarash amalan hukmroni amorat mahsub meyoft, avval az hokimiyat dur kard va sipas ba qatl rasonid. huquqi qushbegi mahdud karda shud. Abdusamadi fors, ki ba in vazifa tain gardid, az tarafi ayonu ashrofi qabilahoi uzbek pushtiboni namedid va tamoman ba maylu iltifoti amir vobasta bud. Umaro va saroni sipoh, ki andake norizoyati izhor kunand va yo mayli judoshavi paydo namoyand, kushta yo khud badarga namuda, molu mulkashon musodira karda meshud. N.V.Khanikov, ki soli 1841 Bukhororo dida bud, navishtaast: «Rahmonberdi makhsumi turkman, ki az tarafi amir ba mansabi muhimi rais, yane muhofizi rasmu odat va durustii miqyosi tul va tarozu tain shuda bud, dar kori reshakan kardani feodalizmi Bukhoro yovari nakhustin gardid. Avomro bo zarbi chub jazo doda, ba duovu ibodat vodor mekardand, sipohiyonro sar meburidand va yo majbur menamudand, ki gurekhta jon ba salomat barand; khalq ba rais nafrin mekhond; sipohiyon ham fahmidand, ki ba takht kiro nishondaand, vale digar iloje nabud».[7]

Dar soli 1837 amir Nasrullo islohoti harbi guzaronid. To in vaqt qushun az du qismat iborat bud: yake n u k a r h o, ki biduni muhlat khizmat mekardand, digare qarachirikho, ki favjhoi gayrimunazzami sershumorero tashkil medodand. Gayr az nukarho  shogirdpeshaho niz  budand, ki  khizmati qismi tayyorii qushunro ado karda, sipas ba nukari guzaronida meshudand. Vaqte ki nukarho ba yurish mebaromadand, shogirdpeshaho dar garnizon khizmatro davom medodand. Nukarho ham, dar navbati khud, ba du qism: merganho va nayzadaston judo meshudand. Merganho bo tufang va yo kamon, nayzadaston boshand, bo nayza musallah budand. Silohro hukumat medod. Dar qala zakhirai borut va tir mavjud bud. Qismi makhsusro tup tashkil medod, ki ba on tupchiboshi farmonfarmoi mekard. Nukarho va shogirdpeshaho taminoti khudro asosan ba tariqi mol (galla va rishqa) megiriftand, ki az qitahoi muayyani zamin ba andozai moliyoti baroi khazina pardokhtashavanda ruyonida meshud. Kumaki puli ham megiriftand, vale khele nomurattab. Qarachirikho aksar vaqt besiloh budand. Dar yake az farmonhoi amir haydar roje ba ishtiroki qarachirikho dar yurish gufta shuda bud: «Agar siloh naboshad, bigzor belu kaland ba dast bigirand». Chi nerui razmovari doshtani chunin qushun ba sharhu tafsil ehtiyoje nadorad.

Amir Nasrullo ba tashkili qismi kaloni harbii munazzam say namud. Asosi on az asironi rus, inchunin az forsho va digaron faroham omada bud. Batalyoni 800-nafarai sarbozon va qismati 250-nafarai tupchiyon tashkil yoft. Libosi makhsusi nizomi jori karda shud. hamai sarbozon bo tufanghoe, ki az sarosari mamlakat jam karda va ham makhsus az khorija ovaronida budand, musallah gardidand. Tufangi onho nayza dosht. Silohi tupchiyon az tapponcha va shamsheri rusi iborat bud. Sarbozon dar khonachahoi makhsus baroyashon sokhtashuda, yane yak nav «kazarmaho» zindagi karda, hamesha omodai jang budand. Dar vaqthoi osoishta mashqhoi harbi guzaronida meshudand. Sarbozon va afsaron muntazam mavojib megiriftand. Amir az in qismi harbi, ki quvvai asosii zarbazanandai qushuni Bukhoro mahsub meyoft, dar vaqti jang ba tavri vase istifoda menamud, vale dar zamoni osoishta az on metarsid.[8] In mustabidi khunkhor hamesha az har kas va az har chiz khavf meburd va darvoqe, khudash ham zuran ba halokat rasonda shud. Az baze rivoyatho malum meshavad, ki zani bo zur giriftaash – dukhtari volii Shahrisabz – Kenagaskhonim hangomi khob ba gushash simob rekhtaast. Amir az dardi jonkoh bedor shuda, pesh  az marg farmudaast, ki on zan va hamai bachahoi vayro kushta, ba choh partoyand.

Pas az favti amir Nasrullo inoni saltanat ba dasti pisari yagonai u — Muzaffar (1860–1885) rasid. Donandai marufi tarikhi Mangitiya A.A.Semyonov navishtaast: «Pisar va vorisi amir Nasrullo — Muzaffar mehri padarro yagon qadar ehsos namekard va amir Nasrullo hej namekhost, ki Muzaffar vorisi takhti Bukhoro gardad. Binobar in padar sidqan dar niyati kushtani pisarash – in shakhsi misli khudi u berahmu khunkhor bud, vale azbaski digar pisari oqiltare nadosht, khohu nokhoh in qasdi khudro ba takhir meandokht».[9]

Dar zamoni hukmronii amir Muzaffar Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya hamroh karda shud.

Davlati khonii Khuqand dar nimai avvali asri KhIKh

Tarikhi khonii Khuqand bo vujudi ba andozai farovon mavjud budani manbahoi mutamad, madrakhoi mustanad va khotiroti sayyohon hanuz ba darajai kofi tadqiq nashudaast.[10]

Dar asri KhVIII Fargona tavassuti mavqei jugrofii khud nazar ba Bukhoro, Kheva va Toshkand vaziyati afzaliyatnoke dosht, zero bisyor hodisoti kharobiovar, az jumla futuhoti Nodirshoh to on jo asar nakarda bud. Az in ru, aholii Fargona khele afzuda, iqtidori iqtisodii on ziyod meshud. hamin bud, ki baroi tasisi davlati mustaqil zamina va imkoniyathoi musoid muhayyo gardid. Dar in roh qadami nakhustinro Olimkhon (1800–1810)[11] guzosht. U ba maqsadi baromadan az tobeiyati ashrofi harbii feodali dastai makhsusi nizomi tashkil namud, ki komilan az tojikoni kuhiston – darvoziho, qaroteginiho va shugnoniho faroham omada bud. In dasta vaziyati imtiyoznokro sohib gardida, dastai asosii qushuni az aholii mahallii uzbek tashkilshuda ba shumor meraft. Olimkhon dar bobati markazonidani davlat jiddu jahdi bisyore ba kharj doda, harchand mukholifati doirahoi bonufuzi ayonu ashrof va ruhoniyonro bartaraf karda natavonista boshad ham, ba har hol baze muvaffaqiyathoro noil gardid. U hududi davlati khoniro vasetar namud. Chun tasarrufi Uroteppa baroyash muyassar nashud, qusuri onro az joi digar barovard, dar okhirhoi hukmroniash Toshkand va qabilahoi qazoqi hamjavori onro ba qalamravi khud dokhil kard.

hamai in iqdomoti Olimkhonro barodarash — Umarkhon (1810-– 1822) bo muvaffaqiyat idoma dod. Mahz dar ahdi saltanati u sokhti mamurii davlati khoni komilan tashakkul yoft. Umarkhon bo bahonai mustahkam kardani iqtidori tabaqai hukmroni khonii Khuqand tavonist ikhtiyoroti buzurgero sohib gardad. Jangi bebaror baroi Uroteppa bo amorati Bukhoro davom mekard. Umarkhon ba tarafi shimol lashkar kashida, shahri Turkiston va masohati pahnovari dashthoi qazoqnishinro az bahri Aral to haftrud ishgol namud. Qalahoi Oqmachit (holo shahri Qizilurda), sipas Avliyoato (Jambuli hozira), badtar Pishpek (shahri kununii Frunze) va gayra sokhta shudand. hamin tariqa, yak qismi qabilahoi qirgizu qazoq ham ba qalamravi khonii Khuqand dokhil gardid.

Pas az Umarkhon pisar va vorisi u — Muhammadali (Madali) ba takht nishasta, taqriban bist sol (1822–1842) zimomi umuri khonii Khuqandro dar dasti khud nigoh dosht. U chandin dafa ba samti janubi sharqi lashkar kashida, mulkhoi Darvoz va Qaroteginro zeri dast namud va muddate chand hokimi Kulob niz ba itoati vay sar darovard. Muhammadalikhon dar tarafi garb bo Uroteppa jang kard, hamchunin ba Koshgar yurishho namud. Dar ahdi u dahho hazor aholii Qoshgar az zulmu sitami hukumati Khitoy ba dod omada, ba umedi najot sui Fargona firor kardand va dar hamin jo maskan giriftand.

Muhammadalikhon ba misli hukmroni Bukhoro amir Nasrullo yak mardi zolim va betarahhume bud. U yagon meyorero rioyat nakarda, odamoni gunahkoru begunohro ba qatl merasonid, chun ishratparasti fosiq umr ba sar meburd, ayshu nush va kayfu safo shugli doimii u ba shumor meraft. Ba qavli V.P.Nalivkin in «khunkhori javon» sohibi takhtu toj gardida, tamomi umr «faqat ba fisqu fujur va qatlu kushtor mashgul shud».[12] U az pushtibonii ayonu ashrof ba kulli mahrum gardid; mardum hamesha dar galayon budand. Amiri Bukhoro Nasrullo az in fursat istifoda burda, soli 1842 Khuqandro zabt kard va Muhammadalikhonro bo hamai ahli khonadonash ba qatl rasond. Ammo amir Nasrullo Khuqandro dar dast nigoh doshta natavonist. Dere naguzashta Khuqand boz istiqloliyati khudro sohib shud va Khujandu Toshkandro ham dubora ba dast ovard.

hanuz dar zamoni hukmronii Muhammadalikhon, hej naboshad dar nimai duvumi on, dar khonii Khuqand padidahoi buhroni dokhili ba zuhur meomadand. hangomi janghoi beshumor va tabadduloti darbor toifaho tamom nestu nobud meshudand. Nizohoi bayni qavmhoi muqimi va bodiyanishin, ki feodalon va ayonu ashrofi qabilavi barmeangekhtand, istismori berahmonai aholii ham muqimi va ham bodiyanishin – in bud khususiyati khosi in davrai iztirobomez, ki khonii Khuqand to okhirin lahzahoi mavjudiyati khud az on rahoi yofta natavonist.

Nobudshavii aholi va kharobii khojagi dar natijai janghoi bayni davlathoi feodali

Mo hangomi bayoni voqeahoi tarikhii amorati Bukhoro va khonii Quqand borho janghoi baroi Uroteppa sarzadaro yodovari namudem.[13] Dar nimai duvvumi asri KhVIII Uroteppa mulki kalone bud, ki ba hayati on, gayr az havzai Shahristonu Uroteppa, Panjakent, Jizzakh, Zomin, Nov va Khujand niz dokhil meshudand. In mulk ba noustuvorii hududi khud nigoh nakarda, aksar vaqt sohibikhtiyor bud. Dar in jo hokimoni az toifai yuzi uzbek baromada hukmroni menamudand.

Az ibtidoi asri KhIKh ba munosibati quvvat giriftani Bukhoro va Khuqand mulki Uroteppa guyo ki dar bayni putku sandon voqe gardid: amorati Bukhoro Jizzakh va davlati khonii Khuqand Khujandro ba tasarrufi khud darovardand. Janghoi beintiho baroi Uroteppa sar shudand. Muhaqqiqi tarikhi Uroteppa A.M.Mukhtorov du sababi asosii in janghoro durust muayyan kardaast. Sababi avval – ahamiyati kaloni strategi doshtani zabti Uroteppa, ki khathoi irtibotii ba ham aloqamandkunandai du davlat tahti ikhtiyori on qaror girifta budand, inchunin roli muhimi Uroteppa dar iqtisodiyoti havzai sargahi Zarafshon. Sababi duvum vobasta ba iqtisodiyot ast: mulki sernufuzi Uroteppa baroi khazina daromadi bisyor doda metavonist, zero on anbori galla bud va az on jo miqdori ziyodi galla sodir megardid (malum ast, ki dar soli 1870 az Uroteppa ba Samarqand 250 000 pud galla burda shud).

To solhoi siyumi asri KhIKh davlati khonii Khuqand dar taloshi Uroteppa sahmi beshtare guzosht. Dar surate, ki amironi Bukhoro ba Uroteppa dah marotiba yurish kardand, khonhoi Khuqand besh az bist marotiba ba in jonib lashkar kashidand. Onho shahrro ishgol namuda, hokimi onro qatl mekardand. Ammo pas az raftani qushuni asosii onho aholii Uroteppa (inchunin Khujand) sar bardoshta, istiqloliyati khudro dubora ba dast medarovardand. Sipas, boz yurishi navi istilogaron sar meshud. Solhoi 1841–1848 Uroteppa dar tahti tasarrufi Bukhoro qaror girifta bud. Vale pas az chande boz jangu talosh, muhosirahoi tuloni va tanaffushoi kutohmuddati osoishta shuru megardidand. Dar arafai ba Rossiya hamroh karda shudan mulki Uroteppa dar hayati amorati Bukhoro bud.

hamagi dar asri KhIKh, dar zarfi shashunim dahsola ba Uroteppa taqriban panjoh bor lashkar kashida shud, dar on jo bistu panj hokim ivaz gardid. Dar har yak-yaku nim sol shahr va atrofi on boz va boz ba kharobazor tabdil meyoft. Dar asarhoi onvaqta tasvirhoi dilkharoshi vahshoniyat va kushtorho, ki hodisahoi muqarrarii hamaruza gardida budand, bisyor duchor meoyand. Dar vaqti yake az lashkarkashihoyash ba Uroteppa Olimkhon ba sarbozoni khud amr namud, ki shahrro toroj kunand. Dar natija, chunon ki sarchashmai khatti khabar medihad, «ba juz khoku sang har on chi, ki in viloyati purbarakat dosht, rabudand». Tamomi aholii Uroteppa, mardu zan bo poi luch va tani uryon, nolavu figonkunon misli gadoyon ba nazdi sarbozon omada, holi tabohi khudro bayon mekardand va khuroku pushok metalabidand.

Sarchashmai digar malumot medihad, ki istilogaron «misli muru malakh» furu rekhtand va dar shahru atrofi on «gayr az khoku sang chize boqi namond». Shoirai uroteppagi Dilshod, ki shohidi yake az mavridhoi istiloi qushuni Khuqand qaror giriftani Uroteppa budaast, menavisad, ki ishgolgaron avval dehahoro gorat kardand, bogho, pulho va imorathoi beruni shahrro otash zadand. Pas az shash ruzi muhosira va janghoi kuchagi gosibon ba shahr zada daromadand. Sarbozon, nukaron va muqarraboni amir khona ba khona gashta, moli mardumro talavu toroj mekardand, fosiqi va benomusi menamudand. Dar har jo dorho sokhta budand.[14] Az subh to shom odamonro qatl mekardand. Dehaho tamom valangor gardida, kishtzorho poymol va suzonda meshudand. Dar solhoi 1806–1807 khudi shahr ham az tarafi sarbozoni Khuqand otash doda shud. Pas az har yak hujumi dushman dudi otash, qurai khokistar va nolavu shevan boqi memond. Aholi gurusnagi mekashid va halok meshud. Tanho savdogaroni korchallon aksaran az hodisahoi fojiangez ham baroi khud naf hosil mekardand. Vaqte ki Uroteppa ba dasti amirhoi Bukhoro medaromad, pulhoi khuqandi arzishi khudro gum menamud va savdogaron in pulhoi beqadrro az aholi muft jamovari karda, ba Khuqand meburdand va onhoro bo arzishi purra baroi kharidi molho istifoda mekardand. har goh ki Uroteppa ba dasti khonhoi Khuqand meguzasht, bo pulhoi bukhoroi ham aynan chunin hodisa rukh medod. In firebgarivu huqqaboziho azobu mashaqqati mardumi avomro boz ham afzuntar mekard.

Dar bayni amorati Bukhoro va Shahrisabz niz muttasil jang va zadukhurdho ba amal meomadand. Chunon ki sayyoh va olimi rus A.L.Kun navishtaast, «beki Shahrisabz isman qismi tarkibii amorati Bukhoro mahsub yofta, amalan qarib hamesha dar zeri hukmronii hokimoni az qabilai kenagas baromadai uzbek hayoti mustaqilona ba sar meburd».[15] Qabilahoi uzbeki kenagas, qungrod va ming, ki dar viloyati Shahrisabz zindagoni mekardand, pas az ba sari hukumat omadani Mangitiya beshtar ba fishor duchor gardida budand. Az in sabab, onho hamrohi tojikon va digar mardumoni in viloyat az itoati hukumati Bukhoro sar tofta, hokimon va sardoroni qabilahoi khudro pushtiboni namudand.

Chi nave ki Ahmadi Donish menavisad, Nasrullokhon qablan hamai onhoero, ki dar «fitnai el va ulus» ishtirok doshtand, nobud sokht va sipas ba lashkarkashihoi goratgaronai khud, az jumla ba hujumi Shahrisabz kamar bast.[16] Qalai mustahkami shahrro fath kardan ba qushuni Bukhoro muyassar nagardid, binobar in sarbozoni istilogar dehahoi atrofi onro gorat va kharob namudand. Sayyohi rus menavisad: «har sol bahoron u (amir Nasrullo–B.G.) baroi nobud kardani kishtzorhoi galla dastahoi savorai khudro ba manzarahoi Shahrisabz mebarovard». Dar natija gurusnagi sar mezad, narkhi galla va digar khurokvoriho bagoyat baland meshud.[17] Dar soli 1856 pas az 32 bor hujum ovardan, nihoyat, amir Nasrullo Shahrisabzro ba khud tobe namud. In viloyat ba sababi janghoi purdavom na kamtar az Uroteppa kharob gardid.

Muborizai bayni guruhhoi mukhtalifi sinfi hukmron bahri ba dast ovardani hokimiyat dar davlati khonii Khuqand, lashkarkashihoi goratgaronai khonhoi Khuqand ba mulkhoi qazoqon[18], qirgizon[19] va tojikoni kuhiston[20] niz ba taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda ziyoni islohnopazir rasonida, ba sari aholii mehnatkash azobu uqubathoi favqulodda ovardand.

[1] Semyonov A.A., 1954 a, s. 3.

[2] «Roje ba vaziyati kununi», 1826, s. 176–177; 1826, s. 130–131. Chunin khususiyati munosibathoi bayni amir {aydar va hokimi {isorro Mirizatullo hanuz dar soli 1813 rayd karda bud –nig.: Sokolov Yu.A., 1957, s. 211. Dar solhoi 1815–1816 amir {aydar metavonist amr kunad, ki toifahoi Uuzor ba charogohhoi {isor ravon shavand –nig.: Abdurahimov M.A., 1961; s. 70–103 (nomai №1 722). Doir ba tarikhi {isor –nig.: Davidovich E.A. va Mukhtorov A., 1969, s. 35–37.

[3] Sokolov Yu.A., 1957, s. 199–200.

[4] Somi, 1962 v, 63 a-b.

[5] Muhammadrub, dastnavis, v. 157 b.

[6] Semyonov A.A., 1954, a. s. 3-4

[7] Khanikov N.V., 1843, s. 231.

[8] Mufassalan nig.: Vyatkin V.L., 1928; Troiskaya A.A., 1953. Inchunin nig.: Galkin M.N., 1968, s. 210–222. Roje ba rushuni Bukhoro malumoti purarzishe dar bayonoti asironi dar rushuni Bukhoro khizmatkardai rus, ki pesh az raftan az Bukhoro arz doshtaand, mavjud ast.

[9] Semyonov A.A., 1954, s. 4

[10] Tarikhi siyosii na hamesha darir, vale purratar – nig.: Nalivkin V.P., 1886. Az muhimtarin tadriroti nav – nig.: Ivanov P.P., 1939, 1958; Rayumov A.A., 1961, 1961 a; Nabiev R.N., 1961, 1966; Usenboev K, 1961; Romodin V.A., 1963; Mukhtorov A., 1964; Juvonmardiev A., 1965; Jamgarchinov B., 1966; Ploskikh V.M., 1968; Troiskaya A., 1969.

[11] In sana bo malumoti sarchashmahoi ogohtar beshtar mutobirat dorad, harchand az ehtimol dur nest, ki soli anjomi hukmronii Olimkhon 1809 yo 1811 boshad. Vale V.I.Nalivkin (1886, s. 76–77) ouozi saltanati Umarkhonro soli 1808 hisob kardaast, ki tamoman khatost.

[12] Nalivkin V.P., 1886, s. 125, 144.

[13] Dar khususi mulki Uroteppa va janghoi baroi Uroteppa dar bayni amorati Bukhoro va khonii Khurand baamalomada – nig.: Mukhtorov A., 1957, 1964.

[14] Mukhtorov A., 1964, s. 43–44: 1969, s. 77.

[15] Kun A.L., 1880, s. 205.

[16] Ahmadi Donish, 1960, s. 31, 1967, s. 38.

[17] Yavorskiy I, L., 1883, s. 46.

[18] Ivanov P.P., 1939.

[19] Usenboev K., 1961, s. 13–16.

[20] Iskandarov B.I., 1960, s. 49–55.

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