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Zamindorii feodali dar Amorati Bukhoro

Dar nimai avvali asri XIX asosan hamon shaklhoi peshinai molikiyati khususii zamindorii feodali – zamini khiroji, amlok – zaminhoi davlati va zaminhoi vaqf nigoh doshta meshudand. Usuli ba tankhoh dodani khojagii dehqoni va ogozi hukmronii sulolai khonadoni mangitiya ba tavri vase jori gardid, ki dar hayoti ijtimoii in davr usuli tankhoh mavqei muhim dosht. Zamini tankhoh in tariqi khizmatona ba shakhsoni judogona inom namudani qitai zamini yak va yo yakchand deh va hatto viloyati tamom ast, ki daromadi on komilan dar ikhtiyori tankhohdor bud. Ba]zan sohibi tankhoo gayr az amaliyote, ki ba foidai khud jam mekard, muzde ba mablagi muayyan az khazinai amir daryoft menamud.

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Aksari vaqt mintaqahoi nachandon kalon ba tariqi tankhoh ba shakhsoni gunoguni sohibmansab, az on jumla ba sipohiyon inom karda meshudand. Miqdori tankhohdoron dar choryaki avvali asri XIX faqat dar amorati Bukhoro az 12 to 36 hazor nafar ba shumor meraftand. Agar tankhohdor ba joi digar kuchad, zaminash ba tankhohkhuri nav doda meshud. Andozai zamini ba sifati tankhoh dodashuda ba rutbai shakhs aloqamand bud; sohiboni rutbai pointari harbi az 1 to 5 gektar zamin megiriftand. SHakhsoni olirubta az qabili sarkardaho yak dehai tamomro bo sadho gektar zamin, osiyob va digar doroihoyash ba dast medarovardand. Agar pisar mansabi padarro ishgol namoyad, ba tankhohi u niz sohib meshud.

Dar mulkhoi kuhiston – Qaroteginu Darvoz tankhoh doroi khususiyathoi ba khud khose dosht. Dar in jo na zamin, balki khojagihoi dehqoni ba tankhoh doda meshudand. Onho har sol ba hissai malumi hosiloti dehqoni sohib gardida, dar ayni zamon, aholii dehahoi zeridasti khudro ba korhoi khojagii shakhsii khud niz jalb menamudand. Az hamin sabab baroi dehqonone, ki khojagiashon ba tankhohi guzashtaast, ruzhoi sakht pesh meomadand. Tankhohkhurho dehqononro gayr az korhoi khojagii qishloq boz dar digar korhoi gunogun ba manfiati khojagii khud istifoda meburdand.

Hulosa, tankhoh ba ivazi mavojibi puli va galla doda meshud, ki az on madokhili (dakhl, fonda) buzurge ba dast medarovardand.

Zaminhoe, ki baroi istifodai onho andozi zamin – khiroj yo ushr medodand, zaminhoi khiroji nom doshtand. Qismi ziyodi in nav zaminho lalmi buda, hosilashon ba borish vobasta bud. Dar mobayni asri XIX dar muzofoti Hujandu Uroteppa 82300 tanob zamini khiroji bud. Sohiboni chunin zaminho ba khazinai hokimon daromadi kalon meovardand.

Zaminhoe, ki davlat az onho hej guna andoz namegirift, zamini mulki hurr yo mulki hurri kholis nom doshtand. Sohiboni chunin zaminho feodaloni imtiyozdoshtai avlodi budand, ki khudro ba avlodi Hazrati Muhammad (s) nisbat medodand. Zaminhoi mulki hurr asosan dar joyhoi behtarin joygir shuda, az ob tamin budand va hosili khub medodand.

Zaminhoi davlatiro «zamini amlok» yo «zamini podshohi» menomidand. Onhoro dehqonon kisht karda, baroi istifodai zamin ba khazina andoz medodand. Sohiboni zamini amloki huquqi ba meroskhuron dodan, vaqf kardan va ba garav mondanro nadoshtand. Zaminhoi amloki musodira nameshudand. Huquqi sohiboni zamini amloki abadi nabud. Hamin ki sohibi zamin kishti onro qat megardond, huquqi vay bekor shuda, zamin boz ba davlat bargardonida meshud.

Dar okhiri asri XVIII va ibtidoi asri XIX dar khonigarii Bukhoro zamini vaqf bisyor shud, chunki dar in davra tasiri ruhoniyon purzur meshavad. Dehqononi dar zamini vaqf kishtkunanda beshtar ba mutavalliho vobasta budand. Baroi dehqonon dar in zamin kor kardan purmashaqqat bud. Zero onho dar zaminhoi vaqf tamomi sol az subh to shom kor karda, tanho az chor va yo panj hissai hosilro megiriftand.

Dar amorati Bukhoro zamindorii vaqfii feodaloni ruhoni 24 foizi zamini kishtro tashkil medod. Dar atrofi Panjakent va dehai Kishtut to du hazor tanob zaminhoi vaqf bud. 70 dehai zaminhoi Uroteppa zaminhoi vaqf doshtand.

Zaminhoi vaqf ba se nav taqsim meshudand.:

  1. Zaminhoi vaqf, ki daromadi on ba manfiati muassisai dini – khonaqoh, mazoru masjidho yo maktabu madrasaho sarf karda meshud.
  2. Zaminhoi vaqf, ki foidai on ba nafi jamiyat sokhtmon yo tamiri roh, kuprukho va gayraho sarf megasht. In namudi vaqfro vaqfi omma menomidand.
  3. Zaminkhoe, ki mutavallii on az avlodi vaqfkunanda tain meshud. In namudi vaqf ba manfiati meroskhuron buda, «vaqfi avlodi» nomida meshud.

Dar hududi Panchakent dar nimai avvali asri XIX kalontarin sohibi vaqfi avlodi Hasan Halifa bud, ki ziyoda az dah hazor tanob zamin, yakchand osiyobu nahrhoro sohib bud.

Ba gayr az zaminhoi nombarshuda zaminhoi istifodashavandai jamiyati niz budand. Onho beshtar dar dashtu biyobonho, dar mahalhoi zimistonguzaronii kuchmanchiyon va dar domanakuhho voqe budand. Margzor va charogohho dar baze nohiyaho umumi hisob meyoftand. CHarogohi umumii dar vodii Romit voqebuda «Zamin miri» nom dosht. Dar Mastchohu Falgar charogohho molikiyati jamiyati hisob meyoftand. Onho az zamonhoi qadim bayni dehaho yo yakchand deha taksim shuda budand.

Dar mintaqahoi dasht yo khud dar domanakuhho (masalan dar vodii Hisor) aksar vaqt zaminhoi lalmi zaminhoi umumi hisob meyoftand. In zaminho bad az kisht shudan az tarafi dehqonon ba qatori zaminhoi khiroji dokhil meshudand va az hamin hisob ba davlat andoz mesuporidand.

Jangalhoi kuhi niz dar baze nohiyaho umumi hisob meyoftand.

Dar kharidufurushi zamin hej guna mahdudiyat nabud. Har yak taraf – furushandavu kharidor meboist qoidahoi shariatro ba inobat girand. Haridufurush dar nazdi qozi rasmiyat megirift. Narkhi zamin ba hosilnokii on, obyori shudanash, masofai roh to deha yo to shahr vobastagi dosht. Tokzorho va bogot nazar ba zamini kisht narkhi baland doshtand. Dar baze muzofothoi kamob (masalan mulki Uroteppa) ob ham manbai kharidu furush buda, narkhi on az narkhi zamini kisht bolotar meistod.

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