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Bod / SHamol

Sababhoi paydoshi bod (SHamol). Havo shaffof va beabr ast, mavjud budani onro az harakati havo – bod his mekunem, Havo heh goh orom nest. Harakati ufuqii havoro bod menomand.

Sababi harakati ufuqii havo nobarobarii fishori atmosferi dar mavzehoi gunoguni sathi Zamin meboshad. Nobarobarii fishor dar navbati khud ba gunogunii darajai garm yo khunuk shudann sathi Zamin va havoi boloi on vobasta ast. Agar khajmi barobari khavoi ba darajai gunogun garmshudaro muqoisa kunem, malum megardad, ki havoi khunuk nisbat ba havoi garm vaznintar buda, zichiash ham ziyod meshavad. Havoi garm boshad, monandi digar jismhoi garm vase shuda, zichiash nisbatan kam va vaznash sabuktar megardad.

Tavre ki kayd shud, havoi har khel garmshuda zichii gunogun dorad. In sababi gunogun budani fishori atmosferi meshavad. Havo az mahali fishori baland ba mahali fishori past, yane az havoi zichtar ba tarafi tunuktar harakat mekunad. Az in mebaroyad, ki sababi harakati havo dar nobarobar garm shudaii havo ast, ki dar natijai on dar bayni du mahal farqi fishor ba vujud omada, bod mevazad.

shamol

Mushohidakho nishon medihand, ki khushki tez garm va khunuk meshavad. Ob boshad, azbaski garmigunjoishash ziyod ast va muntazam omekhta meshavad, sust garm meshavad va garmii khudro nisbat ba khushki muddati daroz nigoh medorad.

Ruzona khushki nisbat ba ob beshtar metafsad, havoi az on garmshuda vase metavad, zichiash kam shuda, bolo mebaroyad. Az hamin sabab fishor dar khushki past meshavad. Havoi nisbatan khunuku zichi sathi dare, kul, bahr ba joi fishorash past, yane ba khushki ravona ast. Nasimi ruz (bakhr, daryo va kul) ana hamin tavr oa vujud meoyad.

SHabona, baraks, khushki nisbat ba ob zudtar khunuk meshavad. Havoi az on khunukshuda fishurdayu zichtar megardad. Dar yak vaqt dar on mahale, ki havo az on jo harakat mekunad, fishor past meshavad. Havo az mahali fishori baland (khushki) ba joy kamfishor harakat mekunad. Hamin tavr, nasimi shabona hosil meshavad, ki az khushki ba sui daryo, kul va bahr mevazad. Farqi fishor har qadar ziyod boshad, surati bod hamon kadar ziyod megardad (Oyo pagohii barvaqt, vaqte ki Oftob aknun ba garm kardani sathi khushki cap mekunadu obi sathi bahr, kul, daryo khunuk ast, bod paydo meshavad? Javobatonro sharh dikhed).

Boyad his karda boshed, ki bod muntazam navazida, goh sust meshavad va goh shiddat meyobad. Odatan. sathi Zamin nohamvor buda, az pastiyu balandikho iborat ast, khavoi harakat kardaistoda (bod) dar nohamvoriho soish mekhurad, dar on shiddatyoby va sustshavii surati bod va oromi ba vujud meoyad.

Bodhoi maqalli. Dar mahalhoi hamvoru kushodi Tojikiston dar fasli zimiston bodhoi shimoli sharqi va tobiston bodhoi janubi garby va garbi beshtar mevazand.

Bod dar marzi Tojikiston bo nomhoi gunogun malum ast. Dar mahalhoi kuhsori jumhuri bodi kuhiyu vodii shabonaruzi  khos ast, ki dar natijai nobarobar garm va khunukshavii kuh va vodi ba vujud meoyad. In bod ruzona az vodi ba tarafi kuh va shabona az kuh ba sui vodi mevazad. Bodi ruzona nisbatan garm buda, bodi shabona mutadil, bazan salqin meshavad.

Dar qismi janubii Tojikiston bodi garm va khushki ’’afgon” malum ast. In bod az biyobonhoi Turkmaniston vazida, changi bisyor meorad.

YAke az mahalhoi sershamoli Tojikiston dar marzi viloyati Sugd (qismi garbii vodii Fargona) bo nomn “Darvozai Hujand” malum ast. Dar in jo qatorkuhhoi Turkiston janub) va kuhhoi Quramayu Mevagul (az shimol) ba ham khesh nazdik shuda, vodii barash 8-9 km paydo shudaasg. Dar surate ki dar sharqi Qukand (Jumhurii Uzbekiston), dar qismata sharqii dashti Mirzochul havo dim va osore az bod nest yo be surati sust mevazad. hangomi az “Darvoza” guzashtani ob suratash meafzoyad. Gayr az in aksar vaqt dar dashti Mirzochul dar tobiston nisbat ba vodii Fargona fishori havo past ast.

Bodhoi mavsimi (mussonho). Dar natijai farqi fishor| bayni khushki va bahr, ki az nobarobar garm va khunukshaviya onho ba vujud meoyad, bodhoi mavsimi mevazand. Bodhoi mavsimi tobiston az bahru uqyonus ba tarafi khushki va zimiston az khushki ba sui bahru uqyonus mevazand.

Bodhoi mavsimi dar troposfera dar fazoi nihoyat farrokhi sadho va hazorho kilometr, masalan, dar hududi Uqyonusi Orod va Evrosiyo paydo meshavand. Zimiston havoi boloi qismati sharqii materik khele khunuk meshavad, fishor baland megardad havo ba sui uqsnus, yane ba joi bsiggar garmi orom va kamfisho| harakat mekunad. Tobiston bodhoi mavsimi az bahru uqyonus ba khushki mevazand. Binobar in obu havoi abrnok, serboron da| zimiston, obu havoi khushk, beabr dar tobiston beshtar ast (Az kharitai Osiyo mamlakati iqlimi bodhoi mavsimi doshtaro yo ( Onro sharh dihed).

Bodhoi mavsimi ba iqlim tasiri ziyod dorand. Dar ma Rusiya bodhoi mavsimy dar SHarqi Dur mushohida meshavad. Tobiston dar on jo havoi boroni khos ast. Zimistoni khunuk, beabr va khushk meboshad.

Muayyan kardann samt va surati bod. Samt va surati bod tagyiryobanda ast. Az kadom tarafe, ki bod vazad, khamon taraf samti bod hisob meyobad. CHunonchi, agar bod az sharq vazad, bodi sharqi meguyand.

Surati bodro bo asbobi anemometr chen karda, bo metr dar soniya yo ki bo kilometr dar soat ifoda mekunand. Agar surati bod 6 metr/soniya boshad, in chunin mani dorad, surati on dar yak soniya 6 metr budaast. Quvvai bodro bo ball (az faronsavi, manoyash kura ast) ifoda mekunand. CHunonchi arap surati bod 1-1.5 metr dar yak soniya boshad (dudi az dudbaro baromada ba tarafe mayl kunad) – 1 ball. surati bod 2- 3 metr dar soniya boshad (shibir-shibiri bargho shunida shavad) – 2 ball, surati bod 4-5 metr dar soniya boshad (shokhchahoi darakht junbad) 3 ball, bodi mutadili suratash 6-8 metr dar soniya (shokhchahoi darakht junbad va shamol changro barad) – 4 ball, surati bod 9-10 metr dar soniya (tanahoi na on qadar gafsi darakht junbad) boshad – 6 ball, surati bod 13-15 metr dar soniya (shokhhoi gafsi darakht junbad) boshad – 7 ball meguyand va gayra.

Umuman, kuvvai bod bo sistemai 12-balla chen karda meshavad. Dar stansiyakhoi meteorology samt va surati bodro ba vositai bodnamo (flyuger). kura-havopaymo mushohida menamoyand. Bo anemometr surati bodro aniq chen mekunand.

Dar davrahoi pesh, vaqte ki asbob nabud, samt va quvvai bodro bo alomathoi mahalli: az rui khamshavii darakhton, dudi dudbaro, changhoi havo ifoda menamudand.

Dar har mahal bodi hukmron (bodi khudi) hast. Dar borai in bodho az rui jadvale, ki dajarai bodho (khati harakati bod) menomand, khulosa barovardan mumkin ast. Onro in tavr tartib medihand. Hathoi SH-J. G-SH (sharq)-ro boyad kashid. SHartan qabul karda meshavad, ki yagon porai on, masalan. 0,5 sm. ba yak ruz barobar ast. Hisob mekunand, ki dar in moh chand ruz bod az sharq, az shimoli sharq, az garb va hamai digar samtho vazid. Dar khati samthoi dakhldor miqdori ruzhoi bodi in samthoro az markaz chudo karda, nuqta meguzorand. Masalan, bodi shimoli dar davomi chor ruz vazida boshad, on goh dar khati “az shimol” 2 sm (0,5 cm kh 4), arap bodi garby se ruz vazida boshad, dar khati “az garb” 1,5 sm judo karda meshavad. Dar markaz doiracha kashida, miqdori ruzhoi oromii havoro dar on menavisand.

Ahamiyati bod. Havo doimo dar harakat ast. Bodho rutubati bahru uqsnushoro ba dokhili materik meorand. Bodhoi doimy sababgori asosii paydoishi jarayonhoi bahri buda, ba joyivazkunii obi bahru uqyonus musoidat mekunand.

Quvvai bodro inson az zamonkhoi qadim injonib istifoda mebarad.; Odamon sadho sol pesh osiyobi bodi mesokhtand, az kishtihoi bodbondor istifoda mekardand. Dar vaqti khozira ba vositai mutakharrikkhoi bodi baroi makhalkhoi khurdi aholinishin quvvai barq hosil mekunand.

Bod sababgori badbakhtiho niz shuda metavonad: tufonho  dar khushki kharobihoi ziyod meorand; hangomi tufon dar bahru uqyonusho kishtiho garq meshavand, obkhezihoi kalontarii, ki onhoro omadani obi bahr bois shudaast, nohiyahoi nazdi sohilro kharob mekunand.

Dar sharoiti Tojikiston jihathoi manfii bod chuninand: kamshavii nami zaminhoi kisht, bodlesii khok, regkuchi va dar» havo ziyod shudani chang.

Savol va suporshi

  1. Bod chist? Sababi asosii paydoishi on chist?
  2. Kadom bodhoi mahaliro medoned va mahalhoi onhoro az khar Tojikiston nishon dihed. Bigued, ki kadome az bodho dar hama mahalhoi kuhsor mevazad va sababi paydoishi on chist?
  3. Naqshai paydoishi nasimi shabonaro dar sohili daryo kashed.
  4. Dar kadom mavrid bod sakht mevazad: a) fishor dar khushki 758 mm, dar bahr 670 mm, b) fishor dar khushki 750 mm, dar kul 755 mm. Dar mavridi yakum va duyum bod chi khel mevazad?
  5. Muvofiqi mushohidahoyaton khati harakati bod (shachara)-ro baroi yake az mohho tartib dihed. Dar in moh kadom bod beshtar mevazad?
  6. Dar misoli mahalaton dar borai ahamiyat va jihathoi manfii bod naql kuned.
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