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Binokori va memori dar asri XVI

Dar sanati memorii nimai avvali asri XVI ananahoi ahdi Temuri idoma dosht. Dar in asr binokori khele avj girift. Dar shahrhoi Bukhoro, Samarqand, Hujand, Hisor, Uroteppa va digarho bozorho, hammomkho, tijoratkhonahoi bohashamat, madrasaho, masjid sokhta shudand. Baroi rivoji savdoi khoriji dar rohhoi korvongard kuprukho, sardobaho (havzhoi ob), korvonsaroyho bino yoftand.

Bukhoro, ki poytakhti davlat bud, beshtar obod gasht. Devori navi shahr bino yoft. Namunai sanati zeboi memorii asri XVI dar in shahr Masjidi Kalon, Madrasai Miri arab, Masjidi Baland, Masjidi Hoja Zayniddin, Qush-madrasa, madrasai Modari khon, Madrasai Abdullokhon, dar Uroteppa madrasai Abdulatif Sulgin (Kukgumbaz, maqbarai Bobo) tago va Sari-Mazor budand. Vodii Hisor niz az yodgorihoi memori boy ast. Hisor dar asrhoi XV-XVI ba avji ravnaqi khud rasida bud. Dar in davra hududi on vase buda, janubi Tojikistoni hozira, janubi Uzbekiston, viloyathoi shimolii Afgoniston (Balkh, SHibirgon, Qunduz) va Badakhshonro dar bar megirift. Imorathoi Qalai Hisor az qabili Madrasai Kuhna, mazori Makhdumi Azam namunai sanati balandi memorii Hisori onvaqta meboshand.

Namunai binohoi zeboi asri XVI dar dehahoi CHipari va Laylauyai nohiyai Qubodiyon boqi mondaand.

Mazori Makhdudi Azam dar Hisor /soli 1547/.
Mazori Makhdudi Azam dar Hisor /soli 1547/.

SHahrho az hisobi binohoi gunogun obod meshudand. Dar chorrohi baze khiyobonho binoi chorsu bardoshta ba tuli khiyobon tokho va korvonsaroyho bino yofta bud. Namunai in binoho dar Bukhoro toki Sarrofon, toki Telpakfurushon va toki Zargaron meboshad.

Aksar vaqt bozorhoi shahr pur az savdogaron budand. Dar beruni shahr niz chorboghoi pur az mevavu angur, darakhtoni sarsabz az dur namuddor budand. Dar chorboghoi buzurg baroi shoh qasru devonho sokhta budand. Hushnamudii binohoi zeboro juyhoi obi ravon va favvoraho zeb medod.

Dar sohai kandakorii rui sang va chub komyobihoi ustodoni asri XVI nazarras bud. Sanghoi rui qabr bo katiba va naqshu nigor oroish yofta, gushahoi onro ba shakli sutuncha zeb medodand. Baze sanghoi rui qabr ba khud shakli khurdi maqbarai shibbadorro giriftaast. Umuman, sanati hajjori va katibakani ba darajai olii khud rasida bud.

Behtarin namunahoi kandakorii rui chub hakkokii saqfi binoho, daru darichaho, sutuni ayvonkhonaho, panjarahoi tobdonho va madrasavu masjid, khonahovu maqbaraho meboshand.

Binohoi bohashamat bo khathoi binoi va koshinkori zebu zinnat doda meshudand. Zebotarin koshinro dar osori shahrhoi Bukhorovu Samarqand metavon yoft. Penpoqhoi zebo, koshinkorihoi khushnaqshunigor va khushoburang namunai hunari ustohoi guldasti asrhoi mukhtalif meboshand.

Gajkori. Az Qummazori nohiyai Qubodiyon /asrhoi X1V-XVI/.
Gajkori. Az Qummazori nohiyai Qubodiyon /asrhoi X1V-XVI/.

Sultonho va mardoni bomarifat sohibi kitobkhonaho budand. Ki tobkhonaho dar on vaqtho vazifai korgohi kitobat va oroishi dastnavis khoro niz doshtand. Dar asri XVI oroishi badeii kitobhoi dastnavis darajai baland rasida bud. Dar Osiyoi Miyona khushnavisoni zabardast hayot ba cap meburdand. YAke az ustodoni khat Miralii Hiravi bud, ki baroi takomuli khati nastaliq kushishi ziyode ba kharj dod.

Mahsuli khushnavisonu minyotursozoni boistedod shuhrati jakhoni yoftand. Minyoturho bo mazmuni har fasl va voqeahoi muayyani tarikhi muvofiqat dorand. Dar onho simoi yak qator shakhsoni tarikhi kham tasvir yoftaast. Ustodoni mashhuri minyotur Muhammadmurodi Samarqandi, Mahmudi Mazahhib, Usto Abdullo va digaron budand. Dar asri XVI musavvironi zabardast ba poyahoi balandi inkishofi khud rasidaand.

Dar in asr hofizonu navozandagoni nomi hayot ba cap meburdand. Mashhurtarini onho dar Samarqand Sulton Muhammadi noy, dar darbori Abdullokhon (dar Bukhoro) — Hofiz Alimast budaast. Hofizoni khushilhom, sozandaho va khonandaho dar huzuri hokimi Samarqand Fulod Sulton, Qosim Ruhdam, Hofiz SHagol va Ilyosi Noy, ki har yak nodiri asru zamoni khud budand, hayot ba cap meburdand.

Onho az asbobhoi gunoguni musiqi mohirona istifoda meburdand (doira, dumbra, dutor, tanbur, gijak, surnay, nay, karnay va hokazo).

Hofizoni nomburda, chi dar Samarqand, chi dar Bukhoro va joyhoi digar ustodoni sanati olii “SHashmaqom” buda, dar bayni mardum obruyu etibori buzurg doshtand.

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