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BORISHOTI ATMOSFERI

Namudhoi borishot. Obero, ki az havo dar holati moe va yo sakht ba sathi Zamin merezad, borishoti atmosferi menomand.

Borishot asosan az abr dar shakli qatrahoi boron, rofibarf, kola merezad. SHabnam, qirav, yakhcha barin borishoti, atmosferi dar sathi khunukshudai Zamin, binoho, nabotot mushohida meshavand.

Baroi ba vujud omadani borishot lozim ast, ki havo az bukhori ob ser gardad va zarraho ba ham payvasta kalon shavand. In payvastshavi to dame davom mekunad, kn harakati amudin havo digar onhoro nigoh doshta nametavonad. Agar porahoi abr ba ham barkhurda, yakchoya, kalon va vaznin shavand, boron meborad. Donai qatrahoi boron az 0.1 to 5-7 mm ast .

boron

Agar harorati abr az 0°S past boshad, dar on kristallchahoi yakh paydo shuda, barf meborad. SHakl va andozai qarrahoi barf gunogun ast. To ba sathi Zamin rasidani qatrai boron va zarrahoi yakh barf borho dar abr poyonu bolo meshavad. Dar kuhhoi balandi Tojikiston tobiston ham harorat past ast. az khamin sabab barf meborad.

Ba vujud omadani jola ba quvvai harakati amudii havo vobastagi dorad. Quvvai harakati amudii havo har qadar zur boshad, donahoi jola hamon qadar kalon meshavand. YAkhmaydae, ki az qabatkhon boloi ba tabaqai poyonii abr harakat mekunad, dar roh qatrahoi bukhori obro ba khud hamroh girifta meoyad va ba harakagi amudii havo duchor shuda, takhti tasiri on boz ba bolo bardoshta meshavad. Az sababi on ki harorat dar qabati boloii abr past ast, qatrahoi bardoshtashudai ob yakh mekunand. CHunin boloraviyu poyonfaroii zarraho chandin marotiba takror yofta, hajmi jola kalon meshavad va bar asari davr zadan SHakli lundaro megirad, harakati amudii havo digar onhoro nigoh doshta nametavonad va dar natija jola meborad Bazan kutri donai jola ba yakchand santimetr merasad. Jola ba khojagi zarari kalon merasonad: kishtzor, bogotro kharob karda, chorvoi maydaro ba halokat rasondanash mumkin ast.

Agar abr az qatrahoi khurdtariii ob s kristallchakhoi yakhi «andozaash az 0,05 mm khurd iborat boshad, on goh borish  nameshavad. SHoyad mushhida karda boshed, ki baze namud» borishoti atmosferi be abr ham hosil meshavad. Havoi az sathi Zamin nazdik ba jinshoi khunukshuda (nabotot, sangu khok) rasida khunuk meshavad va az khud nami judo mekunad. Onrro shabnam menomand.

CHen kardani borishot. Dar stansiyahoi meteorologi miqidori borishotro bo borishsanj chen mekunand. On silindr metalliest, ki dar dokhilash silindri digari qufmonandi maydasurokhro kafsher kardaand. Borishsanjro dar sutun tavre meguzorand, ki kanori on az sathi Zamin 2 metr baland boshad! Baroi on, ki bod qatrahoi boronro har taraf nabarad, girdi silindrro makhsus az bod himoya mekunand. Obi borishsanjro odatan. dar yak shabonaruz du marotiba megirand: soati 7 va 19. Obi dar borishsanj gunshudaro ba stakaJugrofiya, ni chenakdor merezand Dar devori on taqsimot hast va az rui on balandii qabati borishozro dar 1 sm m.Jugrofiya, ba hisobi millimetr muayyan mekunand. Agar barf borad, on goh borishsanjro bo barfash ba khona» garm medarorand. Barf, ki ob shud, obro ba stakaii chenakdor merezand.

Miqdori borishi shabonaruziro bo hosili chami malumoti du chenkuni hisob mekunand. Masalan, dar soati 7 2 mm, dar soati 19 5 mm, jam – 7 mm. In adad chi qadar budani qabati obi ba sathi Zamin rekhtaro nishon medihad, ba sharte, ki ob narezad, bukhor nashavad, ba zamin naravad.

Miqdori borishoti mohonaro bo jam kardani miqdori borishoti tamomi ruzhoi moh muayyan mekunaid. Jami natijahoi chenkuni dar hamai mohhoi sol miqdori solona borishro medihad. Inchunin miqdori miyonai borishotro dar yakchand sol hisob menamoyand. Masalan, miqdori miyonai borishoti bisyorsola dar biyobonhoi Osiyoi Miyona 100 mm. dar  shahri Dushanbe 650 mm, Hojaobigarm – 1428 mm va Murgob – 71 mm ast. Miqdori znyodtarini miyonai borishi bisyorsola dar
rui Zamin dar jazirai Gavay mushohida shudaast – 14400 mm, dar CHerrapunja (Hinduston) beishtar az 12000 mm meboshad.

CHen kardani miqdori borish baroi faoliyati khojagii inson nihoyat muhim ast. Masalan, yak boroni sust 1-2 mm borish medihad. Vale baroi kishtzor hamin miqdori nami niz ahamiyati kalon dorad: dar chunin boron 1 ga zamin to 900 satil ob msgirad. Hangomi selboroni sakht 20-30 mm va az in ham ziyod borishot boridanash mumkin ast.

Dar kukhhoi balandi Tojikistoi qabati gafsi barf gun meshavad. Donistani zakhirahoi obi on, makhsusan baroi sanoatu sohai kishovarzi nihoyat muhim ast. Daryohoi Osiyoi Miyona, az jumla Tojikiston obi khudro asosan az barf megirand. Binobar np donistan va peshguy kardani obkhezii daryoho dar bahoru tobisgon, muanyan namudani Solhoi kamobi zarur ast.

Az in ru meteorologho dar okhiri khar dakhruzakhoi mohhoi zimiston dar choyhoi kushod, dar domani kuhho va dar kuhhoi baland dar mavsimhoi sol maydonkhoi barfro chen mekunand. Barobari on holati qabati barfro (zich yo kovok) muayyan menamoyand. Baroi muayyan kardani balandii qabati barf jadvali doimi va yo safarii barfchenkuniro istifoda mebarand. On az chubi ba santimetrkho taqsimshuda iborat ast. Jadvalro amudi meguzorand. Az sathi Zamin (az 0) to sathi barf hisob mekunand. Bo asbobi makhsus zakhirai obi qabati barf hisob karda meshavad.

Miqdori borishot ba chi vobasta ast? Miqdori borishoti atmosferi va taqsimoti on dar mavsimhoi sol dar mahalhoi mukhtalifi kurai Zamin yak khel nest. In, pesh az hama, ba iqli mavqei geografii mahal nisbat ba bahru uqyonus, ba bodho asosii on va relef vobasta meboshad.

Masalan, marzi Tojikiston az bahru uqyonus dur voqe gardidaast. biiobar in borish kam meshavad. Bo tasiri bodhoi nam miqdori solonai borishot dar nishebihoi janubn garbii qatorkuhi Hisor az 1000 mm ziyod ast (Oyo shumr mushohida kardaed, ki dar kadom nishebihon kuhhoi atrof – shimoly yo chanubi beshtar borish meshavad va alafho zichtarand?).

Borishot az hama ziyod dar mintaqai tropiky (ziyoda az 6000 mm dar yak sol) va az hama kam dar biyobonho  (150-100 mm) meborad. Dar sohili Bahri Siyohi Qafqoz, dar nohiyai shahri Batumi sole 2600 mm boron meborad.

Tasiri relefro dar on pay burdan mumkin ast, ki dar kuhhoi Pomiri Garbi miqdori borishot beshtar az 250 mm. dar pasi in kuhhoi baland, dar Pomiri SHarqi, ki “Bomi Jahon ham menomand, 70-75 mm ast.

Savol va suporish

  1. Borishoti atmosfery gufta chiro mefahmed?
  2. Baroi hosil shudani borishot kadom sharoit muhimand? Oyo onhoro dar asosi mushohidai muhiti atrof naql karda metavoned?
  3. Baroi chi na hamesha borishot az obu havoi abrnok hosil meshavad?
  4. Miqdori borishotro dar shabonaruz, dar yak moh, dar yak sol chi tavr muayyan, mekunand? Miqdori miyonai borishoti bisyorsolaro chi tavr hisob mekunand?
  5. Az rui daftari havosanji hisob kuned, ki dar davomi moh chand ruzi boroni bud. Dar in ruzho bod az kadom samt mevazid?
  6. Dar mahali shumo ba faslhoi zimiston, bahor, tobiston va tiramokh kadom navhoi abr khosand?
  7. Abr va borishoti atmosferi dar gardishi buzurgi ob dar tabiat chi mavqe dorand?
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