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RAVIYA VA FIRQAHO DAR ISLOM

Bad az pahnshavii islom dar kishvarhoi digar va barkhurdi on bo tamaddunhoi mukhtalif, tagyiroti muayayne dar olami islom ba vujud omad. SHaroiti zist, hayoti iqtisodiyu siyosii mardume, ki ba islom garavida budand, az hamdigar farq doshtand. Masalan, Eronu Osiyoi Miyona kishvarhoe budand, ki bo darajai inkishofi iqtisodii khud az vodi bodiyanishinoni arab ba kulli tafovut doshtand. Mardumi in jo hayoti muqimi ba Sar meburdand, kishovarzii peshrafta, sistemai obyorii khele taraqikarda, shahru tamadduni shahri, sanoati hunarmandi, tijorati khele inkishofyoftaro doro budand. Ilova bar in dar davrai avvali asli islom dar mintaqai pahnshudai islom ilmu tamadduni digar khalqho, az jumla ilmu falsafai YUnon, Hind khele nufuzi ziyod dosht.

mazhab

Dar asrhoi 7 – 8 gunogunfahmi dar bayni musulmonon paydo shud, az jumla dar masalai gunohhoi kabira va sagira /kalonu mayda/. Bazeho aqida doshtand, ki kase gunohi azim sodir mekunad, az islom khorij meshavad va az jumlai rastagoron nameboshad, Digaron meguftand, ki musulmononi gunohi azim sodirkarda, agar ba Alloh va hamai on chize, ki dar Quron hast, imon doshta boshand, baroi gunohhoyashon dar okhirat jazo mebinand, vale az ahli musulmon va az jumlai rastagoron khohad bud. Tarafi aqidai avval asosan khorijiyon va tarafi aqidai badi murjiiyon budand. Mavqei mobayniro dar bayni in du aqida mutazilayon bayon doshtand va ba aqidai onho chunin guruhi oda-mon mavqei bayni musulmonu kofirro ishgol mekunand /al -manzila bayna – l – manzilatayn /. Mutaziliyon inchunin doir ba digar masalahoi fiqhi mavqei khudro doshtand, az jumla masalahoi sifati Alloh, ofarida shudani Quron va gayra.

Mutaziliho dar mavridi sarnavishti inson aqida doshtand, ki inson sohibi ikhtiyor va dar kirdoru amolash ozod ast. U mutobiqi aql, imonu andeshai khud raftor mekunad va baroi gunohho, kirdori nodurustash dar okhirat javob meguyad. Aqidai mazkurro bisyore az musulmonon dastgiri mekardand va onhoro dar majmu qadariho yo ahli qadariya meguftand, baraks tarafdoron aqidai sarnavishtro jabariya menomidand, Onho takid mekardand, ki hama amoli inson peshaki muayyan shudaast va inson dar raftoru kirdori khud ozod nest. Ashariya /yane tarafdoroni imom Ashari/ mavqei mobayniro ishgol mekardand.

Ba qavli onho sarnavishti insonro Alloh peshaki muayyan kardaast, vale inson imkoniyati istifodai onro doshta, dar sarnavishtash sharik megardad.

Dar asri avvali tashakkulyobiash islom ba du raviyai kalon shud: sunni va shia/ahlu – s – sunna va – l – jamoa; va – sh – shia/. Nomi har kadomashon az rui mavqeashon muayyan shudaast, ahlu – s -sunni va – l – jamoa, yane payravoni sunnat va jamoat, shia – yane payravoni hazrati Ali/r/, shiat-u- Ali. Hanuz dar nimai asri VII dar islom du raviya ba vujud meoyad, ki nomhoi sunniyu shiaro ba khud megirand. Paydoishi onho ba masalai hokimiyat aloqamand bud. Badi vafoti hazrati Muhammad /s/ sari masalai ki boyad khalifa /jonishin/ – i hazrati Muhammad /s/ musulmonon boshad, tafriqa ba vujud omad.

YAk guruh aqida dosht, ki khalifa metavonad, har musulmon, dar ayni zamon az yoronu hamsafoni paygambar, intikhob shavad, digarho talab mekardand, ki chunin shakhs tanho az avlodi paygambar, yane Ali /r/ boyad boshad. Tarafdoroni aqidai avval aksariyat budand va fikri onho dar amal tatbiq gardid. Halifai avval hazrati Abubakri Siddiq /r/ intikhob shud va badi vafoti u hazrati Umar/r/, bad hazrati Usmon /r/ va sipas hazrati Ali /r/. Bo vujudi in dar bayni tarafdoroni har du aqida muboriza qat nashud. Dar in muboriza hazrati Usmon /r/ va hazrati Ali /r/ kushta shudand. Tarafdoroni hazrati Ali /r/ va asli vorisiyat /ahli bayt/-ro shia / shiatu Ali-hizbi hazrati Ali/ meguftand.

Dar barobari in raviya guruhe az ahli shia judo shud, ki nomi khorijihoro giriftand va firqai khorijiyon paydo shud. Az jarayoni shia yak guruh dar asri VIII, ki khudro tarafdoroni imom Ismoil medonistand, judo shudand. Onho Ismoil farzandi kalonii imom Jafari Sodiqro imomi khud shumurda, baraksi shiahoi duvozdahimoma,ki davomi imomatro ba Muso Kozim – farzandi

digari Jafari Sodiq va farzandoni u nisbat dodand, khudro ismoili nomidand. Batar dar bayni onho niz judoi ba amal omad. Guruhe,ki imomi haftumro okhirin shumorida, bozgashti uro ba sifati al – Qoim intizor shudand, nomi haftimomaro giriftand, digar guruh davomi imomatro ba farzandoni Muhammad / farzandi Ismoil/,ki dar digar kishvarho panoh burda budand, nisbat doda, onhoro imomoni «makhfi» guftand va az nomashon mardumro ba tariqi Ismoiliya davat namudand. Ismoiliyaho khususan dar Huroson va Movarounnahr tarafdoroni ziyod paydo namudand.

Davrai to ba sari qudrat omadani Fotimaho dar Afriqoi SHimoli davrai pushida-as-satr nom dorad. Ismoiliho dar baze kishvarho, az jumla Osiyoi Miyona, bo nomi qarmatiho va botiniho maruf gardidaand. To okhiri asri X ismoiliho Magrib, Misr, Suriya, Falastin, Hijozro ba itoati khud darovardand. Minbad ismoiliho ba du guruh – nizoriho va mustaliho judo shudand. Nizoriho dar korhoi khilofat beshtar mavqe paydo kardand. Dar asri XI nizoriho davlati khud bo nomi davlati Alamutro tashkil dodand, ki to asri XIII vujud dosht. Tashkilkunandai on Hasani Sabboh bud. Badi shikasti davlati

Alamut ismoiliho ba Hinduston va digar joyho murojiat namudand. Az nimai avvali asri XIX sar karda, peshvoi ismoilihoi Hinduston nomi Ogokhonro ba khud girift, ki in silsila to imruz davom dorad. Imomi hoziri ismoilon SHoh Karim al-Husayni Ogokhoni IV soli 1957 ba in masnad nishast. Qarorgohi u dar Keniya ast. Tarafdoronash dar beshtar az 20 kishvar sukunat dorand. Ismoiliho ba juz Quron va tavili khosi on kitobhoi digar dorand, ki az mujizoti pirho va saguzashti onho hikoyat mekunand. Aksari mardumi viloyati Badakhshon az payravoni tarqai ismoiliya meboshand. Onho tashkiloti khud va ibodatgohhoi /takyakhonahoi/ Ogokhoni IV shakhsi bomarifat, siyosatmadori varzida buda, jamei

ismoiliyonro ba khubi rohbari mekunad va nufuzu obrui ziyode dar jahon dorad.

Raviyai digari ismoiliho – mustaliho dar YAman, Hinduston, Pokiston, Eron, Tanzaniya va gayra kishvarho pahn shudaast. Imomoni Ismoili doroi darajahoi gunogun buda, fidoiyoni ismoiliya hisob meshavand. Dar mahalho, az jumla dar Badakhshon khalifahoi ismoili ba kori dini rohbari mekunand.

Tasannun raviyai asosi va kalontarini islom ast va ba Quroni karim, guftor va raftori paygambar hazrati Muhammad /s/ (yane sunnat) etiqodmandand. Az in jo farmudahoi hazrati Paygambar, ki dar hadisho gird omadand, asosi payravii in guruhi musulmonon qaror dorad. Hadishoi rasululloh dar majmuahoi gunogun gird omadaand.

Boetimodtarini onho «al – jomeu – s – saheh» -i al -Bukhori meboshad. Tafsiri durusti Quroni karim va hadishoi nabavi, talabothoyu hukmhoi dini ba vositai qiyosu ijmo-yane hukmi guruhe az ulamoi bonufuz amali megardad. Ahli sunnat doroi chahor mazhab /maktabi fiqhi meboshad:

khanafi, moliki, shofei, hanbali/ va hamai in chahor mazhabro ahli tasanun durust meshumorand. Ahli sunnat taqriban 90%-i musulmononidunyoro tashkil dodaandva dar bayni onho hanafiho, yane payravoni maktabi fikhi Abu Hanifa /r.a./ az digaron beshtarand. Farqiyati bayni mazhabhoi islom beshtar dar mavridi istifodai usuli asosnokkunii in va yo on masalai fiqhi /huquqi/ mushohida megardad. Ba darajai hassosiyati khud nisbat ba raftoru kirdori musulmonon niz onho farq dorand. Ba sakhtgirii khud, mazhabi hanbaliya az shofeiya yak andoza farq mekunad. Mazhabhoi mazkur dar tuli asrho inkishof yofta, farqiyati tozaro ba vujud ovardaand, az jumla vahhobiya, ki dar zaminai hanbaliya ba vujud omadaast, dar okhiri asri XVIII dar Arabiston paydo shudaast. Asosguzorash Ibni Abdulvaahhob bud. Asosi talimoti u tavhid ba hisob meraft. Ba qavli u azbaski Alloh yagona manbai ofarinish, ofaridgor ast, boyad faqat u mavridi toatu ibodat va parastish qaror girad. In aqida az tarafi hej yak musulmon rad karda nameshavad, vale Abdulvahhob onro bar ziddi odatu rusumi dar bayni mardum mamul istifoda mekard, digar chizhoi muqaddasro rad kardani meshud. Ba gufti u musulmonon az vahdati kholis dur rafta ba digar chizho, az jumla mazorho ibodat mekunand, har gunna navovariho dokhil menamoyand, islomi asil, pokro faromush mekunand.

 U ba jihod etibori makhsus doda, muborizaro ziddi onhoe, ki ba shirk /butparasti/ roh medihand, zarur medonist. Vale mutaasifona, ba ifrot dar etiqod ba mazhabi hanbaliya roh doda, aksari payravoni gayri in mazhabro, az jumla aksari payravoni mazhabhoi digari ahli sunnat va jamoaro ba mushriki gunahgor donista, jihodro ziddi onho niz ravo medonist. Aqidai abdulvahhob az tarafi guruhi ifrotgaron istifoda shuda, ba judoii musulmonon ovard.

Oshtinopazirii vahhobiyon imruz az tarafi aksari payravoni on dastgiri nameshavad. Aksari onho payravoni vahhobiyai «mutadil» hastand, ki ittihodu yagonagii musulmononro avlotar meshumorand.

Taassub va ifrotgaroiro baze guruhho va sozmonho bo maqsadi siyosi istifoda mekunand, onhoe, ki mekhohand qudrati siyosi ba dast ovarand, dar muborizai siyosiashon talimoti vahhobiyaro istifoda burdani meshavand. Vahhobiya dar in mavrid andeshai bisyor tashkilotu sozmonhoi ifrotgaroi gardidaast. Mukholifati ahli sunnat va-l-jamoa va vahhobiyai ifroti khele ziyod ast. Asosi ikhtilofi onhoro masalahoi fiqhi, nobovarii vahhobiyon ba sunnati dar bayni sunniho mamul tashkil medihad. Vahhobiyai rasmi va mutadil az ifrotiyoni in mazhab farq mekunand. Ifrotiyon ba onho niz ikhtilof dorand. Dar bayni sunniyon va vahhobiyoni gayriafroti ikhtilof chandon ziyod nest.

Hamkori dar bayni onho asosi munosibat ba yakdigar hisob meshavad. Imruz raviyai sunni dar bisyor kishvarhoi Osiyo, Afriqo va Avrupo pahn gashtaast. Az jumla Turkiya, hamai davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona, Afgoniston, Misr, Tunis, Malayziya, Aljazoir, Hinduston, Pokiston, Bangladesh, Indoneziya, Senegal, Makedoniya, Bosniya va Gersegovina va gayra. Mazhabi shia dar Eron, Ozarboyjon, Suriya, Lubnon, qisman Iroq, va kishvarhoi digar pahn gashtaast. Dar yak qismi kishvarhoi islomi har du raviya az jumla Iroq, Lubnon, Suriya va gayra barobar nufuz dorand, dar baze digar faqat yak raviya, az jumla raviyai shia dar Eronu Ozarboyjon nufuzi purra dorad.

Musulmonon beshtar az yak milliardro tashkil doda, dar 120 kishvari olam payravoni islom mavjudand. 90% onro sunniho va boqimondaro shia va firqahoi digar tashkil dodaand. Dar 35 mamlakati dunyo aksari aholi musulmonand. Ba in qator jumhurihoi Osiyoi miyona, Afgoniston, Eron, Turkiya, hamai davlathoi arab, kishvarhoi Afrikai SHimoli, Senegal, Zambiya, Nigeriya, Somali, Indoneziya, Pokiston, Bangladesh dokhil meshavand. Dar kishvarhoi boqimonda musulmonon aqaliyati aholiro tashkil medihand. Dar 28 davlati Osiyoyu Afriko islom dini davlati meboshad. Az inho faqat dar Eron raviyai shia davlati elon shudaast.

Suporish_va savolho.

  1. Mamlakathoi islomiro nombar kuned.
  2. CHaro dar dini Islom jarayonhoi mukhtalif paydo shudand?
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