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AL-QONUN

al-konun«AL-QONUN», «Al-Qonun fi-t-tibb», «Qonuni tib», shohasari tibbii Abuali ibni Sino. Ba zaboni arabi talif shu- daast. «A.-Q.» kulli masalahoi tibro bo asosu dalelho harchoniba inikos me- namoyad. Nizomii Aruzii Samarqandi (a. 12) guftaast: «Har kase ki childi avvali «Al-Qonun»-ro az bar kardaast, baroi u az qavoidi umumiyu asosii tib chize pinhon nakhohad mond. Badi omukhtani «Al-Qonun» mutoliai asarhoi digari tibbi ziyodatist». Ibni Sino hangomi dar Gurgon budanash (s. 1012) ba khohishi yake az dustoni bisyor nazdiki khud ba talifi «A.-Q.» mepardozad va dar on cho kitobi avv. onro ba anchom merasonad. Sipas in korro dar Ray va Hamadon davom doda, taqr. s. 1024 az talifi purrai on forig meshavad. «A.-Q.» az panch kitob iborat buda, har kitob ba fan, fan ba chumla, chumla ba maqola va maqola ba faslho taqsim meshavand.
Kitobi yakum andar umuri kullii pi- zishkist, ki on bakhshi nazariyavii tib, tarifi ilmi tib, mavzuhoi on, tashrehi umumii tan, tarifu tasnifi bemoriho va sababhoi onho, qonunu dasturhoi umumii nigahdorii tandurusti, az qabili usulhoi momoivu parvarishi kudak, varzishi tan va tadbirhoi umumii muolicha (qay, ishol, rag zadan va g.)-ro dar bar megirad. Abualii Sino dar ogozi kitobi yakum dar bayoni ilmi tib navishtaast: «Man tasdiq mekunam: tib ilmest oid ba donistani tani inson dar vazi salomati yo bemori va ba inson bargardondani salomati, ki ru ba zaf ovardaast. Vaqto ki meguyand tib iborat ast az nazariya va amaliya, gu- mon naboyad kard, ki bakhshe az tib diroyat astu bakhshe amal (ki baze muhaqqiqoni in masala chunin mepindorand). Baraks, bidon, ki manoi in digar ast, yane har du bakhshi tib ilm ast, yake ilmi asoshoi tib, digare ilmi tarzi tabobat». Bo in sukhanon Ibni Sino hambastagii nazariya va amaliyai tibro takid kardaast.
Kitobi duvvum ba mavodi dorui bakhshi- da shuda, bo nomi doruhoi soda peshkashi khonanda meshavad. On du bakhshro dar bar megirad. Dar bakhshi yakum nazariyai umumii dorushinosi, qoidavu dasturhoi inikhobi mavodi dorui, chi guna jamovari va zakhira kardani onho ovarda shudaast. Dar bakhshi duvvum besh az 800 namudi mavodi doruii naboti, hayvoni va madani ba tartibi abjad (na alifboi) zikr yoftaast. Ba tartibi abjad ovardani mavodi dorui ehtimol dar on zamon khele mamul va hatto munosib ham budaast, zero in mavodi dorui dar sarchashmahoi yunoni niz ba hamin tartib omadaand va tarti- bi abjad az in jihat to andozae mutobiqi alifboi yunonist.
Kitobi sevvum andar bayoni bemorihoi juziest, ki dar har yak andomu sistemai idorakunanda yo fiziologii inson ruy medihand. In kitob az buzurgtarin bakhshi «A.-Q.» buda, taqriban nimi hajmi umumii onro tashkil medihad va tamomi bemorihoi juzii inson va rohi muolijai onhoro dar bar megirad. Dar on nakhust tahlili mufas- sali faoliyatu mohiyat va sokhti har yak andom, sipas anvoi gunoguni bemorihoi on va bad az on rohhoi muolija, parhez, darmon va doruhoi khosi on, inchunin tarzi istifodai onho ovarda meshavad.
Kitobi chahorum andar bayoni tabho, bemorihoi siroyati, jarrohi, omosho, zahroludi, bemorihoe, ki agar ruy dihand, khosi yagon andom nestand va niz andar bayoni orostagi meboshad. Dar in kitob tamomi bemoriho, illatho va osebhoe, ki ba tamomi tan dakhl dorand va rohhoi muolijai onho bayon yoftaast, az qabili tabho, omoshovu tabishho (jushishho), osebhoi tasodufie, ki mujibi baromada- ni andomho, shikastani ustukhonho va ruy dodani jarohatho megardand, zahrolud shudani jism az zahrhoi hayvoni, naboti va madani. Dar okhir dar bakhshi oroish (kosmetika) bemorihovu osebhoi jismie bayon yoftaand, ki agarchi chandon purzahmat nestand, vale husni zohirii tanro khalaldor menamoyand. Dar in bakhsh hamchunin rohi muolija va chi guna bartaraf kardani onho nishon doda shudaast.
Kitobi panjum andar bayoni doruhoi murakkab ast. Odatan, in bakhshi tibro «Qarobodin» menomand va binobar on in kitob bo nomi «Qarobodini Al-Qonun» niz maruf ast. Kitobi panjum asosan az se qism iborat meboshad. Dar qismi yakum nazariyai umumii doruhoi murakkab, dar qismi duvvum doruhoi murakkab az rui taqsimoti navi va dar qismi sevvum doruhoi murakkabi sanchidashuda az rui taqsimoti khosiyati khosi shifoi va farmakologii onho, yane ba hasbi har yak andomi tan va bemorihoi onho ovarda shudaand.
Dar hama faslu bobhoi «A.-Q.» fikru mulohiza, korkardu ikhtiroot, tadbiru tavsiyahoi toza choy dorand, ki bisyore az onho echodi khudi muallif buda, imruz mohiyati amaliashonro gum nakardaand. Ibni Sino yak fasli buzurgi «A.-Q.»-ro ba ilmi amrozi botin (terapiya) bakhshidaast. U faroyandi bemorihoro ba chor marhala – ogoz, afzoish, ba goyat rasidan va pastravi chudo karda, doir ba har yaki onho malumoti muchaz medihad: «Ogoz zamonest, ki andar on bemori zohir gar- dad va holathoyash yakson buda, afzudani vay oshkor nabuvad. Afzoish on zamonest, ki andar on hangom shiddatyobii bemori dida shavad. Marhilai ba goyat rasidan za- monest, ki andar on bemori andar hamai bakhshhoi khud ba holati yagona boshad. Pastravi zamonest, ki andar on hangom kamshavi padid oyad va ruz ba ruz in kamshavi zohirtar bigardad». Dar bobati muolichai bemoriho davohoi gunoguni sodayu murakkab, doruhoi naboti, hayvoni va madani tavsiya shudaand.
Dar «A.-Q.» bori avval dar borai si- royat kardani baze bemoriho ishora raf- taast. Osebshinosi dar «A.-Q.» nisbatan mufassal sharh yoftaand. Abualii Sino zeri mafhumi «baromadagi» purra az choygohi khesh berun shudani ustukhonro dar nazar dorad. Ba aqidai u ustukhoni purra nabaromadaro «lagjidani payvandgoh» meguyand, ki onro az tariqi dastmol metavon tashkhis kard. SHikastagii ustukhon va tarzi tashkhisi onro Ibni Sino chunin sharh medihad: «Agar andomi shikasta ba sui berun mayl kunad, ba guftai Buqrot beh az on ast, ki ba sui andarun mayl karda boshad… Mahali shikastaro andar kasoni kalonsol bo yorii dard… va bo dast-dast kardan muayyan kunand, vale andar kudakoni khurdsol az tariqi dard, omos va surkhie binamoyand, ki aksar vaqt andar eshon oriz bigardad». Dar tibbi muosir isbot shudaast, ki sababi bisyor orizahoi latkhuri, shikastan yo baromadagii uzv nodurust guzoshtani bandina ast. Dar «A.-Q.» dar borai in mavzu fikrhoe choy dorand, ki imruz az nigohi mutakhassison bilkul durustand: «Bisyor boshad, ki az sakht bastan, der kushodan va ba on kam nigohubin kardan andom bimirad, gan- dida gardad va ba buridan ehtiyoch paydo kunad…» Dar «A.-Q.» shash tarzi cho ba cho kardani baromadagii ustukhoni bozu va se usuli baromadagii sutunmuhra va dumgoza qayd shudaast. CHunonchi, dar bayoni shikastagii bozu Abualii Sino meguyad: «Agar baroi khub choygir kardan (ustukhoni shikasta) ba kashidani sakht ehtiyoch boshad… bemorro ba kursii balande binishon, ki az nishasta dida ba rost istodan nazdik boshad, boyad zeri bagalashro bar pallai nardbon va yagon chizi bad-in monand. choygir kunand va boyad in mahalro peshaki hamvor sokhta, barohatu narm gardonda bo- shand. Sipas, boyad yagon chizi garonero bar orinchi u biovezand… Har goh (ustukhon) ba andozai dilkhoh kashida shavad, on goh vayro rost kunand».

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Ibni Sino khususan ba qoidahoi bezarargardoni (aseptika va antiseptika) etibori jiddi dodaast: «Boyad porai bandina pokiza boshad, zero porai chirkin sakht buda, dard biangezad, boyad tunuk bo- shad, to agar chize bar vay tilo kunand, az on biguzarad va boyad sabuk boshad, to bar andomi dardmand garoni naovarad».
Dar «A.-Q.» ba masalahoi piri va bemorihoi pirsoli, ki aknun mavzui ilmi gerontologiya meboshand, tavajjuhi ziyod zohir shudaast. Az nigohi Abualii Sino pirsolon ba munosibat, tagziya va tabobati makhsus ehtiyoj dorand: «Gizoi pirro boyad ba bakhshhoi kam-kam judo namud va onro ba hasbi quvvai guvorish va notavonii on du yo se bor dod… Pironro bo ravgan, khususan bo ravgani zaytuni khush huqnarezi kardan sudmand ast». Imruz dar dunyo sadho muassisahoi ilmi vujud dorand, ki mavzui tadqiqoti onhoro mahz gerontologiya tashkil medihad. Az in lihoz «A.-Q.»- ro metavon avvalin sarchashmai malumot oid ba gerontologiya hisobid.
Dar «A.-Q.» masoili ravonpizishki (psikhiatriya) va bemorihoi ruhi ba fao- liyat va nojurihoi magzi sar vobasta kar- da shudaand. Ibni Sino ba in mavzu dakhl namuda, bayni ikhtiloli idrok va ikhtilo- li tafakkur tafovut meguzorad. Ba aqidai u agar dar baze holatho dar sar paydo shudani sadohoi gunogun (mas., sadoi ob, naqora, vazishi shamol va g.) alomati nojurii ruhi boshad, pas dar mavridhoi digar nishonahoi on ehsosi buyhoi nokhush va sharorahoi peshi chashm mahsub meshavand, ki onho dar asl vujud nadorand. Ashkhosi giriftori bemorihoi ruhi dar qaydi dunyoi digar meboshand, onho chizi nabudaro vujuddoshta va vujuddoshtaro vujud nadoshta mepindorand.
Bo chunin mushohidahoi khesh Ibni Sino dar «A.-Q.» ba taraqqii talimot oid ba tavahummot va hazyon zaminai ilmi guzoshtaast. Tafovuti pareshonii zehn va guliyu hamoqatro Abualii Sino dar nuqsi magzi sar mebinad: «Farq miyoni pareshonii zehn va guliyu hamoqat andar on ast, ki harchand in har du osebi aqli buda, sababi har duro baamalovaranda mumkin ast an- dar shikami miyongini magz joy doshta bo- shad, vale pareshonii zehn ba hasbi tagyir osebi felhoi fikrist va guliyu hamoqat osebhoe ba hasbi kohish va yo bekorshavi buda, holatest, ki shabeh ba holati piriyu kudaki buvad».
Doir ba bemorihoi ruhi malumot doda, Ibni Sino dar «A.-Q.» roje ba molikhu- liyo (melankholiya) niz tavaqquf kardaast. U nishonahoi holati ruhii mazkurro dar tarsi besabab, tundmizoji, gushanishini, giryonzadagi, paridani andomho, bong za- dani gush, gamginiyu badgumoni, vahshat, harfhoi behuda va g. mebinad: «Agar savdoi baamalovardai molikhuliyo khuni boshad, (bemori) bo shodiyu khanda zohir gardad va anduhi sakht uro hamroh naboshad, agar (savdo) bo balgam padid omada boshad, (bemori) bo behavsalagi, kamharakati va oromi zohir shavad, agar (savdo) az safro padid omada boshad, (bemori) bo iztirob va andake junun ba amal oyad va misli moniyo boshad, agar savdo savdoi kholis boshad, hangomi in (bemori) andesha beshtaru dushmani kamtar buvad, vale agar (bemorro) bijunbonand, ba shur omada, chunon kina girad, ki digar faromush nakunad…»
Abualii Sino tabiati siroyati doshtani bisyor bemorihoro farq mekard. CHunon chi, nakhustin bor dar tarikhi ilmi tib dar «A.-Q.» ishorate ba _angezai bemoriho (mikrobho) raftaast. U meguyad, ki dar muhiti beruni chonvaroni bemoriovar mavchudand, ki ba chashm namenamoyand. Dar «A.-Q.» ba vasilai ob, havo va gizo pahn gashtani bemorihoi siroyati (toun, vabo, sukhtani, hori, nagzak, surkhakon, khanozir, sarsom, varacha, kichchasori va g.) sukhan rafta, zarurati chushonidan yo sof kardani obi nushoki takid shudaast. Vaqte ki sukhan az bobati shinokhtani chunin bemoriho ravad, nishonahoi asosii onho yak ba yak zikr meyoband. CHunonchi, dar mavridi bemorii hori omadaast: «Agar yagon kasro sagi devona bigazad, nakhust ba chuz charohate chun digar charohathoi dardnok mushohida nashavad, vale sipas bad az yakchand ruz uro barkhe az andeshahoi tabah va khobhoi fosid va holate misli khashm, vasvasa, oshuftaholi va chavob guftan_na ba chizi pursidashuda ba amal oyad. Uro bibini, ki angushtonash ba tashannuch gi- riftor shuda boshand. az rushnoi bigure- zad… hukak, tashnagi va khushkidani dahon oriz bigardand, az mardum gurekhta tanhoi guzinad. Gohe az rushnoi ba khashm oyad… Bad, andar marhalai okhir az ob va az tariho metarsidagi shavad… In bemori gohe andar miyoni yak hafta to shash moh bikushad va miyonai in muhlat chihil ruz
ast». Az nigohi mutakhassisoni vogirshi nos imruz dar tashkhisi bemorii hori, ki dar «A.-Q.» omadaast, tagyiroti nazarras vuchud nadorad.
Jarrohiyai Ibni Sino harchoniba daqiq va khele cholibi diqqat ast. U chandin khel olat va usulho, mas., usuli giriftani sangi masonaro ikhtiro namuda, bo in kor ilmu sanati charrohiro takmil va taraqqi dodaast. Baze mavzuhoi «A.-Q.»- ro tabobati zakhmho, zakhmbandi, nigoh doshtani khunravi, charrohii reshhoi fasoddor, nosurho, churrai shikam va g. dar bar giriftaand. Dar «A.-Q.» taqr. 12 navi charohat va chorahoi tabobati onho yodras shudaand, mas., dukhtani charohati shikam ba chunin tarz sharh yoftaast: «Man baroyat behtarin tariqai dukhtani shikamro tavsif namuda meguyam: Azbaski chizi mavridi ehtiyoch in ast, ki boyad miyoni sifoq va maroq payvasta shavad, binobar in turo lozim ast, ki andar ogozi dukhtan suzanro az beruni pust ba sui darun bizani. Har goh suzanro andar pust va andar musha- ke darovardi, ki ba darozoi shikam rost furud omadaast, gushai sifoqi andar in suy budaro ba holi khesh guzoshta, andar on suzanro nadaror va suzanro andar gushai digare darovarda, az darun ba sui berun biguzaron. CHun suzanro guzarondi, bori duvvum niz az khudi hamin gushai maroq az berun ba sui darun guzaronida, gushai sifoqi andar in chonib budaro ba holi khud biguzor va suzanro andar gushai digar zada, az darun ba berun biguzaron. Barobari guzaronidani suzan az sifoq onro az gushai maroqi andar in nohiya buda niz biguzaron va hamin tariq to az hamai on guzaron- dani suzan (korro boyad davom dod). Sipas, niz az hamin bar sar karda, onro ba gushae biduz, ki az sifoqi andar bari berunbuda ast. Suzanro az puste berun or, ki ba nazdiki on choy do-
rad. Sipas suzanro dubora andar on pust darovarda gushai sifoqi andar jonibi digar budaro bo in gusha az maroq biduz va (suzanro) az puste berun or, ki andar nohiyai on joy dorad. In korro ba hamin tartib pay dar pay to purra dukhta shuda- ni jarohat davom deh». Malum megardad, ki Ibni Sino dar mavridi dukhtani zakhmi shikam misli Jolinus ba payvastani sifoq (shikamparda) bo devorahoi narmi shikam etibori khos dodaast.
Hangomi tabobati bavosir (gemorroy) Abualii Sino qabl az hama ba tagziyai bemor va rafi qabziyat diqqat medod. Si- pas az payi muolija bo doru meshud, agar in kor natija nadihad, pas u guddahoi bavosirro bo rishta sakht mebast yo onhoro burida dur mekard. CHunin tarzi muolijai bavosir, ki dar «A.-Q.» tavsif yoftaast, az usulhoi jarrohii hozira kam farq dorad.
Dar zamone, ki Ibni Sino ba sar bur- daast, qonunhoi shariat roh namedodand, ki tabibi mard ba zani homila kumak ra- sonad yo dar vaqti tavallud ishtirok doshta boshad. Bo vujudi in sahmi Abualii Sino dar inkishofi ilmi momoi nazarras ast. Bisyor tarzu usulhoi az rahm berun ovardani tifl, ki u peshnihod namudaast, dar amal farovon istifoda meshudand. Abualii Sino dar «A.-Q.» roje ba sababhoi benaslii zanu mard va isqot, nishonahoi haml, ikhtiloli hayz, parhezi zani homila, sinamakoni, durust buridani nof va g. malumoti mufassalu jolib dodaast. «Sababi nozoi yo andar manii mard, yo andar manii zan, yo andar andomhoi zahdon va yo andar andomhoi nara va afzorhoi mani joy dorad. YO mumkin ast on ba sababe vobasta boshad, ki andar andomhoi mabdai vujud doshta, az qabili anduh, tars, dardhoi gunoguni sar, zafi guvorish va khommonii gizo buvad. YO mumkin ast ba yagon khatoii nogahon ruydodae vobasta boshad» – omadaast dar «A.-Q.». CHunin sharhi bezuryoti az nigohi ilmi bilkul durust meboshad.
Barkhe az mavzuhoi «A.-Q.»-ro orizayu dushvorihoi tavallud dar bar giriftaand. CHunonchi, dar mavridi tadbiri zane, ki bacha nihodanash ba sababi buzurgii kudak dushvor ast, Abualii Sino meguyad: «Boyad doya agar bitavonad, in guna janinro khub dast girifta, andak-andak ba narmi bi- kashad va agar natavonad, uro bo domoni yagon joma bibandad va ohistayu bahra- bahra berun kashad. Agar in ham sud nabakh- shad, anburhoi gunogunro ba kor barad va bo yorii onho janinro berun orad. Agar az in roh ham nashavad, az hama osonash pora- pora karda, berun ovardan buda, tadbiri janini murdaro ba kor barand». In guna usuli jarrohi (embriotomiya), ki Ibni Sino peshnihod kardaast, to okh. a. 19 dar amaliyai tib farovon istifoda meshud.
Pediatriya hamchun ilm nimai duyumi a. 19 ba vujud omadaast, vale bisyor masalahoi on (mas., ba kudak dodani shiri sina, tabobati bemorihoi kudakon, nigohubini tifl va g.) dar «A.-Q.» hallu fasl yoftaand. Abualii Sino meguyad: «CHigunagii shir va gizo dodani on (kudak) chunin ast, ki boyad har qadar ki mumkin ast, bo shiri modarash shir doda shavad, zero
az hamai gizoho in ba gavhari on gizoe, ki pesh hangomi andar rahm budan girif- ta bud, … beshtar monand ast. Binobar in (kudak) onro bipazirad va beshtar ba on ulfat dorad». Kulli dukhturoni atfol bar on aqidaand, ki shiri modar behtarin gizo baroi tifl meboshad. Dar borai tar- zi makonidani kudak, ki omili asosii peshgirii bisyor bemorihost, Ibni Sino guftaast: «Avvali pagohi boyad az shire, ki ba bacha bidihand, du – se bor dushid, khususan agar andar shir nuqsone boshad va sipas pistonro ba dahoni u boyad guzosht. Agar shir bad va tundmaza shuda boshad, behtar on ast, ki shirdihanda pagohi no- shito shir nadihad… Muddati tabiii shirdihi du sol ast. Agar kudak gayri shir chize bikhohad, boyad ba tadrich doda shavad va bar vay sakht naboyad girift».
Ibni Sino dar tahqiqi masalahoi oftalmologiya va otorinolaringologiya niz komyob budaast. U doir ba tashrehi chashm malumot doda, onro az se qism (chalidiya, zuchochiya, bayziya) iborat medonad. Qati nazar az on ki SHaykhurrais shabakai chashmro alohida nom naburdaast, u bo asabi bosira payvastagi doshta- ni onro durust tavsif mekunad. Sipas u meguyad: «Az tarafi (peshini) on boftai ankabutie rastaast, ki az on pardai latife padid oyad… In parda hamchun devor miyoni rutubati chalidi va rutubati safedimonand aftidaast, to andar miyoni chizi latif va chizi kasif devore boshad». Aknun ba mo malum ast, ki hangomi ikhtiloli gilofa (parda) moei khonai pesh ba bulurak guzashta, onro tira mesozad. Abuali Sino durust qayd kardaast: «In (parda) az bahri on chun oshyoni ankabut tunuk ast, ki agar ba tavri sitabr andar peshi rutubati chalidi meistod, beshubha, chunin muholot ba miyon meomad, ki nuri az tariqi (rutubati) safedimonand rasidaro az rutubati chalidi mepushad». Ibni Sino pardai avv. chashmro ragparda menomad, ki «. vay guzargohi gizost va ehtiyoch ba on nest, ki hamai bakhshhoi u az baroi manfiati gizogiri sokhta shuda boshand, balki bakhshi pasini vay, ki mashimai nom dorad, kifoyat ast». CHunin khulosagiri qobili tavachchuh meboshad, zero imruz muqarrar shudaast, ki mahz ragparda dar amali binoi shirkati faol mevarzad.
Abualii Sino roche ba maqomi magzi sar dar binoi navishtaast: «Notavonii binish va ofati on mumkin ast… vobasta ba yagon sababe boshad, ki andar khudi magz choy dorad». Imruz in guftaho tasdiq gash- ta, asosi bakhshi navi oftalmologiya – ney- rooftalmologiyaro tashkil dodand. Dar «A.-Q.» oid ba bemorihoi chashm va tabobati onho niz malumoti mufid ovarda shudaast. Dar robita ba khunshorii bini Ibni Sino menavisad: «Raftani khuni bini yake az holathoest, ki ham sud dorad va ham ziyon…». Sud ovardani khuni biniro, beshubha, dar mavridi bemorii gipertoniya metavon mushohida kard. «Har ki badi on sarashro az puri sabukshuda… daryobad, pas vayro az khuni bini sud hosil shuda boshad».
Tavsiyahoi Ibni Sino dar bobati bo sadohoi baland barqaror kardani garonii gush cholibi tavachchuh meboshand: «Varzish kardan, inchunin andar gush sakht sado dodan va buq va monandi inhoro navokhtan az baroi in guna (garoni) sakht sudmand ast…» Dar mavridi baze bemoriho ba faoliyati gush tasiri musoid rasonda- ni sadoi baland, ki Abualii Sino tasvir kardaast, badi sadsolaho az chonibi mutakhassison mavridi istifoda qaror girift. Holo kudakoni giriftori illati gushro dar maktabhoi makhsus, ki bo asbobhoi balandkunandai sado tachhizonida shudaand, talim medihand.
Bisyor tavsiyahoe, ki dar «A.-Q.» choy dorand, baroi tashakkuli sohahoi navi ilmi tib zaminai musoid faroham ovardand.
«A.-Q.» dar SHarq zud mavridi pisandi aloqamandon qaror girifta, tadrichan tamomi kitobhoi pesh az khud dar in rish- ta talifshuda, khususan «Al -Hovi»-i Zakariyoi Rozi (865 – 925) va «Komil- us-sinoat»-i Abulhasani Machusi (vaf. 1010)-ro tahti shuo qaror dod. Nakhustin omuzgori «A.-Q.» khudi muallif buda, ba rivoyati Abuubaydi Juzjoni u hangomi dar Isfahon budan, har begohi, bad az farogat az korhoi mamuri va vochiboti
ruzona, dar halqai shogirdonu mukhlison az «A.-Q.» dars meguftaast. Sipas, nuskhahoi bisyori «A.-Q.» dar atrofu aknofi olami islom pahn shuda, dar hamai markazhoi ilmiyu farhangii on hamchun kitobi darsii tib mavridi omuzish va istifodai pizishkon qaror girift. Dar har asre muvofiqi talaboti zamon ba in kitob donishmandon sharhu taliqot navishtaand, baroi khubtar az bar kardani umdatarin matolibi tibbi varianthoi mukhtasari onro ba vujud ovardaand va hatto ba guftai muallifi «Kashf-az-zunun» Hoji Halifa Dovudi Antoki (vaf. 1599) «A.- Q.»-ro ba nazm darovardaast.
«A.-Q.»-ro dar a. 12 Jerari Kremoni va Alpagus ba lotini, s. 1279 Natantom Meati (Hammati) ba zaboni ibri tarjuma kardand. Badi ikhtiroi sanati chop «A.-Q.» dar qatori kitobhoi mutabari zamon ba zaboni lotini nashr gardid (1473). Az a. 15 to a. 17 az jihati adadi nashr qarib hej kitob ba on barobar shuda nametavonist. «A.-Q.» ba shakli mukammal qarib 40 marotiba va juzhoe az on sadho bor ba zabonhoi gunoguni khalqhoi jahon intishor yoftaast. Az sababi buzurgii hajm bisyor nuskhahoi mukhtasari on murat- tab va nashr gardidand, ki mashhurtarini onho tasnifi Ibni Nafisi «Al-Mujiz» buda, s. 1828 dar Kalkutta ba tab rasidaast. Solhoi 1954 – 60 olimoni shuravi onro ba zabonhoi rusi va uzbeki tarjuma karda, dar Toshkand intishor namudand.
«A.-Q.» ba zaboni tojiki niz tarj. va nashr shudaast. Tarjumai tojikii on, ki mutobiq ba taqsimbandii khudi Abuali Sinost, inchunin tavzehot va chand namudi lugot az jonibi kormandi In-ti zabon, adabiyot, sharqshinosi va merosi khattii AI JT Saidnuriddin SHahobuddinov pur- ra anjom yofta, dar idorai Sarredaksiyai ilmii Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik ba tab rasidaast.
«A.-Q.» az nazariyahoi gayriilmi va sunnathoi skholastikii khosi asrhoi miyona forig ast. Muallif «A.-Q.»-ro ba nomi sohibdavlate nabakhshidaast, vazi bemor va muolijai onro bo nujum (holati kavokib va sayyoragon va tasiri onho) vobasta namenamoyad. Ibni Sino «A.-Q.»-ro dar asosi tasavvuroti durusti ilmii tasiri muhit ba inson talif kardaast: u meguyad: «Tabiati khalqe, masalan, hinduho yo isaviho, ba sharoiti iqlimi onon musoid ast. Hamai hinduhoro yak nihod khos ast, ki boisi salomatii onhost, ammo isavi- yon tabiati digari ba khud khos dorand, ki salomatii ononro nigoh medorad. Agar hinduro tabiat bo tabiati isavi ivaz gardad, bemor yo halok meshavad va baraks… Har odam mizoji muayyan va nihodi jismi u khislati khos dorad. Az in jost zarurati tayin namudani doru muvofiqi tabi har yak odam; dorue, ki ba Ahmad garmi mekunad, ba Zohid chunon tasir nadorad». «A.-Q.» avvalin marotiba az tarafi Nuraliev YU. dar chorchubai tibbi isboti va dastovardhoi tibbi muosir hamchun sistemai mustaqili tibbi tahlil shudaast. «A.-Q.» besh az 500 sol dar donishkada va muassisahoi tibbii jahon chun kitobi darsii asosi va dasturamal khizmat kard. Asarhoe, ki hakimoni minbada dar ilmi tib ba zabonhoi arabi va forsi tasnif kardaand, ba «A.-Q.» asos yofta va aksar taqlide ba onand. Bisyor qoidahoi nazofat va nigohdorii tandurusti, usulhoi peshgiri va darmoni dardho, ki dar «A.-Q.» zikr yoftaand, asosi tibbi khalqii SHarq gardida, dar bayni mardum mamul shudaand.
Ad.: Abuali ibni Sino, Qonuni tib, j. 1 – 5, D., 1991 – 2005; Kanon vrachebnoy nauki, kn. 1 – 5, Tashkent, 1954 – 60; Ternovskiy V. N., Ibn Sina, M., 1969; Petrov B. D., Ibn Sina (980 – 1037), M., 1980; «Kanon» Ibn-Sino i sovremennaya medisin- skaya nauka, D., 1980; Nuraliev YU., Medisinskaya sistema Avisenni, D., 2005.
M. Dinorshoev, YU. Nuraliev,
S. SHahobuddinov, A. Toshev.

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