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Zanburughoi telpakchador

Zanburugho guruhi kaloni organizmho buda, taqriban 100 hazor namud dorand. Onhoro az rui tasnifoti hoziramalkunanda ba 6 sinf judo menamoyand, ki az inkho 3-toash ba zanburughoi darajai past va 3-toi digarash ba zanburugkhoi darajai oli mansuband. Agar zanburughoi darajai past sokhti yakhujayragi doshta boshand, zanburughoi darajai oli bisyorkhujayraand. Takhmin meravad, ki sinfhoi gunoguni zanburugho shoyad az organizmhoi soddai qadima paydo shuda boshand.

Zanburugho mavjudoti khele pahnshuda meboshand. Onho dar hama joe, ki moddahoi organiki hastand, yane dar khok, ob, khonahoi istiqomati, mahsulothoi gunoguni gizoi, dar nabotot, badani insonu hayvonot mavjud hastand. Onho agarchande az jihati sokhtashon gunogun boshand ham, az rui tarzi gizogiriashon ba khamdigar monandand.

Rasmi 90. Sokhti zanburugi telpakchador
Rasmi 90. Sokhti zanburugi telpakchador

Zanburugho az moddahoi tayyori organiki gizo megirand. Az rui in khususiyatashon onho ba khayvonot nazdikand, lekin az rui tarzi qabul kardani khurok bo rokhi jabbidani on ba rastaniho monandi dorand.

Gizogirii zanburugho bo tarzi saprofiti yo paraziti meguzarad. Zero dar hujayrai zanburugho khlorofill mavjud nest va onho tabiatan kobiliyati fotosintez kardanro nadorand. Agar zanbrughoi saprofiti moddahoi organikii tayyorro (organizmhoi nobudshudaro) gizo girand, zanburughoi paraziti, baraks, dar jismi mavjudoti zinda (hayvonotu nabotot) dokhil shuda, az hisobi onho gizo megirand.

Zanburugho organizmhoi yakhujayra va bisyorhujayra meshavand. Dar tarkibi jildi khujayrai zanburugho moddai khitini dida meshavad. Hitin moddai organikiest, ki asosan ba baze namudhoi hayvonot khos ast.

Tanai (jismi) zanburugho az rishtahoi boriki safed, ki kundareshai zanburugho paydo mekunand, iborat ast. Dar baze zanburugho rishtai (gifi) resha ba hujayrahoi alohida judo nashuda, balki on ba yak khujayrai kaloni bisyoryadrodor tabdil yoftaast. Umuman, rishtahoi resha bisyorhujayra buda, hujayrahoi on metavonand yak yo yakchand yadro doshta boshaid.

Afzoishi zanburugho bo rohi jinsi, gayrijinsi va nashvi meguzarad. Afzoishi nashvi bo rohi kandashavii yagon qismi rishtai resha yo bo rohi mugjabandi (dar zanburugi yakhujayrai khamirturush) meguzarad. Afzoishi gayrijinsi boshad, tavassuti sporaho-silkuni meguzarad. Sporahoi maydavu sabuki rasida (bolig) merezand va onhoro shamol ba har taraf pahn mekunad. Dar baze zanburugho afzoishi jinsi niz dida meshavad. In holat dar hujayrahoi makhsusgardidai reshai zanburug dar natijai ba ham omezish yoftani mahsuli yadroi onho ba vuqu meoyad.

Maqomi zanburugho dar tabiat va hayoti inson. Zanburugkho ba misli bakteriyahoi saprofiti boqimondai organizmhoi nobudshudai nabotot va hayvonotro vayron (tajziya) karda, ba moddahoi madani tabdil medihand. Va bo in vasila dar gardishi moddaho dar tabiat faolona shirkat mevarzand. Dar natijai parvarishi baze zanburugkho az onho doruhoi purqimat (antibiotikho) megirand. Zanburugkho inchunin, baroi rasishi khamir dar nonpazi, istehsoli spirt, pivo va gayraho zarurand. Bisyor namudkhoi zanburughoi khurdaniro dar taompazi istifoda mebarand.

Az tarafi digar zanburugho metavonand ba khojagii khalq zarari kalon rasonand. Baze namudhoi onho boisi ba kasalihoi siroyati duchor shudani rastanikho, hayvonot va inson megardand. Namudhoi digari onkho mahsuloti gizoiro vayron karda, binohoi az chub sokhtashudaro meaftonand.

Zanburugkho. inchunin. dar davomi faoliyati hayotiashon ba muhiti zistashon moddahoi zakhrnokro khorij karda, ba organizmhoi digar metavonand tasiri margovar rasonand.

3anburughoi telpakchador. Har yak namudi zanburugi telpakchador az kundaresha (resha) va tanameva iborat ast. Mahz odamon tanamevai onro zanburug menomand. Tanamevai aksariyati zanburughoi khurdani (ba juz tryufel, ujjaqorch, dili barra) az kundapoya va telpakcha (sallacha) iboratand. Az khamin sabab onhoro zanburugkhoi telpakchador meguyand.

Agar khoki joi zanburugi rusgaro kobed, shumo rishtahoi safedi shokharonda, yane kundareshahoro mebined, ki dar onho zanburug (tanameva) meruyad. Hujayrahoi kundareshai zanburughoi telpakchador aksaran dutogi yadro dorand, ammo plastid nadorand. Kundaresha juzi asosii har kadom zanburug buda, tanameva mahz dar on inkishof meyobad. Telpakcha va kundapoya az rishtahoi gafsu bahampechidai kundaresha iboratand. Dar tanaresha hamai rishtaho yakkhelaand, vale rishtahoi telpakcha du qabat paydo mekunand: qabati boloi, ki bo pust pushida shudaast va az moddahoi gunoguni rangovar rangin ast va qabati poyon. Qabati poyonii baze zanburugho, masalan, safedqorch, tusqorch va qorchi ruganak az naychahoi sershumor iboratand. Binobar on, onhoro naychaqorchho meguyand. Qabati poyonii digar zanburugho, az qabili zardqorch, tarraqorch.

Paydoshavii spora dar zanburughoi telpakchador. Saravval, dar naycha yo lavhachahoi telpakchai zanburug hujayrai makhsus — spora inkishof meyobad. Zanburughoi telpakchador tavassuti sporaho afzoish mekunand. Sporaho na tanho tavassuti shamol, inchunin ba tufayli hasharot va lesak (balgamshulluk), sanjob va khargush, ki onho zanburughoro istemol mekunand, pahn karda meshavand. Sporaho dar uzvhoi hozimai hayvonoti dar bolo nombarshuda hazm nashuda, bo najosati onho ba berun khorij meshavand va boisi pahn shudani sporaho megardand.shonaqorch az lavhachahoi sershumor hosil shudaand. Onhoro lavhachaqorchho meguyand.

Rasmi 91. Afzoishi zanburugi telpakchador

Sporahoi zanburug dar zamini serrutubat va az moddahoi organikii nimpusida boy nagz nashunamo mekunand. Az sporaho rishtahoi kundareshai zanburug inkishof meyobad. Kundareshai az yak spora paydoshuda metavonad tanamevai navro ba vujud ovarad. Dar bisyor namudi zanburugho tanamevaho az kundareshae, ki tavassuti bo ham omezish yoftani mahsuli du hujayra-sporahoi gunogun paydo shudaast, inkishof meyoband. Az in jost, ki hujayrahoi chunin kundareshaho duyadrodor meboshand. Odatan, kundareshaho sust mesabzand. Kundareshaho badi ba miqdori kifoya zakhira namudani moddahoi gizoi metavonand tanameva hosil kunand.

Simbiozi zanburug va nabotot. Malumast, kikorchi safed dar nazdikii tus, sanavbar, bulut, yugan, safedor, zardqorch dar sanavbarzoru kojzor va qorchi surkh dar nazdi larzonbed mesabzand. In guvohi medihad, ki dar bayni reshai namudhoi muayyani rastaniho yo darakhton bo zanburug aloqai mustahkami ba yakdigar foidanok, yane simbioz ba vujud meoyad. Hamin tavr, rishtahoi kundareshai zanburug reshai darakhtro pechonda va hatto ba on dokhil shuda, zanburugresha yo mikorizaro hosil mekunand. Kundareshai zanburug az khok ob va namakhoi madanii dar ob halshudaro mejabbad va onho ba tufayli zanburug ba reshai darakht meguzarand. Guyo kundareshai zanburug vazifai muyakreshai darakhtonro ijro mekunad. Dar navbati khud az reshai darakhton ba kundareshai zanburug moddahoi organikie, ki dar natijai fotosintez dar bargi sabzi rastaniho hosil shudaast dokhil shuda, ba sifati gizo baroi tashakkuli tanameva sarf meshavand.

Rasmi 92. Simbiozi zanburug bo rastani

Rasmi 93. Zanburughoi khurdani

Zanburughoi khurdanibob va zahrnok. Dar bayni zanburughoi telpakchador zanburughoi khurdanibob va zahrnok vomekhurand. Az zanburughoi khurdanibob az hama muhimashon samorug, qorchi safed, ruganak, tusqorch, shonaqorch (gruzd) meboshand. Hususan, qorchi safedi khushkonidashuda arzishi baland dorad. Baroi on qorchi safed menomand, ki on hangomi chushonidan, khushk kardan, dar namak nigoh doshtan, rangi “gushti” (magzi) on tagyir nameyobad. Zardqorch, shonaqorch, ushnaqorch ham doroi lazzati baland meboshand va onhoro dar namakob nigoh medorand.

Tashakkulyobii taiameva dar namudhoi gunoguni zanburugho dar yak vaqt ba amal nameoyad. In holat ba harorati shabonaruzii havoi mahal, namnokii khok va bo moddahoi gizoi boy budani on va gay- raho vobasta meboshad. CHunonchi, dar sharoiti Jumhurii Tojikiston az avvalhoi mohi aprel to miyonai mohi may yakumin shuda zanburugi dili barra va ujjaqorch, badtar samorug meruyand. Qorchi safed dar domanakukhho dar mohi aprel, dar balandkuhho boshad, okhirhoi iyun nashunamo mekunad.

Zanburughoi khurdanibob az moddahoi gizoii baroi organizmi inson zaruri, az qabili safedaho, vitaminho, namakkhoi madani va gayraho boy meboshand. Dar vaqti jamovarii tanamevai zanburug onhoro tavre buridan lozim, to ki kundareshai onho zarar nabinad.

Hangomi zanburugchini zanburughoi khurdanibobro az zanbu- rughoi zakhrnok farq karda tavonistan lozim. Zero zanburughoi zakhrnok odamonro zahrolud mekunand. Ba zanburugkhoi zahrnok qorchi pashshakhurak, telpakchai qozi, gulqorchi devak, zahrak, telpa- ki morak va gayra mansuband.

Inchunin, hangomi zanburugchiii alomathoi khosi zanburugkhoi zahrnokro donistan ba manfiati kor ast. Masalan, telpakchai qozi ba samorug kame monandi dorad. Vale tagi telpakchai telpaki Telpaki qozi Zahrqorch    Qorchi pashshakhurak Telpaki morak

Rasmi 94. Zanburughoi zahrnok

qozi agar khokistarrang boshad, az oni samorug gulobi buda, bo pardacha pushida shudaast. Faqat dar samorugi pirshuda qismi po- yonii telpakchaaash ba khud rangi siyohro megirad. Istemoli zanburughoi pirshuda (muhlati istemolash guzashtagi) ba monandi zanburughoi zahrnok khele khavfnok ast. Az onho niz zahrolud shudan mumkin ast.

Qorchi pashshakhurakro, ki telpakchaash surkhi kushod (ravshan) buda, kholhoi safed dorad, shinokhtan oson asg, Bazan qorchi pashshakhuraki telpakchaash khokisgarrang ham vomekhurad.

Zanburugi zahrak ba safedqorch monand ast. Farqi zahrak az safedqorch on ast, ki dar nugi kundapoyai vay (zanburugi zahrak) naqshunigori turshakli siyoh yo khokistarii siyohtob dida meptavad, magzash boshad, dar vaqti pora kardan surkhtob meshavad.

Gulkorchi devak ba gulqorchi khurdani monand ast. Vale telpakchai gulqorchi zahrnok (devak) hamvoru norinjii surkhtob buda, azoni gulqorchi khurdani zardi kushod ast. Hangomi shikastani (pora kardani) telpakchai gulqorchi zahrnok az on shirai safed mebaroyad.

Ahamiyati gizoii zanburughoi telpakchadorro ba inobat girifta. dar bisyor mamlakathoi jahon baze namudhoi khurdanibobi onro dar sharoiti suni parvarish mekunand va hosili dilkhoh meruyonand.

  1. Zanburugi telpakchador chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Kundaresha va tanamevai zanburug chist?
  3. Sporaho dar kujo tashakkul meyoband va dar zanburugho chi vazifaro ijro mekunand?
  4. Zanburugho bo kadom rohho gizo megirand?
  5. Simbiozi zanburug bo rastanihoi darakhti chy tavr surat megirad?
  6. Mikoriza chist?
  7. Kadom zanburughoi khurdanibobro medoned?
  8. Zanburughoi zahrnok kadomhoyand va onho chi khel alomathoi khos dorand?
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