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ZARBU LAT

zarbu-latZARBU LAT (Traumatismus), sadama, oseb, latkhuri, yake az sababhoi dar jahon mamuli kornoshoyamii muvaqqati va ustuvorest, ki boisi favti ziyodi odamoni sinnu solashon gunogun megardad. Z. l. du khel meshavad: istehsoli va gayriistehsoli. Sababi Z. l.-i istehsoli beshtar vayron kardani qoidahoi tekhnikai bekhatari ast; on dar natijai nomukammalii ikhtisosi korgar, nodurust ba roh mondani jarayoni mehnat, gayri qanoatbakhsh budani joi kor, asbobu anjom va g. niz ruy doda metavonad. Az in sabab yake az rohhoi asosii peshgiri va kam kardani Z. l.-i istehsoli tashkili bekhatarii mehnat, ba roh mondani kori hamatarafai maorifi sanitari, nazorati qatii rioyai qoidahoi tekhnikai bekhatari va g. meboshad (nig. Muhofizati mehnat). CHorahoi asosii bekhatariro dar istehsolot mamuriyati muassisahoi sanoati va kishovarzi yakjoya bo komitethoi ittifoqi kasaba ba amal mebarorand. Dar muassisahoi ilmii sanitariyu gigieni va travmatologiyu ortopedi sababhoi Z. l.-i istehsoli omukhta shuda, qoidahoi navi tekhnikai bekhatari, ki ba darajai tajhizoti tekhnikii sanoat muvofiqat mekunand, usulhoi navi muboriza bo zararhoi sanoati va g. tadqiq karda meshavand. Dar peshgirii Z. l.-i istehsoli mavqei punkti tibbi va shubai tibbiyu sanitarii muassisahoi sanoati, muassisahoi tibbii dehot khele muhim ast.
Aksari Z. l.-ho berun az istehsolot ruy medihand. Ba in pesh az hama Z. l.-i rohu naqliyot mansub ast. Holo dar tamomi jahon afzudani chunin shakli Z. ba mushohida merasad (ba ziyod shudani shumorai avtomobil, vusat yoftani iqtidor va surati on vobastagi dorad). In guna latkhuri nisbat ba digar osebho khele vaznintar ast. Az tarafi ronandagon va piyodagardon rioya nakardani qoidahoi harakati naqliyot, nosozii tekhnikii vositahoi naqliyot ba hodisahoi nokhush ovarda merasonad; makhsusan dar sharoiti nomusoidii roh (yakhbandi) Z. l khele meafzoyad. Aksari hodisahoi nokhush bo aybi piyodagardon ruy medihad. Beshtar in hodisahoi nokhushi roh binobar istemoli mashruboti spirti ruy medihand (nig. Mayzadagi). Hodisahoi nokhushi naqliyoti havoi az naqliyoti avtomobili kamtar ast, vale osebi on khele vaznin meboshad. Z. l.-i kucha (novobasta ba naqliyot) asosan hangomi dar rohi piyodagardi lagjonak aftidan ruy medihad. Az on beshtar odamoni solkhurda oseb mebinand. Benuqson nigoh doshtani rohhoi piyodagard, reg poshidan, sari vaqt az yakh toza kardan va dig. tadbirho odamonro az Z. l. emin medorad.
Z. l.-i bachagon asosan ba sinnu sol, inkishofi ruhi va jismoni, tajribai kami zindagi, kunjkovii ziyod, bozi va g. vobasta ast. Baroi peshgirii Z. l.-i kudakon dar muassisahoi bachagona va khona tarzi durusti zistro ba roh monda, az bacha bokhabar budan zarur meboshad. Aksari Z. l.-hoi khonagi az betartib nigoh doshtani asbobhoi ruzgor, ehtiyot nakardani moddahoi suzandayu tarkanda va dig. sababho ruy medihad. Gayr az sababhoi zikryofta rioya nakardani intizomi roh va nadonistani qoidahoi harakat dar roh niz boisi Z. l.-i bachagon dar rohhoi moshingard va kucha megardad. Bachagon metavonand dar maydonchahoi nosoz va hangomi mashguliyathoi sporti lat khurand (chunin holatho, odatan, dar mavridhoe ruy medihand, ki mashguliyat khele bad ba roh monda shuda, be nazorat meguzarad).
Dar asnoi Z. l. boyad ba osebyofta yorii avvalin, tabobati ambulatori va yo statsionari rasonda shavad. Aksar yorii durust va sarivaqtii hamdigari ba tabobati minbada musoidat mekunad. Osebdidaro, alalkhusus dar dehot, ba darmongoh bisyor vaqt bo moshini khudi mebarand. Binobar in har kas boyad az uhdai bastani bandina, toftani khunband, nojunbonsozii dastu poyhoi shikasta, dodani nafasi suni baromada tavonad. Targiboti vasei tibbi ba aholi va omuzondani usulhoi yorii avvalini tibbi ba korkunoni militsiya, BDA, ronandagon, murabbiyon, va muallimon khele zarur ast.
Dar hama sekhhoi korkhonahoi sanoati posthoi sanitari tashkil doda, onhoro bo vositahoi zarurii yorii avvalin tamin mekunand. Dar aksar mavridho ba har yak korgar doruquttii shakhsi niz doda meshavad.
Usul va rohhoi ba muassisahoi tibbi har chi zudtar rasonidani osebdida takmil meyoband (bo in maqsad hatto az charkhbol istifoda mebarand). Dar bayni brigadahoi yorii tajili guruhhoi makhsuse mavjudand, ki az dukhtur-travmatolog iboratand. Agar dar bemorkhona tabobat kardan zarur boshad, osebdidaro ba bemorkhonai makhsusi travmatologi va yo jarrohi mebarand.
Ad.: Kalnin YA.YA., Preduprejdenie selskokhozyaystvennogo travmatizma, L., 1985; Pashuk A.YU., Bistriskiy M.I., Pervaya medisinskaya pomosh pri avtodorojnikh travmakh, M., 1986.

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