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Vitaminhoi dar ravgan halshavanda

vitaminiVitaminhoi dar ravgan halshavanda
Retinol (vitamini A) dar tabiat khele pahn gardidaast. Dar boftahoi naboti chun provitamini A (vitamini nimtayyor) – pigmenti karotin vujud dorad. Provitamin dar organizm yakjoya bo pih (charb) ba retinol mubaddal meshavad; dar boftahoi zinda navi tayyori retinol hast. Retinol bahri ba vujud omadani pigmenthoi bosira, rushdi mutadili organizm va mutobiqati chashm ba rushnoihoi gunogun musoidat mekunad. Az narasidani retinol pust pajmurda va shakhshul megardad, pustpartoi, rikhinakho va dig. bemorihoi rimnoki pust inkishof meyoband, muy benuru khushk, nokhunho zudshikan (murd) meshavand. Rushnoitarsi, shabkuri, konyunktivit, blefarit alomathoi asosii norasoii retinol meboshand.
Talaboti shaboruzii odami solim ba vitamini A baroi kalonsolon 1 mg va baroi kudakonu navrason 0,4 – 1 mg meboshad. Ba retinol hamai hayvonot va odamon muhtojand. Zakhirai vitamini A az hisobi ba organizm dokhil shudani khudi vitamin, inchunin az hisobi provitamin – karotinoidho purra meshavad. Dar bargi sabzi rastaniho provitamini A (karotin) khele ziyod ast. Mas., 25 – 50 g ispanokh yo jafari talaboti shaboruzii odami kalonsolro bo vitamini A qone gardonida metavonad. Ba hamin maqsad istemoli 50 g zardolu, bargi shibit, sabzi, shilkha (turshak) niz kifoya ast. Miqdori vitamini A khususan dar jigari hayvonot va mohi, inchunin ravgani mohi va ravgane, ki az jigari jonvaroni bahri megirand, bisyor ast. Hangomi pukhtupaz va konservonii khurokvori vitamini A va karotin purra boqi memonand.
Sanoati farmasevti retinolro bo namudi draje (hab) yo mahluli ravganin (konsentrat) istehsol menamoyad.
Kaltsiferolho (vatamini D) ba mubodilai moddahoi minerali, inkishofi ustukhon tasir merasonand; tanosubi namakhoi kalsiy va fosforro tanzim doda, az rudai borik jabbida shudani in moddaho va intiqoli kalsiyro az khun ba boftahoi ustukhon tamin menamoyad. Kalsiferolho khususan dar ovoni javoni, vaqte ki sabzishu ustukhonbandi bosurat ast, khele zarurand. Norasoii vitamini D dar organizm boisi sar zadani rakhit megardad.
Kaltsiferolho faqat dar mahsuloti hayvonot mavjudand (ravgani jigari tunesmohi, ravganmohi va g.). Dar khurokvori vitamini D, odatan, kam ast. Dar organizm vitamini D dar natijai tasiri shuoi oftob az provitamini tarkibi pust (provitamin boshad, az kholestirini organizm) hosil meshavad. Vitamini D az pust ba digar uzvho guzashta, asosan dar jigar va plazmai khun zakhira megardad.
Tokoferolho (vitamini E) az 7 kheli V. iborat buda tasiri biologii gunogun dorand. Tokoferolho ba kori mushakho va gadudhoi tanosul taqviyat mebakhshand, ba zakhira shudani V.-i dar ravgan halshavanda (khususan retinol) dar uzvhoi daruni musoidat mekunand.
Manbai asosii tokoferolho ravgani rastani (ravgani zagir, oftobparast, zaytun) va qisman kabudiho meboshand. Tokoferolho ba tasiri nuri ultrabunafsh va garmi (to 1700) ustuvorand. Tabobati in yo on bemori bo tokoferolho zeri nazorati dukhtur guzaronida meshavad, chunki istemoli az meyor ziyodi onho boisi gipervitaminoz megardad.
Fillokhinonho (vitamini K) muhimtarin vositai lakhtabandii khun meboshand. Narasidani vitamini K boisi khunravii bini, milki dandon, meda, ruda va g. meshavad. Talaboti shaboruzi ba vitamini K baroi kalonsolon 0,2 – 0,3 mg (baroi zanhoi homila 2 – 5 mg), baroi kudakoni navzod 0,001 – 0,012 mg ast. Fillokhinon dar bargi sabzi kohu, ispanokh, karam, gazna vujud dorad. Vitamini tabii K. binobar dar ob kam hal gashtanash dar tib chandon istifoda nameshavad.Dar amaliyai tib fillokhinonhoi sintezi (vikasol va sinkavit) kor farmuda meshavand.
Gayr az V.-i nomburda, moddahoi dig. az jihati biologi faol (mushobehi vitaminho), az jumla bioflavonoidho, kholin, inozit, kislotahoi lipoeat, ororat, pangamat, paraaminobenzoat va g. niz mavjudand.

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