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Vaziyati kishovarzii Ispaniya dar niman duyumi asri XIX

Ispaniya dar nimai duyumi asri XIX misli peshtara davlati kishovarzi bud. Harchand dar asri XIX dar in mamlakat munosibathoi sarmoyadori tashakkul yoftand va 5 marotiba inqilobhoi burjuazi ba amal omadand, lekin dar natijai onho simoi dehoti Ispaniya on qadar tagyir nayoft. Islohoti kullii kishovarzy ba amal barovarda nashud. Taqsimoti zamin ba guruhhoi aholii kishovarz ba kully nobarobar bud. 2 foizi mulkdoron 67 foizi zaminhoi kishtbobro sohibi mekardand. 82 foizi mulkdoroni digari dehot boshand, tanho 15 foizi zaminro. 39 foizi kishovarzon hamagi 1-gektari zamin doshtand, km in 1,1 foizi hamai zaminhoi kishtbobi mamlakatro tashkil menamud.

Zamindoroni kalon dar markaz va janubi mamlakat zaminhoro bo tarzi nimfeodaly istifoda meburdand. Takhminan 48 foizi zamin umuman kisht karda nameshud.

To soli 1890 Ispaniya umuman moshinhoi kishovarziro namedonist. Zamindoron az nurihoi suny niz istifoda nameburdand. Az rui hisoboti omorii soli 1881-um 47 foizi dehqononi ispany ijorakor budand. Ba in adad ijorakoroni darozmuddat dokhil nashudaand. Az in ru, dar amal ijorakoron khele ziyod budand.

Rushdi sarmoyadory dar kishovarzi dar holati surati nihoyat susti taraqqiyoti sanoat sababgori asosii ba vujud omadani tabaqai korgaroni dehot shud. Dar ayni zamoy, zamindoroni kalon dar zaminhoi khud ziroathoi tekhnikiro parvarish namuda, I korkhonahoi korkardi mahsuloti kishovarzi sokhta, ba sohibkoron

mubaddal megardidand. Soli 1900 dar Ispaniya 45 zavodi qand mavjud bud, ki aksariyati onho ba zamindoron taalluq doshtand. Baze zamindoroni kalon ba sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan va barovardani vombargho mablagguzory mekardand. Hamin tariq dehoti feodalii (zamindor) Ispaniya sol to sol bo unsurhoi sarmoyadory omezish meyoft.

Tabaqai hukmroni Ispaniya to okhirhoi asri XIX mablagguzoriro nisbat ba sanoat ba kogazhoi qimatnok va vombargi davlaty afzaltar medonist. Qarzi davdatii Ispaniya to soli 1881 qarib ba 11 mlrd peseta rasid.

Taraqqiyotn sanoat va savdoi Ispaniya dar okhirhoi asri XIX. Surati peshrafti sanoati Ispaniya dar choryaki chorumi asri XIX niz nihoyat past bud. Dar in mamlakat chunin sohakhoi sanoat ba monandi khimiya va elektrotekhnika qarib tamoman vujud nadoshg. Asosan sanoati kuhy pesh meraft. Istehsoli ohan va angisht dar solhoi 1882 – 1900 ba hisobi miyona du barobar afzud, vale qism ziyodi madani istehsolkardashuda – to 90 foiz ba khoriji kishvar sodir karda meshud va pesh az hama, ba Angliya va Germaniya.

Sarfn nazar az in sanoat tashakkul meyoft. To okhiri asri XIX korkhonahoi madangudozy az nav sokhta, takmil doda shudand. In bud, ki Ispaniya soli 1900 nisbat ba Faronsa qarib yakunim barobar ziyodtar chuyan gudokht, vale 17 barobar kamtar pulod va 9 barobar kamtar madani digar istehsol kard. Aqibmonii Ispaniya az mamlakathoi peshqadami sarmoyadory ba hisobi har sari aholy beshtar ba chashm merasad. Az rui in hisob nisbat ba Ispaniya Angliya 15 barobar. Germaniya 13 barobar va Faronsa 8 barobar peshtar meistodand.   *

Dar Ispaniya darozii rohhoi ohan az soli 1870 to soli 1896 du barobar afzuda, az chor yak hissai rohhoi ohani Germaniyaro tashkil dod. Sarfi nazar az in dar Ispaniya markazonidani istehsolot va sarmoya toraft surati beshtar kasb mekard. Soli 1386 qarib 60 foizi rohhoi ohani sokhtashuda ba se shirkati kalontarini zerin taalluq doshtand: “Porte”, “Madrid-Saragosa-Alikante” va Andalusa”. Tedodi jamiyathoi sahhomii tijoraty bemaylon meafzud. Sarmoyai onho az soli 1884 to soli 1900 qarib 4 barobar afzud. Dar natijai qonuni majburkunii soli 1892 korkhonahoi nachandon ziyodi sanoatie ba vujud omadand, ki sarmoyai khorijy dar sokhtmoni onho shirkat varzid.

Sanoati bofandagy asosan dar Kataloniya taraqqy va markazonida meshud. To soli 1897 qarib 15 foizi mahsuloti in qabil korkhonahoi sanoati ba khoriji kishvar, az on jumla ba mustamlikaho sodir karda meshud va pesh az hama, ba Kuba, Filippin va Puerto-Riko.

Darhoi sanoati Ispaniya baroi voridshaviii sarmoyai khoriji kushoda budand. Vale tavajjuhi sarmoyai khorichiro dar Ispaniya beshtar konhoi ohan, mis, surb, qurgoshim va gayra jalb mekardand. Baroi istehsoli in madanho dar dahsolahoi okhiri asri XIX dar Ispaniya korkhonahoi kaloni khoriji va omekhta sokhta shudand. Sarmoyai khorichy va pesh az hama, sarmoyai Faronsa va Belgiya asosan ba sokhtmoni rohhoi ohan va korkhonahoi kommunali vorid meshudand. Sarmoyai khorijy ashyoi khomi Ispaniyaro ba khorija sodir namuda, ba peshrafti sanoati in mamlakat khalal merasond, Ispaniyaro ba bozori molfurushin davlathoi khorichy tabdil medod.

Hukumathoi Konservatorho va liberalho. Bad az shikasti inqilobi solhoi 1868 – 1876 sarvari hizbi konservatoron Kanovas del Kastilio hukumatero tashkil kard, ki on hamai amri qonunhoi zamoni jumhuriro bekor kard. Faoliyati sozmohoi korgariro man va shurishi karlchiyonro dar SHimol pakhsh kard Tanho bad az in intikhobotro ba kortesho tayin namud. Sarfi nazar az in hukumati konservatoron dar tuli dahsolai avval badi ehyoi mutlaqiyat mustahkam nabud. Siyosati hukumat dar Kuba norozigii kaloni mardumro ba vujud ovard. Dar on jo soli 1868 ba muqobili hukmronii Ispaniya shurishi khalqy cap zad. General Martines Kampos, ki yake az mahvkunandagoni khalqi Kuba bud, majbur shud izhor namoyad, ki baroi mavjudiyati hokimiyati Ispaniya dar mustamlikaho va idorai onho islohot zarur ast. Az in ru, soli 1878 bo shurishchiyoni Kuba Sozishnomai sulhi Sanon ba imzo rasonda shud. Mohi yanvari soli 1880 oqibat qonun dar borai barhamzanii gulomdori dar Kuba qabul gardid.

Mohi fevrali soli 1881 bo sardorin Sagaste hukumat Hizbi liberaly tashkil karda shud. In hukumat dar mampako baze islohothoi demokraty guzarond. Vay ozodii matbuot sozmonho va gayraro elon namud. Ba nafi burjuaziya tijoratiyu miliyavy baroi molhoi ba mamlakat voridshavand narkhnomahoi gumruki kam karda shudand. Soli 1882 Sozishnoma tijoratii Ispaniyayu Faronsa ba imzo rasid, ki dar natija tatbiqi on ba Ispaniya seli molhoi bofandagii Faronsa zada daromad. Inchunin andoz ba korkhonahoi sanoaty ziyod karda shud. In chorabiniho norozigii burjuaziyam sanoatii Ispaniyaro ba vujud ovardand. Soli 1883dar yakchand garnizonhoi artish shurishho ba amal omadand. Vale, bo sababi on ki onho ba ommai vasei khalq takya namekardand, noguzir ba shikast anjom yoftand.

Soli 1885 shoh Alfonsi HVI vafot kard. Regenti (pushtibon) takhti shohi zavjai u Mariya Kristina elon gardid. In zamon dar bani i sarvaroni hizbhoi Konservatorho va liberalho Kanovas va Sagaste sozishe ba dast omad, ki muvofiqi on onho uhdador shudand, ki mutlaqiyatro dastgiri mekunand. In qarordod nomi “pak gi el Parde” (az nomi “kasri El Pardo”-i shoh, ki dar on jo guftushunid va qabuli karordodi mazkur doyr gardidaast)-ro giriftaast. Dar barobari in har du hizb ba qaror omadand, ki bo navbat ba hokimiyat sohib meshavand, to ki rejimi mavjudaro mustahkam namoyand. In manon onro dorad, ki Ispaniya aknun ba tumai du hizbi siyosi tabdil yoft. Kadome az in hizbho dar sari hokimiyat boshad, dar mamlakat aqibmony, khazinaduzdy, porakhury, suiistemol az vazifa va zuhuroti digari manfy hukmron budand. Har yake az in hizbho, ki ba sari qudrat meomadand, korteshoro parokanda namuda, intikhoboti navi onro tashkil mekardand. Dar rafti intikhobot hizbi khukmron tamomi imkoniyatkhoi hokimiyati davlatiro ba kor meburd, to ki dar kortesho aksariyaro baroi khud tamin namoyad. Baroy hamin biser vaqt ommai aholy az intikhobot cap metoft.

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