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VAKSINATSIYA

vaktcinatciiaVAKSINATSIYA, baroi ba vujud ovardani muqovimati organizm bar ziddi bemorihoi siroyati guzaronidani har guna vaksinaho, anatoksin, gamma-globulinho va zardobhoi masuni. Maqsad az V. ba dast ovardani immuniteti faol yo ba muddati kutoh az angeza yo zahri on muhofizat kardani organizm (tayyor kardani immuniteti gayrifaol) meboshad.
Baroi ba vujud ovardani immuniteti faol ba organizmi odam vaksina yo anatoksin meguzaronand. Vaksinaho az angezahoi murda yo zindai zaif iborat buda, bemorizo nestand va javoban ba V. dar organizm moddahoi muhofizi makhsus hosil mekunand (onhoro podtan menomand). Antoksinhoro tavassuti formalin bo rohi bezarar kardani zahri mikrob ba dast meorand. Dar chunin mavrid toksin (moddai zahrdor) zahrnokii khudro gum kunad, vale qobiliyati siroyatpaziriro nigoh medorad.
Vaksinaho ba pust (vaksinai ziddi sil), zeri pust (domana va g.), dokhili mushak (sulfakabutak, khunoq, kuzoz), tavassuti dahon (poliomielit), bini (gripp) guzaronda meshavand. Qabl az V. karatho (yakkarata, dukarata yo sekarata), fosilahoi bayni moyaguzaroni va meyori vaksinaro ba nazar megirand. Anatoksinhoro ba dokhili pust yo mushak meguzaronand.
Muqovimati faol badi 1 – 3 haftai V. ba vujud omada, mohho, hatto solho boqi memonad. Baroi ba dast ovardani muqovamati ustuvoru doimi dar baze holatho badi anjomi V. ba muhlathoi gunogun takroran moya meguzaronand (revaksinatsiya).
Qobiliyati dar yak vaqt ba chand bemorii siroyati muqovimat hosil kardani organizmro ba nazar girifta az majmui moyadoruho (az omekhtai chandin vaksinayu anatoksinho iboratand) istifoda mekunand. Ba V.-i hatmi, ki dar vaqthoi muayyan, sarfi nazar az vaziyati vogiri (epidemi) ba jo ovarda meshavad, V.-i ziddi bemorihoi siroyatii bachaho (surkhcha, surfakabudak), sil, khunoq, guluzindonak, kuzoz, poliomielit va g. mansuband.
Dar yak qator mavridho V.-i hatmi aholii mahalhoi manbai tabiii tulyaremiya, ensefaliti kanai va g.-ro niz darbar khohad girift. V.-i ziddiepidemiro dar surati sar zadani khavfi vogirii yagon bemori ba kor mebarand (mas., gripp). Pesh az V., odatan, muoinai tibbi anjom doda meshavad. Ba shakhsoni tabashon baland va giriftori bemorihoi muzmin badi shifo yoftan moya meguzaronand.
Dar natijai V. aksulamali juzi va umumii organizm rukh namuda, joe, ki moya guzaronda shudaast (pust, dokhili pust va mushakho) varam va dard mekunad, kas behol, tabash baland meshavad.
Baroi hosil kardani muqovimati gayrifaol ba organizmi odam zardob va gamma-globulini masuni (moyadoruhoe, ki jinshoi begonai muhofizi tayyor dorand) meguzaronand. CHunin tarzi V. dar mavridhoe, ki vazifai muhofizati organizmro ba zudi baland bardoshtan, ba in yo on bemorii siroyati muqovimati muvaqqati ba vujud ovardan yo garonii jarayoni bemorii sarzadaro sust kardan zarur ast, tatbiq meshavad. Zardobhoi masuni va gamma-globulinhoro, odatan, baroi hifzi salomatii odamone istifoda mekunand, ki onho ba bemoroni siroyatnok nigohubin mekardand. In doruhoro, mamulan, ba dokhili mushakho meguzaronand. Agar organzim ba in doruho hassosiyati baland nadoshta boshad, vokunishi badi V. ruy namedihad, yo ruy dihad ham, nihoyat sust ast.
Hamai malumot roje ba V. dar daftari tarikhi inkishofi bachagon va jurnali makhsusi kalonsolon sabt megardad. Volidon boyad khub donand, ki ba farzandi onho kadom navi moyaho guzaronda shudaand va dar oyanda boz kadom khelhoi on va kay guzaronda meshavand. V.-hoe, ki dar muhlathoi az tarafi dukhtur muayyanshuda amali megardand, samarai beshtar meorand.
V. yake az vositahoi muhimi muboriza bar ziddi amrozi siroyati meboshad. Ba tufayli on mas., nagzak barin bemori vaznin barham doda shudaast. Dar bisyor mamlakathoi dunyo oid ba daryofti vaksinahoi navi samarabakhsh va tarzi istifodai onho tadqiqot mebarand.

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