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Tarkibi tukhmi rastani

CHi tavre ki malum ast, az gandum va digar ziroathoi galladonagi ord istehsol mekunand. Ord endospermi maydashuda yo tal- qonshudai don meboshad. Vay az moddahoi gupoguni gnzoi iborat ast. Baroi muayyan kardani tarkibi tukhm kame ordi gandumro girifta, az on khamir tayyor mekunem. Sipas, khamirro ba doka pechonda dar yagon zarf bo ob nagzakak meshuem. Obi zarf tiragun meshavad, chunki yake az moddahoi dar tarkibi khamir mavjudbuda shusta meshavad. Bad dar dokhili doka faqat moddai nisbatan galizi chaspak – shiresh (kleykovina), yane safedai don (ord) boqi memonad.

tarkibi-tuxmAgar ba zarfi obash tiragun 2-3 qatra makhduli yod chakkonem, mebinem, ki rangi moe kabud meshavad. Malum ast, ki ohar (krakh- mal, nishoista) az tasiri yod kabudrang meshavad. In holat isbot mekunad, ki dar tarkibi ordi gandum ohar mavjud ast. Ohari rang- noki dar obi zarfbuda ohista-ohista tahshin meshavad.

Agar obi tirashudai khamirro ba probirka rekhta, onro to jushi- danash garm kunem, dar probirka shiresh yo moddai shireshmonand (kleyster) hosil meshavad. In isboti on ast, ki dar tarkibi ordi gandum ba chuz safeda (kleykovina) ohar ham mavjud budaast. In- chunin, dar zeri mikroskop donachahoi maydai ohari hujayrahoi en- dospermi gandum, ki bo tasiri yod kabudrang shudaand, nagz na- mudor meshavand.

Doni gandum, juvorimakka andak ravgan dorad. Hususan, punbadona (chigit), doni oftobparast, zagir, kunjit, lubiyoi chini (soya) va baze digar rastaniho khele serravgan meshavand. Agar doni in rastanikhoro dar rui kogazi safed sakht fishurem, dar kogaz dog yo izi ravgan boqi memonad.

Safeda, ohar va ravgan mod- dahoi organikie (zakhiravie) me- boshand, ki dar tukhmu doni aksa- ri rastaniho bo mikdori gunogun (kam yo ziyod) mavjudand. Masalan, Dar doni gandum mikdori ohar nisbatan ziyod buda, safeda nisbatan kam va ravgan tamoman kamtar ast. Dar doni lubiyo boshad, bar- aks safeda bisyoru ohar nisbatan Kam ast. Doni oftobparast, zagirkunjit khele serravgan ast.

Baroi hosil kardani ordu yarma, ki ba miqdori ziyod oharu safeda dorand, na tankho gandum, inchunin javdor, jav, juvorimakka, suli, arzan, sholi va marchumakro niz parvarish mekunand. Bo maqsadi ba dast ovardani mahsuloti sersafeda nakhud, boqilo, lubiyoi chini, nask va baroi istehsoli ravgan digar rastanihoi ravgandor- ro kishtukor mekunand.

Baroi donistani on, ki dar tarkibi don ba juz moddahoi orga- niki boz kadom moddaho mavjudand, guzaronidani chunin tajriba yori medihad.

Ba zarfi shishagin (probirka) doni khushki gandum yo tukhmi yagon rastanii digarro dokhil karda, dar otashi past garm mekunem. Pas az chand muddat dar devorhoi probirka qatrahoi ob paydo mesha- vand, zero dar natijai garm kardan obi dar tarkibi tukhmi gan- dum mavjudbuda bukhor meshavad. Bukhor yo bugi obi paydoshuda ba devori sardi probirka rasida, khunuk meshavad va dar devori on qatrahoi ob namoyon meshavand.

Agar garm kardanro davom dihem, don sukhta ba angishtu dud tabdil meyobad. Dud daleli sukhtani moddahoi organikii donohar, safeda va ravgan ba hisob meravad. Pas az purra sukhtani moddahoi organikii don faqat khokistar boqi memonad. Hokistar az mod- dahoi madanii (mineralii) nasuzanda iborat ast.

Hamin tavr, tarkibi don (tukhm)-i rastaniho az moddahoi orga- niki, madani va ob iborat ast.

Tarkibi tukhmi rastanihoi mazrui (ba hisobi foiz az vazni umumiashon)

Tukhm

(dar 100 g)

Mikdor (foiz)
ob moddahoi organiki moddahoi madani
Gandum 13,4 84,7 1,9
Oftobparast 6,7 89 4,3

Az jadval malum meshavad, ki dar tarkibi doni rastanihoi gunogun mikdori ob, moddahoi organiki va madani har khel meboshad. Umuman, dar tukhmi tamomi rastaniho miqdori moddahoi organiki nazar ba ob va moddahoi madani nisbatan ziyod ast.

  1. Dar doni rastaniho kadom moddahoi organiki mavjudand?
  2. Kleykovina chist va onro az ordi gandum chi tavr judo me- kunand?
  3. Oharro chi guna oshkor menamoyand?
  4. Ravgan doshtani doni rastanihoro chi tavr malum kardan mumkin ast?
  5. Kadom rastaniho dar donashon ba miqdori ziyod safeda, ohar yo ravgan dorand?
  6. Tavassuti tajriba moddahoi organikiro az moddahoi madani chi khel farq mekunand?
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